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  1. Saba J, Audureau E, Bizé M, Koloshuk B, Ladner J
    Popul Health Manag, 2013 Apr;16(2):82-9.
    PMID: 23276290 DOI: 10.1089/pop.2012.0049
    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (P<0.0001). The PFET is an effective tool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  2. Asante A, Price J, Hayen A, Jan S, Wiseman V
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(4):e0152866.
    PMID: 27064991 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152866
    INTRODUCTION: Health financing reforms in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) over the past decades have focused on achieving equity in financing of health care delivery through universal health coverage. Benefit and financing incidence analyses are two analytical methods for comprehensively evaluating how well health systems perform on these objectives. This systematic review assesses progress towards equity in health care financing in LMICs through the use of BIA and FIA.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Key electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Global Health, CinAHL, EconLit and Business Source Premier were searched. We also searched the grey literature, specifically websites of leading organizations supporting health care in LMICs. Only studies using benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and/or financing incidence analysis (FIA) as explicit methodology were included. A total of 512 records were obtained from the various sources. The full texts of 87 references were assessed against the selection criteria and 24 were judged appropriate for inclusion. Twelve of the 24 studies originated from sub-Saharan Africa, nine from the Asia-Pacific region, two from Latin America and one from the Middle East. The evidence points to a pro-rich distribution of total health care benefits and progressive financing in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the majority of cases, the distribution of benefits at the primary health care level favoured the poor while hospital level services benefit the better-off. A few Asian countries, namely Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, maintained a pro-poor distribution of health care benefits and progressive financing.

    CONCLUSION: Studies evaluated in this systematic review indicate that health care financing in LMICs benefits the rich more than the poor but the burden of financing also falls more on the rich. There is some evidence that primary health care is pro-poor suggesting a greater investment in such services and removal of barriers to care can enhance equity. The results overall suggest that there are impediments to making health care more accessible to the poor and this must be addressed if universal health coverage is to be a reality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  3. Masood M, Sheiham A, Bernabé E
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0123075.
    PMID: 25923691 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123075
    This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries) who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE) in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries.
    Study name: World Health Survey (Malaysia is a study site)
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  4. Balasubramaniam K
    Issues Med Ethics, 2000 Jan-Mar;8(1):26-7.
    PMID: 16323335
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  5. Sruamsiri R, Ross-Degnan D, Lu CY, Chaiyakunapruk N, Wagner AK
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(3):e0119945.
    PMID: 25798948 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119945
    BACKGROUND: Increasing access to clinically beneficial targeted cancer medicines is a challenge in every country due to their high cost. We describe the interplay of innovative policies and programs involving multiple stakeholders to facilitate access to these medicines in Thailand, as well as the utilization of selected targeted therapies over time.

    METHODS: We selected two medicines on the 2013 Thai national list of essential medicines (NLEM) [letrozole and imatinib] and three unlisted medicines for the same indications [trastuzumab, nilotinib and dasatinib]. We created timelines of access policies and programs for these products based on scientific and grey literature. Using IMS Health sales data, we described the trajectories of sales volumes of the study medicines between January 2001 and December 2012. We compared estimated average numbers of patients treated before and after the implementation of policies and programs for each product.

    RESULTS: Different stakeholders implemented multiple interventions to increase access to the study medicines for different patient populations. During 2007-2009, the Thai Government created a special NLEM category with different coverage requirements for payers and issued compulsory licenses; payers negotiated prices with manufacturers and engaged in pooled procurement; pharmaceutical companies expanded patient assistance programs and lowered prices in different ways. Compared to before the interventions, estimated numbers of patients treated with each medicine increased significantly afterwards: for letrozole from 645 (95% CI 366-923) to 3683 (95% CI 2,748-4,618); for imatinib from 103 (95% CI 72-174) to 350 (95% CI 307-398); and for trastuzumab from 68 (95% CI 45-118) to 412 (95% CI 344-563).

    CONCLUSIONS: Government, payers, and manufacturers implemented multi-pronged approaches to facilitate access to targeted cancer therapies for the Thai population, which differed by medicine. Routine monitoring is needed to assess clinical and economic impacts of these strategies in the health system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  6. Lim GC, Aina EN, Cheah SK, Ismail F, Ho GF, Tho LM, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2014;14:212.
    PMID: 24650245 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-212
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of deaths in the world. A widening disparity in cancer burden has emerged between high income and low-middle income countries. Closing this cancer divide is an ethical imperative but there is a dearth of data on cancer services from developing countries.
    METHODS: This was a multi-center, retrospective observational cohort study which enrolled women with breast cancer (BC) attending 8 participating cancer centers in Malaysia in 2011. All patients were followed up for 12 months from diagnosis to determine their access to therapies. We assess care performance using measures developed by Quality Oncology Practice Initiative, American Society of Clinical Oncology/National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American College of Surgeons' National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers as well as our local guideline.
    RESULTS: Seven hundred and fifty seven patients were included in the study; they represent about 20% of incident BC in Malaysia. Performance results were mixed. Late presentation was 40%. Access to diagnostic and breast surgery services were timely; the interval from presentation to tissue diagnosis was short (median = 9 days), and all who needed surgery could receive it with only a short wait (median = 11 days). Performance of radiation, chemo and hormonal therapy services showed that about 75 to 80% of patients could access these treatments timely, and those who could not were because they sought alternative treatment or they refused treatment. Access to Trastuzumab was limited to only 19% of eligible patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: These performance results are probably acceptable for a middle income country though far below the 95% or higher adherence rates routinely reported by centres in developed countries. High cost trastuzumab was inaccessible to this population without public funding support.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  7. Almualm Y, Alkaff SE, Aljunid S, Alsagoff SS
    Glob J Health Sci, 2013 Sep;5(5):1-10.
    PMID: 23985101 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n5p1
    This study was carried out to determine the level of support towards the proposed National Health Insurance scheme among Malaysian patients attending specialist clinics at the National University of Malaysia Medical centre and its influencing factors. The cross sectional study was carried out from July-October 2012. 260 patients were selected using multistage sampling method. 71.2% of respondents supported the proposed National Health insurance scheme. 61.4% of respondents are willing to pay up to RM240 per year to join the National Health Insurance and 76.6% of respondents are of the view that enrollment in NHI should be made compulsory. Knowledge had a positive influence on respondent's support towards National Health Insurance. National Health Insurance when implemented in Malaysia can be used to raise funds for health care financing, increase access to health services and achieve the desired health status. More efforts should be taken to promote the scheme and educate the public in order to achieve higher support towards the proposed National Health Insurance. The cost to enroll in NHI as well as services to be included under the scheme should be duly considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  8. O'Boyle SJ, Power JJ, Ibrahim MY, Watson JP
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2002 Apr;6(4):307-12.
    PMID: 11936739
    SETTING: Kota Kinabalu and surrounding communities in Sabah, Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVES: To establish factors affecting compliance of patients with anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, their knowledge of the disease, and views on improving the DOTS strategy.
    DESIGN: Interviews with compliant patients attending clinics for DOTS treatment and with non-compliant patients in their homes, in August and September 2000.
    RESULTS: A total of 63 compliant and 23 non-compliant patients were interviewed. For non-compliant patients, reaching the treatment centre entailed greater cost (P < 0.005) and travel time (P < 0.005) compared to compliant patients. Cost of transport was the reason most frequently given for non-attendance. Non-compliant patients were more likely to have completed secondary education (P < 0.05), and to be working (P < 0.01). More non-compliant patients had family members who had had the disease (P < 0.01). There was no difference between the groups for overall tuberculosis knowledge scores; however, non-compliant patients were more likely to think that treatment could be stopped once they were symptom free (P < 0.01). Most patients (73%) felt that the DOTS system could be improved by provision of more information about tuberculosis.
    CONCLUSION: Compliance with DOTS in the Kota Kinabalu area is affected by travel expenses, time spent travelling to treatment centres, and having family members who have had the disease. Patients would like more information on tuberculosis.
    Study site: Tuberculosis clinics, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  9. Aizuddin AN, Abdul Jabar SW, Idris IB
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Jun 13;19(Suppl 4):548.
    PMID: 31196020 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-6871-5
    BACKGROUND: The presence of homelessness in Malaysia is not a new issue. The existence of homeless population is growing, along with the development of this country. With the increasing number of homelessness, the range of issues, such as health services financier among them, has surfaced. However, there was limited study conducted on this subject. The main objective of this study was thus, to identify the financier of health services among the homelessness in Kuala Lumpur and factors associated with it.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we include 196 homeless people aged above 18 years, Malaysian who were able to communicate with interviewers, and respondents who were not aggressive. These respondents were transits at Pusat Transit Gelandangan Kuala Lumpur and Anjung Singgah Kuala Lumpur and were available during interview sessions. They were selected via simple random sampling and were interviewed via face to face guided interviews using a validated structured questionnaire. Data were analysed descriptively, as well as using bivariate and multivariate analysis to explore the associated factors.

    RESULTS: The study showed that 57.7% homeless utilized the health services with only 37.8% assessed government health services. Only 42.5% of the respondents use their own money and 46.9% received aids to finance their health. Major influencing factors that influence homeless people to use their own money for health services were education level, income and disability, with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.15 (1.07-9.25), 0.08 (0.029-3.07) and 0.05 (0.003-0.88) while p value was 0.037, health services were income and those who took drugs with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 6.50 (2.30-18.39), and 0.33 (0.11-0.95) while p value was health care accessibility in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  10. Emmett SD, Sudoko CK, Tucci DL, Gong W, Saunders JE, Global HEAR (Hearing Loss Evaluation, Advocacy, and Research) Collaborative:, et al.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 10;161(4):672-682.
    PMID: 31210566 DOI: 10.1177/0194599819849917
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation (CI) with mainstream education and deaf education with sign language for treatment of children with profound sensorineural hearing loss in low- and lower-middle income countries in Asia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis.

    SETTING: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, and Sri Lanka participated in the study.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Costs were obtained from experts in each country with known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability-adjusted life-years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost-effectiveness was determined with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio per gross domestic product (CER/GDP) per capita <3.

    RESULTS: Deaf education was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 3.59). CI was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 6.38) and Pakistan (CER/GDP, 3.14)-the latter of which reached borderline cost-effectiveness in the sensitivity analysis (minimum, maximum: 2.94, 3.39).

    CONCLUSION: Deaf education and CI are largely cost-effective in participating Asian countries. Variation in CI maintenance and education-related costs may contribute to the range of cost-effectiveness ratios observed in this study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  11. Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Knight A, Shafie AA, Farooqui MA, Saleem F, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:48.
    PMID: 23331785 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-48
    Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients' perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  12. Othman GQ, Ibrahim MI, Raja'a YA
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2012 Apr;18(4):393-8.
    PMID: 22768704
    This study determined the costs associated with tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment for the public health services and patients in Sana'a, Yemen. Data were collected prospectively from 320 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients (160 each) who were followed until completion of treatment. Direct medical and nonmedical costs and indirect costs were calculated. The proportionate cost to the patients for pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB was 76.1% arid 89.4% respectively of the total for treatment. The mean cost to patients for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 108.4 and US$ 328.0 respectively. The mean cost per patient to the health services for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB treatment was US$ 34.0 and US$ 38.8 respectively. For pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, drug treatment represented 59.3% and 77.9% respectively of the total cost to the health services. The greatest proportionate cost to patients for pulmonary TB treatment was time away from work (67.5% of the total cost), and for extrapulmonary TB was laboratory and X-ray costs (55.5%) followed by transportation (28.6%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  13. Distelhorst SR, Cleary JF, Ganz PA, Bese N, Camacho-Rodriguez R, Cardoso F, et al.
    Lancet Oncol., 2015 Mar;16(3):e137-47.
    PMID: 25752564 DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70457-7
    Supportive care and palliative care are now recognised as critical components of global cancer control programmes. Many aspects of supportive and palliative care services are already available in some low-income and middle-income countries. Full integration of supportive and palliative care into breast cancer programmes requires a systematic, resource-stratified approach. The Breast Health Global Initiative convened three expert panels to develop resource allocation recommendations for supportive and palliative care programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. Each panel focused on a specific phase of breast cancer care: during treatment, after treatment with curative intent (survivorship), and after diagnosis with metastatic disease. The panel consensus statements were published in October, 2013. This Executive Summary combines the three panels' recommendations into a single comprehensive document covering breast cancer care from diagnosis through curative treatment into survivorship, and metastatic disease and end-of-life care. The recommendations cover physical symptom management, pain management, monitoring and documentation, psychosocial and spiritual aspects of care, health professional education, and patient, family, and caregiver education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
  14. Babar ZD, Izham MI
    Public Health, 2009 Aug;123(8):523-33.
    PMID: 19665741 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.06.011
    Previous studies on anti-infective and cardiovascular drugs have shown extraordinary price increases following privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system. Therefore, it was felt that there was a need to undertake a full-scale study to evaluate the effect of privatization of the Malaysian drug distribution system on drug prices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics*
  15. Jiwa M, Othman S, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Chia YC
    Qual Prim Care, 2012;20(5):317-20.
    PMID: 23113999
    Malaysia has achieved reasonable health outcomes even though the country spends a modest amount of Gross Domestic Product on healthcare. However, the country is now experiencing a rising incidence of both infectious diseases and chronic lifestyle conditions that reflect growing wealth in a vibrant and successful economy. With an eye on an ageing population, reform of the health sector is a government priority. As in other many parts of the world, general practitioners are the first healthcare professional consulted by patients. The Malaysian health system is served by public and private care providers. The integration of the two sectors is a key target for reform. However, the future health of the nation will depend on leadership in the primary care sector. This leadership will need to be informed by research to integrate care providers, empower patients, bridge cultural gaps and ensure equitable access to scarce health resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Health Services Accessibility/economics
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