Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Moo EK, Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2011;66(8):1431-6.
    PMID: 21915496
    INTRODUCTION: Although previous studies have been performed on cartilage explant cultures, the generalized dynamics of cartilage metabolism after extraction from the host are still poorly understood due to differences in the experimental setups across studies, which in turn prevent building a complete picture.

    METHODS: In this study, we investigated the response of cartilage to the trauma sustained during extraction and determined the time needed for the cartilage to stabilize. Explants were extracted aseptically from bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joints and cultured for up to 17 days.

    RESULTS: The cell viability, cell number, proteoglycan content, and collagen content of the harvested explants were analyzed at 0, 2, 10, and 17 days after explantation. A high percentage of the cartilage explants were found to be viable. The cell density initially increased significantly but stabilized after two days. The proteoglycan content decreased gradually over time, but it did not decrease to a significant level due to leakage through the distorted peripheral collagen network and into the bathing medium. The collagen content remained stable for most of the culture period until it dropped abruptly on day 17.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the tested cartilage explants were sustainable over long-term culture. They were most stable from day 2 to day 10. The degradation of the collagen on day 17 did not reach diseased levels, but it indicated the potential of the cultures to develop into degenerated cartilage. These findings have implications for the application of cartilage explants in pathophysiological fields.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
  2. Wan Osman WN, Lau SF, Mohamed S
    Phytother Res, 2017 Dec;31(12):1954-1961.
    PMID: 29067744 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5949
    The effect of scopoletin-standardized Morinda elliptica leaf extract against osteoarthritis was investigated in ex vivo explant culture and preclinical rodent model. Thirty male rats were grouped (n = 6) into untreated osteoarthritis (OA), OA + Diclofenac (5 mg/kg), and OA + extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with healthy control. Monosodium iodoacetate were injected into the right intra-articular knee joints to induce OA. The rats were evaluated for OA severity via physical (micro-CT and histological observations), biochemical, ELISA, and mRNA expression analysis (for inflammation and cartilage degradation biomarkers), after 28 days of treatment. The extract suppressed glycosaminoglycan release from the cartilage explant in the presence of Interleukin-1β. The 200 mg/kg dose appeared better than 400 mg/kg dose, at reducing cartilage and subchondral bone erosions in OA-induced rats, by significantly down-regulating the collagenases and aggrecanase. The extract dose-dependently reduced serum inflammation biomarkers and increased bone formation biomarkers to near normal levels in the OA-induced rats. M. elliptica leaf scopoletin-standardised extract alleviated OA progression and articular cartilage structure, by ameliorating cartilage degradation, nitric oxide levels, inflammation, bone /cartilage homeostasis, collagenase/aggrecanase activities, chondrocytes survival, subchondral bone structure and integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects*
  3. Kamarul T, Ab-Rahim S, Tumin M, Selvaratnam L, Ahmad TS
    Eur Cell Mater, 2011 Mar 15;21:259-71; discussion 270-1.
    PMID: 21409755
    The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate) may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects*
  4. Saw KY, Hussin P, Loke SC, Azam M, Chen HC, Tay YG, et al.
    Arthroscopy, 2009 Dec;25(12):1391-400.
    PMID: 19962065 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2009.07.011
    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous marrow aspirate (MA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) after subchondral drilling resulted in better cartilage repair as assessed histologically by Gill scoring.
    METHODS: In a goat model we created a 4-mm full-thickness articular cartilage defect in the stifle joint (equivalent to 1.6 cm in the human knee) and conducted subchondral drilling. The animals were divided into 3 groups: group A (control), no injections; group B (HA), weekly injection of 1 mL of sodium hyaluronate for 3 weeks; and group C (HA + MA), similar to group B but with 2 mL of autologous MA in addition to HA. MA was obtained by bone marrow aspiration, centrifuged, and divided into aliquots for cryopreservation. Fifteen animals were equally divided between the groups and sacrificed 24 weeks after surgery, when the joint was harvested, examined macroscopically and histologically.
    RESULTS: Of the 15 animals, 2 from group A had died of non-surgery-related complications and 1 from group C was excluded because of a joint infection. In group A the repair constituted mainly scar tissue, whereas in group B there was less scar tissue, with small amounts of proteoglycan and type II collagen at the osteochondral junction. In contrast, repair cartilage from group C animals showed almost complete coverage of the defect with evidence of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Histology assessed by Gill scoring was significantly better in group C with 1-way analysis of variance yielding an F statistic of 10.611 with a P value of .004, which was highly significant.
    CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative intra-articular injections of autologous MA in combination with HA after subchondral drilling resulted in better cartilage repair as assessed histologically by Gill scoring in a goat model.
    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: After arthroscopic subchondral drilling, this novel technique may result in better articular cartilage regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
  5. Wan Osman WN, Che Ahmad Tantowi NA, Lau SF, Mohamed S
    J Food Biochem, 2019 03;43(3):e12755.
    PMID: 31353568 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12755
    The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid) rich Morinda citrifolia L. (MC) Noni leaves are non-toxic (unlike the fruits) and consumed as vegetables. The anti-osteoarthritis effects of the MC leaf extract against joint cartilage degradation and inflammation were investigated through cartilage explant cultures and pre-clinical animal study. Osteoarthritis were induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate injection into the right knee. The extract, scopoletin and epicatechin, suppressed glycosaminoglycan and nitric oxide release from the cartilage explant in the presence of Interleukin-1β. After 28 days, the extract treatment reduced the in vivo serum levels and joint tissues mRNA expressions for joint cartilage degradation, aggrecanase, and collagenase biomarkers. The extract increased the bone formation marker PINP levels, besides improving the articular cartilage structure and chondrocytes cellularity. The extract improved bone formation/repair, subchondral bone structure, strength and integrity, as well as cartilage synthesis by suppressing inflammation, nitric oxide production, joint catabolism by proteases, and oxidative stress. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid) rich Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves may be used as vegetables, functional food ingredient, or dietary supplements to suppress osteoarthritis progression against joint cartilage degradation and inflammation. The extract, scopoletin, or epicatechin, suppressed glycosaminoglycan, and nitric oxide release from the cartilage. The Morinda citrifolia leaf extract suppressed inflammation, nitric oxide production, tissues catabolism by proteases and oxidative stress to help reduce joint cartilage degradation, besides improving the articular cartilage structure, chondrocytes health, subchondral bone structure, bone formation/repair, and cartilage synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
  6. Bokhari RA, Tantowi NACA, Lau SF, Mohamed S
    Inflammopharmacology, 2018 Aug;26(4):939-949.
    PMID: 29380171 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-017-0432-2
    The effect of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous (OSA) extract against osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated in explant cartilage culture and in postmenopausal OA rat model. Female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Osteoarthritis was induced after surgical recovery, by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee. Rats were grouped (n = 8) into: healthy sham control; non-treated OA; OA + diclofenac (positive control 5 mg/kg); and two doses OSA (150-300 mg/kg). After 4 weeks' treatment, rats were evaluated for OA-related parameters and biomarkers. The OSA reduced proteoglycan and ROS release from the cartilage explants under inflammatory (IL-1b) conditions. In the OA-induced rats' cartilages, the OSA downregulated the mRNA expressions for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, NF-κβ, NOS2, PTGS2, PTGER2, ACAN, COL2A1, MMP1, MMP13, ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5 and TIMP1, mostly dose-dependently. The OSA reduced the OA rats' serum levels for PGE2, CTX-II, TNF-α, MMP1, MMP13, PIINP, OPG, RANKL, OC and BALP, but not dose-dependently. The OSA contained polyphenols and flavonoids (tetramethoxyflavone). The OSA alleviated articular cartilage degradation, inflammation, collagenase/aggrecanase activities, to improve joint and subchondral bone structure. O. stamineus mitigated osteoarthritis by downregulating inflammation, peptidases and aggrecanases, at a dose equivalent to about 30 mg/kg for humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
  7. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Tissue Cell, 2010 Oct;42(5):282-92.
    PMID: 20810142 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2010.07.002
    Monolayer culture expansion remains as a fundamental step to acquire sufficient number of cells for 3D constructs formation. It has been well-documented that cell expansion is however accompanied by cellular dedifferentiation. In order to promote cell growth and circumvent cellular dedifferentiation, we evaluated the effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-2 (TGF-β2), Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) combination on articular chondrocytes culture and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct formation. Chondrocytes were serially cultured in: (1) F12:DMEM+10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS) with growth factors (FD10GFs), (2) F12:DMEM+2%FBS with the growth factors (FD2GFs) and, (3) F12:DMEM+10%FBS without growth factors (FD) as control. Cultured chondrocytes were evaluated by means of growth kinetics parameters, cell cycle analysis, quantitative phenotypic expression of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein sox-9 and collagen type I and, immunochemistry technique. Harvested chondrocytes were incorporated with plasma-derived fibrin and were polymerized to form the 3D constructs and implanted subcutaneously at the dorsum of athymic nude mice for eight (8) weeks. Resulted constructs were assigned for gross inspections and microscopic evaluation using standard histochemicals staining, immunochemistry technique and, quantitative phenotypic expression of cartilage markers to reassure cartilaginous tissue formation. Growth kinetics performance of chondrocytes cultured in three (3) types of culture media from the most to least was in the following order: FD10GFs>FD2GFs>FD. Following growth kinetics analysis, we decided to use FD10GFs and FD (control) for further evaluation and 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs formation. Chondrocytes cultured in FD10GFs preserved the normal diploid state (2c) with no evidence of aneuploidy, haploidy or tetraploidy. Expression of cartilage-specific markers namely collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox-9 were significantly higher in FD10GFs when compared to control. After implantation, 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs exhibited firm, white, smooth and glistening cartilage-like properties. FD10GFs constructs formed better quality cartilage-like tissue than FD constructs in term of overall cartilaginous tissue formation, cells organization and extracellular matrix distribution in the specimens. Cartilaginous tissue formation was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan was confirmed by positive Safranin O staining. Collagen type II exhibited immunopositivity at the pericellular and inter-territorial matrix area. Chondrogenic properties of the construct were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and sox9. In conclusion, FD10GFs promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes and formation of good quality 'chondrocytes-fibrin' constructs which may have potential use of matrix-induced cell implantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
  8. Chua KH, Lee TH, Nagandran K, Md Yahaya NH, Lee CT, Tjih ET, et al.
    PMID: 23339380 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-19
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that results in the destruction of cartilage. Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) extract contains important components, which can reduce the progression of osteoarthritis and helps in the regeneration of the cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of EBN extract on the catabolic and anabolic activities of the human articular chondrocytes (HACs) isolated from the knee joint of patients with OA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects*
  9. Chin KY, Pang KL
    Nutrients, 2017 Sep 26;9(10).
    PMID: 28954409 DOI: 10.3390/nu9101060
    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play important roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Olive and its derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy-enhancing activities, are suitable candidates for therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of olive and its derivatives, on osteoarthritis and chondrocytes. The literature on animal and human studies has demonstrated a beneficial effect of olive and its derivatives on the progression of osteoarthritis. In vitro studies have suggested that the augmentation of autophagy (though sirtuin-1) and suppression of inflammation by olive polyphenols could contribute to the chondroprotective effects of olive polyphenols. More research and well-planned clinical trials are required to justify the use of olive-based treatment in osteoarthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cartilage, Articular/drug effects
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