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  1. Ellulu MS, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ismail P, Ranneh Y
    Inflammopharmacology, 2015 Jun;23(2-3):79-89.
    PMID: 25676565 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0228-1
    The roles of Omega-3 FAs are inflammation antagonists, while Omega-6 FAs are precursors for inflammation. The plant form of Omega-3 FAs is the short-chain α-linolenic acid, and the marine forms are the long-chain fatty acids: docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Omega-3 FAs have unlimited usages, and they are considered as omnipotent since they may benefit heart health, improve brain function, reduce cancer risks and improve people's moods. Omega-3 FAs also have several important biological effects on a range of cellular functions that may decrease the onset of heart diseases and reduce mortality among patients with coronary heart disease, possibly by stabilizing the heart's rhythm and by reducing blood clotting. Some review studies have described the beneficial roles of Omega-3 FAs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, diabetes, and other conditions, including inflammation. Studies of the effect of Omega-3 FAs gathered from studies in diseased and healthy population. CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome were the major fields of investigation. In studies of obesity, as the central obesity increased, the level of adipocyte synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were increased and the level of anti-inflammatory adiponectin was decreased indicating a state of inflammation. The level of C reactive protein (CRP) synthesized from hepatocyte is increased by the influence of IL-6. CRP can be considered as a marker of systemic inflammation associated with increased risks of CVDs. In molecular studies, Omega-3 FAs have direct effects on reducing the inflammatory state by reducing IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and many other factors. While the appropriate dosage along with the administrative duration is not known, the scientific evidence-based recommendations for daily intake are not modified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  2. Ong HT, Cheah JS
    Chin Med J (Engl), 2008 Aug 20;121(16):1588-94.
    PMID: 18982874
    The aim of this review is to objectively access the trial evidence on the role of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in preventing clinical cardiovascular events. Given the large number of clinical trials favoring statin use in cardiovascular disease, it is important to see if evidence is available for these supplements and whether they could replace statin therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage*
  3. Hafandi A, Begg DP, Premaratna SD, Sinclair AJ, Jois M, Weisinger RS
    Comp. Med., 2014 Apr;64(2):106-9.
    PMID: 24674584
    Dietary deficiency of ω3 fatty acid during development leads to impaired cognitive function. However, the effects of multiple generations of ω3 fatty-acid deficiency on cognitive impairment remain unclear. In addition, we sought to test the hypothesis that the cognitive impairments of ω3 fatty-acid-deficient mice are mediated through the arachidonic acid-cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. To address these issues, C57BL/6J mice were bred for 3 generations and fed diets either deficient (DEF) or sufficient (SUF) in ω3 fatty acids. At postnatal day 21, the F3 offspring remained on the dam's diet or were switched to the opposite diet, creating 4 groups. In addition, 2 groups that remained on the dam's diet were treated with a COX inhibitor. At 19 wk of age, spatial-recognition memory was tested on a Y-maze. Results showed that 16 wk of SUF diet reversed the cognitive impairment of F3 DEF mice. However, 16 wk of ω3 fatty-acid-deficient diet impaired the cognitive performance of the F3 SUF mice, which did not differ from that of the F3 DEF mice. These findings suggest that the cognitive deficits after multigenerational maintenance on ω3 fatty-acid-deficient diet are not any greater than are those after deficiency during a single generation. In addition, treatment with a COX inhibitor prevented spatial-recognition deficits in F3 DEF mice. Therefore, cognitive impairment due to dietary ω3 fatty-acid deficiency appears to be mediated by the arachidonic acid-COX pathway and can be prevented by 16 wk of dietary repletion with ω3 fatty acids or COX inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  4. Lai YH, Petrone AB, Pankow JS, Arnett DK, North KE, Ellison RC, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2013 Dec;32(6):966-9.
    PMID: 23711994 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.05.002
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and insulin resistance is a major public health concern in the United States. Omega-3 fatty acids have been relatively well studied in relation to many individual cardiovascular risk factors; however, their effects on MetS are not well established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage*
  5. Kassem AA, Abu Bakar MZ, Yong Meng G, Mustapha NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:851437.
    PMID: 22489205 DOI: 10.1100/2012/851437
    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  6. Yashodhara BM, Umakanth S, Pappachan JM, Bhat SK, Kamath R, Choo BH
    Postgrad Med J, 2009 Feb;85(1000):84-90.
    PMID: 19329703 DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2008.073338
    Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) are essential fatty acids with diverse biological effects in human health and disease. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a well-established benefit of their intake. Dietary supplementation may also benefit patients with dyslipidaemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, obesity, inflammatory diseases, neurological/ neuropsychiatric disorders and eye diseases. Consumption of omega-3 FAs during pregnancy reduces the risk of premature birth and improves intellectual development of the fetus. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of omega-3 FAs. According to the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition guidelines (2004), a healthy adult should consume a minimum of two portions of fish a week to obtain the health benefit. This review outlines the health implications, dietary sources, deficiency states and recommended allowances of omega-3 FAs in relation to human nutrition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  7. Sabatino A, Regolisti G, Karupaiah T, Sahathevan S, Sadu Singh BK, Khor BH, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2017 06;36(3):663-671.
    PMID: 27371993 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.007
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Protein-Energy Wasting (PEW) is the depletion of protein/energy stores observed in the most advanced stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). PEW is highly prevalent among patients on chronic dialysis, and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, high morbidity/mortality rates and increased healthcare costs. This narrative review was aimed at exploring the pathophysiology of PEW in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. The main aspects of nutritional status evaluation, intervention and monitoring in this clinical setting were described, as well as the current approaches for the prevention and treatment of ESRD-related PEW.

    METHODS: An exhaustive literature search was performed, in order to identify the relevant studies describing the epidemiology, pathogenesis, nutritional intervention and outcome of PEW in ESRD on hemodialysis.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of PEW is multifactorial. Loss of appetite, reduced intake of nutrients and altered lean body mass anabolism/catabolism play a key role. Nutritional approach to PEW should be based on a careful and periodic assessment of nutritional status and on timely dietary counseling. When protein and energy intakes are reduced, nutritional supplementation by means of specific oral formulations administered during the hemodialysis session may be the first-step intervention, and represents a valid nutritional approach to PEW prevention and treatment since it is easy, effective and safe. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibers, now included in commercially available preparations for renal patients, could lend relevant added value to macronutrient supplementation. When oral supplementation fails, intradialytic parenteral nutrition can be implemented in selected patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  8. Chatchatee P, Lee WS, Carrilho E, Kosuwon P, Simakachorn N, Yavuz Y, et al.
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2014 Apr;58(4):428-37.
    PMID: 24614142 DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000252
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growing-up milk (GUM) with added short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS)/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) (9:1) (Immunofortis) and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on the occurrence of infections in healthy children attending day care centres.

    METHODS: In a randomised double-blind controlled, parallel, multicountry intervention study, 767 healthy children, ages 11 to 29 months, received GUM with scGOS/lcFOS/LCPUFAs (the active group, n = 388), GUM without scGOS/lcFOS/LCPUFAs (the control group, n = 379), or cow's milk (n = 37) for 52 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the number of episodes of upper respiratory tract infections or gastrointestinal infections based on a combination of subject's illness symptoms reported by the parents during the intervention period.

    RESULTS: Children in the active group compared with the control group had a decreased risk of developing at least 1 infection (299/388 [77%] vs 313/379 [83%], respectively, relative risk 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-1.00; logistic regression P = 0.03). There was a trend toward a reduction (P = 0.07) in the total number of infections in the active group, which was significant when confirmed by one of the investigators (268/388 [69%] vs 293/379 [77%], respectively, relative risk 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.97; P = 0.004, post hoc). More infectious episodes were observed in the cow's milk group, when compared with both GUM groups (34/37 [92%] vs 612/767 [80%], respectively, relative risk 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.28).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in children to show a reduced risk of infection following consumption of GUM supplemented with scGOS/lcFOS/n-3 LCPUFAs. The borderline statistical significance justifies a new study to confirm this finding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage*
  9. Tekeleselassie AW, Goh YM, Rajion MA, Motshakeri M, Ebrahimi M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:757593.
    PMID: 24294136 DOI: 10.1155/2013/757593
    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  10. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Yong Meng G, Ebrahimi M, Teck Chwen L, Mehrbod P, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:531397.
    PMID: 24198724 DOI: 10.1155/2013/531397
    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and fish oil on immune response, plasma fatty acid profile, and blood parameters of infectious bursal disease (IBD) challenged broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to one of six dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were three levels of fish oil (0, 2.5 and 5.5%), and two levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that the birds fed with 5.5% fish oil had higher total protein, white blood cell count, and IL-2 concentration than those of other groups at 7 days after IBD challenge. Inclusion of fish oil in diet had no effect on IFN- γ concentration. However, supplementation of methionine twice the recommendation enhanced the serum IFN- γ and globulin concentration. Neither of fish oil nor methionine supplementation affected the liver enzymes concentration. It can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of fish oil (2.5%) and methionine level (twice NRC recommendation) might enhance immune response in IBD challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
  11. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Hair-Bejo M, Soleimani AF
    Poult Sci, 2012 Sep;91(9):2173-82.
    PMID: 22912451 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02317
    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage
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