The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bass yabby Trypaea australiensis was obtained from a partial genome scan using the MiSeq sequencing system. The T. australiensis mitogenome is 16,821 bp in length (70.25% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1977 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Trypaea mitogenome sequence is the 5th for the family Callianassidae and represents a new gene order for the Decapoda involving protein-coding, rRNA and tRNA genes and the control region.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian crayfish, Euastacus yarraensis, is documented and compared with other Australian crayfish genera. Euastacus yarraensis has a mitogenome of 15,548 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. yarraensis mitogenome is 32.39% for T, 22.45% for C, 34.43% for A, and 10.73% for G, with an AT bias of 66.82%. The mitogenome gene order conforms to what is considered the primitive arrangement for parastacid crayfish.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic freshwater crayfish Engaeus lyelli was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The mitogenome has 16,027 bp consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. lyelli is 29.01% for T, 27.13% for C, 31.43% for A, and 12.44% for G, with an AT bias of 60.44%. The species has the distinctive gene order characteristic of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving the tRNA genes.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the hermit crab Clibanarius infraspinatus was recovered by genome skimming using Next-Gen sequencing. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome has 16,504 base pairs (67.94% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1500 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Diogenidae and the second for the superfamily Paguroidea and exhibits a translocation of the ND3 gene not previously reported for the Decapoda.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the purple mottled shore crab, Cyclograpsus granulosus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN624373), which makes it the third for genera of the superfamily Grapsoidea. Cyclograpsus granulosus has a mitogenome of 16,300 bp consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the C. granulosus mitogenome is 36.15% for T, 19.54% for C, 33.14% for A and 11.17% for G, with an AT bias of 69.29%. The mitogenome gene order is atypical for the brachyuran crabs, but is identical to species of the genus Eriocheir from the same family.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the porcellanid crab, Petrolisthes haswelli is provided, making it the second for the family Porcellanidae and the third for the superfamily Galatheoidea. Petrolisthes haswelli has a mitogenome of 15,348 bp consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the P. haswelli mitogenome is 35.66% for T, 18.65% for C, 34.35% for A and 11.34% for G, with an AT bias of 70.01%. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the mitogenome of Neopetrolisthes maculatus, the only other species of the family with a sequenced mitogenome.
The infraorder Anomura consists of a morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous group of decapod crustaceans, and has attracted interest from taxonomists for decades attempting to find some order out of the seemingly chaotic diversity within the group. Species-level diversity within the Anomura runs the gamut from the "hairy" spindly-legged yeti crab found in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments to the largest known terrestrial invertebrate, the robust coconut or robber crab. Owing to a well-developed capacity for parallel evolution, as evidenced by the occurrence of multiple independent carcinization events, Anomura has long tested the patience and skill of both taxonomists attempting to find order, and phylogeneticists trying to establish stable hypotheses of evolutionary inter-relationships. In this study, we performed genome skimming to recover the mitogenome sequences of 12 anomuran species including the world's largest extant invertebrate, the robber crab (Birgus latro), thereby over doubling these resources for this group, together with 8 new brachyuran mitogenomes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian-inferred (BI) phylogenetic reconstructions based on amino acid sequences from mitogenome protein-coding genes provided strong support for the monophyly of the Anomura and Brachyura and their sister relationship, consistent with previous studies. The majority of relationships within families were supported and were largely consistent with current taxonomic classifications, whereas many relationships at higher taxonomic levels were unresolved. Nevertheless, we have strong support for a polyphyletic Paguroidea and recovered a well-supported clade of a subset of paguroids (Diogenidae + Coenobitidae) basal to all other anomurans, though this requires further testing with greater taxonomic sampling. We also introduce a new feature to the MitoPhAST bioinformatics pipeline (https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST) that enables the extraction of mitochondrial gene order (MGO) information directly from GenBank files and clusters groups based on common MGOs. Using this tool, we compared MGOs across the Anomura and Brachyura, identifying Anomura as a taxonomic "hot spot" with high variability in MGOs among congeneric species from multiple families while noting the broad association of highly-rearranged MGOs with several anomuran lineages inhabiting extreme niches. We also demonstrate the value of MGOs as a source of novel synapomorphies for independently reinforcing tree-based relationships and for shedding light on relationships among challenging groups such as the Aegloidea and Lomisoidea that were unresolved in phylogenetic reconstructions. Overall, this study contributes a substantial amount of new genetic material for Anomura and attempts to further resolve anomuran evolutionary relationships where possible based on a combination of sequence and MGO information. The new feature in MitoPhAST adds to the relatively limited number of bioinformatics tools available for MGO analyses, which can be utilized widely across animal groups.
The emergence of cost-effective and rapid sequencing approaches has resulted in an exponential rise in the number of mitogenomes on public databases in recent years, providing greater opportunity for undertaking large-scale comparative genomic and systematic research. Nonetheless, current datasets predominately come from small and disconnected studies on a limited number of related species, introducing sampling biases and impeding research of broad taxonomic relevance. This study contributes 21 crustacean mitogenomes from several under-represented decapod infraorders including Polychelida and Stenopodidea, which are used in combination with 225 mitogenomes available on NCBI to investigate decapod mitogenome diversity and phylogeny. An overview of mitochondrial gene orders (MGOs) reveals a high level of genomic variability within the Decapoda, with a large number of MGOs deviating from the ancestral arthropod ground pattern and unevenly distributed among infraorders. Despite the substantial morphological and ecological variation among decapods, there was limited evidence for correlations between gene rearrangement events and species ecology or lineage specific nucleotide substitution rates. Within a phylogenetic context, predicted scenarios of rearrangements show some MGOs to be informative synapomorphies for some taxonomic groups providing strong independent support for phylogenetic relationships. Additional comparisons for a range of mitogenomic features including nucleotide composition, strand asymmetry, unassigned regions and codon usage indicate several clade-specific trends that are of evolutionary and ecological interest.
The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene.
Although it is possible to recover the complete mitogenome directly from shotgun sequencing data, currently reported methods and pipelines are still relatively time consuming and costly. Using a sample of the Australian freshwater crayfish Engaeus lengana, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve three-day turnaround time (four hours hands-on time) from tissue sample to NCBI-ready submission file through the integration of MiSeq sequencing platform, Nextera sample preparation protocol, MITObim assembly algorithm and MITOS annotation pipeline.
The complete mitochondrial genome of the commercially important snout otter clam Lutraria rhynchaena was obtained from low-coverage shotgun sequencing data on the MiSeq platform. The L. rhynchaena mitogenome has 16,927 base pairs (69% A + T content) and made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 953 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome to be sequenced from the genus Lutraria, and the seventh to be reported for the family Mactridae.
The Pangasius sutchi is an important ornamental and economic fish in Southeast Asia e.g. Thailand, Malaysia and China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. sutchi has been sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,522 bp. The gene order and composition are similar to most of other vertebrates. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C was found in different region/genes statistics results. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. The mitogenome sequence of P. sutchi would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage.
We sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera diaphora (Diptera: Tephtitidae), which is an economically important pest in the southwest area of China, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Malaysia. This mitogenome is 15 890 bp in length with an A + T content of 74.103%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the inferred ancestral insects. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, except cox1 that begins with TCG. Ten PCGs stop with termination codon TAA or TAG, whereas cox1, nad1 and nad5 have single T-- as the incomplete stop codon. All of the transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure except trnS1 (AGN) with a looping D-arm. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a length of 946 bp, and contains a 20 bp poly-T stretch and 22 bp poly-A stretch. Except the control region, the longest intergenic spacer is located between trnR and trnN that is 94 bp long with an excessive high A + T content (95.74%) and a microsatellite-like region (TA)13.
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Clarion angelfish, Holacanthus clarionensis (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The length of the assembled mitogenome is 16,615 bp, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Clarion angelfish is 28.3% for A, 29.3% for C, 16.5% for G, 25.9% for T and show 85% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Clarion angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
The Austropotamobius pallipes complete mitogenome has been recovered using Next-Gen sequencing. Our sample of A. pallipes has a mitogenome of 15,679 base pairs (68.44% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 877 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the first mitogenome sequenced for a crayfish from the family Astacidae and the 4(th) for northern hemisphere genera.
A significant fraction of mammalian genomes is composed of endogenous retroviral (ERV) sequences that are formed by germline infiltration of various retroviruses. In contrast to other retroviral genera, lentiviruses only rarely form ERV copies. We performed a computational search aimed at identification of novel endogenous lentiviruses in vertebrate genomes.
The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes.
The mitogenome of the black yabby, Geocharax gracilis, was sequenced using the MiSeq Personal Sequencer. It has 15,924 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of G. gracilis mitogenome is 32.18% for T, 22.32% for C, 34.83% for A, and 10.68% for G, with an AT bias of 67.01%. The mitogenome gene order is typical for that of parastacid crayfish with the exception of some minor rearrangements involving tRNA genes.
The mantled floral phenotype of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) affects somatic embryogenesis-derived individuals and is morphologically similar to mutants defective in the B-class MADS-box genes. This somaclonal variation has been previously demonstrated to be associated to a significant deficit in genome-wide DNA methylation. In order to elucidate the possible role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of EgDEF1, the APETALA3 ortholog of oil palm, we studied this epigenetic mark within the gene in parallel with transcript accumulation in both normal and mantled developing inflorescences. We also examined the methylation and expression of two neighboring retrotransposons that might interfere with EgDEF1 regulation. We show that the EgDEF1 gene is essentially unmethylated and that its methylation pattern does not change with the floral phenotype whereas expression is dramatically different, ruling out a direct implication of DNA methylation in the regulation of this gene. Also, we find that both the gypsy element inserted within an intron of the EgDEF1 gene and the copia element located upstream from the promoter are heavily methylated and show little or no expression. Interestingly, we identify a shorter, alternative transcript produced by EgDEF1 and characterize its accumulation with respect to its full-length counterpart. We demonstrate that, depending on the floral phenotype, the respective proportions of these two transcripts change differently during inflorescence development. We discuss the possible phenotypical consequences of this alternative splicing and the new questions it raises in the search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the mantled phenotype in the oil palm.