DESIGN: Cross sectional study.
SETTING: Postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: 759 postgraduate primary care trainees were approached through email or hard copy, of whom 466 responded.
METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management. The total cumulative score derived from the knowledge section was categorised into good or poor knowledge based on the median score, where a score of less than the median score was categorised as poor and a score equal to or more than the median score was categorised as good. We further examined the association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data. Associations were considered significant when p<0.05.
RESULTS: The response rate achieved was 61.4%. The majority (98.1%) were aware of the national lipid guideline, and 95.6% reported that they used the lipid guideline in their practice. The median knowledge score was 7 out of 10; 70.2% of respondents scored 7 or more which was considered as good knowledge. Despite the majority (95.6%) reporting use of guidelines, there was wide variation in their clinical practice whereby some did not practise based on the guidelines. There was a positive significant association between awareness and the use of the guideline with knowledge score (p<0.001). However there was no significant association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness and use of the lipid guideline among postgraduate primary care trainees was good. However, there were still gaps in their knowledge and practice which are not in accordance with standard guidelines.
METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.
RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.
CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.
OBJECTIVES: Based on the growing evidence that many elements of chronic disease management can be shifted to nonphysician health care workers (NPHW), the HOPE-4 (Heart Outcomes Prevention and Evaluation Program) aimed to develop, test, and implement a training curriculum on CVD prevention and control in Colombia, Malaysia, and low-resource settings in Canada.
METHODS: Curriculum development followed an iterative and phased approach where evidence-based guidelines, revised blood pressure treatment algorithms, and culturally relevant risk factor counseling were incorporated. Through a pilot-training process with high school students in Canada, the curriculum was further refined. Implementation of the curriculum in Colombia, Malaysia, and Canada occurred through partner organizations as the HOPE-4 team coordinated the program from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In addition to content on the burden of disease, cardiovascular system pathophysiology, and CVD risk factors, the curriculum also included evaluations such as module tests, in-class exercises, and observed structured clinical examinations, which were administered by the local partner organizations. These evaluations served as indicators of adequate uptake of curriculum content as well as readiness to work as an NPHW in the field.
RESULTS: Overall, 51 NPHW successfully completed the training curriculum with an average score of 93.19% on module tests and 84.76% on the observed structured clinical examinations. Since implementation, the curriculum has also been adapted to the World Health Organization's HEARTS Technical Package, which was launched in 2016 to improve management of CVD in primary health care.
CONCLUSIONS: The robust curriculum development, testing, and implementation process described affirm that NPHW in diverse settings can be trained in implementing measures for CVD prevention and control.
METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 13 784 medical records from 20 selected public primary care clinics in Malaysia was performed for patients aged ≥30 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension and had at least one visit between 1st November 2016 and 30th June 2019. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for complex survey design was used to determine the association between process of care and blood pressure (BP) control among the hypertensive patients.
RESULTS: Approximately 50% of hypertensive patients were obese, 38.4% of age ≥65 years old, 71.2% had at least one comorbidity and approximately one-third were on antihypertensive monotherapy. Approximately two-third of the hypertensive patients with diabetic proteinuria were prescribed with the appropriate choice of antihypertensive agents. Approximately half of the patients received at least 70% of the target indicated care and 42.8% had adequately controlled BP. After adjusting for covariates, patients who received counseling on exercise were positively associated with adequate BP control. Conversely, patients who were prescribed with two or more antihypertensive agents were negatively associated with good BP control.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that BP control was suboptimal and deficient in the process of care with consequent gaps in guidelines and actual clinical practices. This warrants a re-evaluation of the current strategies and approaches to improve the quality of hypertension management and ultimately to improve outcome.
METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.
RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p