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  1. Mohd Suki N, Chwee Lian JC, Suki NM
    J Hosp Mark Public Relations, 2009;19(2):113-28.
    PMID: 19827322 DOI: 10.1080/15390940903041567
    In today's highly competitive health care environment, many private health care settings are now looking into customer service indicators to learn customers' perceptions and determine whether they are meeting customers' expectations in order to ensure that their customers are satisfied with the services. This research paper aims to investigate whether the human elements were more important than the nonhuman elements in private health care settings. We used the internationally renowned SERVQUAL five-dimension model plus three additional dimensions-courtesy, communication, and understanding of customers of the human element-when evaluating health care services. A total of 191 respondents from three private health care settings in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia were investigated. Descriptive statistics were calculated by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program, version 15. Interestingly, the results suggested that customers nowadays have very high expectations especially when it comes to the treatment they are receiving. Overall, the research indicated that the human elements were more important than the nonhuman element in private health care settings. Hospital management should look further to improve on areas that have been highlighted. Implications for management practice and directions for future research are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  2. Chan GC, Teng CL
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):130-3.
    PMID: 16114151
    A cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire to determine the perceptions of primary care doctors towards evidence-based medicine (EBM) was conclucted in Melaka state. About 78% of the primary care doctors were aware of EBM and agreed it could improve patient care. Only 6.7% of them had ever conducted a Medline literature search. They had a low level of awareness of review publications and databases relevant to EBM; only about 33% of them were aware of the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews. Over half of the respondents had at least some understanding of the technical terms used in EBM. Ninety percent of the respondents had Internet access and the majority of them used it at home. The main barriers to practicing EBM were lack of personal time and lack of Internet access in the primary care clinics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  3. Benster R, Stanton J
    Br J Hosp Med, 1989 Dec;42(6):488-90.
    PMID: 2611474
    Rosalind Benster and Judith Stanton went to Sarawak to study child health care. Their aim was to highlight areas of most need so that the tiny health budget could be channelled in the relevant directions. They found cultural and environmental differences to account for significant differences in the nutritional status of children from different tribes. They suggest remedies to this situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  4. Arabi Z, Aziz NA, Abdul Aziz AF, Razali R, Wan Puteh SE
    BMC Fam Pract, 2013;14:49.
    PMID: 23586732 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-49
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the population is ageing, resulting in an associated increase in dementia prevalence. Forgetfulness in elderly people is often perceived as normal in some local cultures and thus, the early detection of dementia in primary care requires detection of symptoms other than memory complaints.This study was conducted to screen elderly patients for early dementia in primary care using a newly developed Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) and comparing it with a standard assessment tool, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE).
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of elderly patients using convenience sampling of consecutive patients. Elderly depression was excluded using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Exclusion criteria also included known cases of dementia. Inclusion criteria included a score of 5 or less in GDS and the presence of a reliable informant. A face-to-face interview was done using the EDQ with the patient and informant to elicit symptoms of early dementia. If the informant was not present, a telephone interview was used instead. The patient was then assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) using a cut-off point of 21.
    RESULTS: Prevalence of dementia among 155 subjects was 52.3% by EDQ and 15.5% by MMSE. The EDQ demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.2% with specificity of 52.7%. Positive predictive value (PPV) of EDQ was 23.5% with the negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.2%. The strongest predictor of possible early dementia was complaints of memory problems (OR 26.22; 95% CI 2.03-338.14) followed by complaints of concentration problems (OR 14.33; 95% CI 5.53-37.12), emotional problems (OR 4.75; 95% CI 1.64-13.81) and sleep disturbances (OR 3.14; 95% CI 1.15-8.56). Socio-demographic factors, medical problems and smoking status were not associated with possible dementia (p>0.05), despite that 60-70% of the elderly had chronic illnesses.
    CONCLUSION: The EDQ is a promising alternative to MMSE for screening of early dementia in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  5. Tay HL, Raja Latifah RJ, Razak IA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2006;18(2):33-41.
    PMID: 16883968 DOI: 10.1177/10105395060180020601
    The Oral Health Division, Ministry of Health in Malaysia piloted clinical pathways (cpath) in primary care in early 2003. This study investigated the knowledge, perception of cpaths and barriers faced by the clinicians involved in the pilot project. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to the clinicians (n=191). Dentists (67.9%) and dental nurses (70.6%) had good overall knowledge of cpaths. The majority of the clinicians (67.9% to 95.6%) perceived cpath positively in all areas. Only 9.2% of dentists encountered difficulties in using cpath forms compared to 28.4% of dental nurses. A higher proportion of dental nurses (73.5%) compared to dentists (64.8%) were willing to continue using cpath. The majority of dentists (76.7%) and dental nurses (73.1%) were willing to participate in future development of cpaths. Overall, there was evidence of managerial support for the pilot project. A follow-up of the pilot project was somewhat lacking as less than half (43.3%) of the clinicians reported that the state coordinator obtained feedback from them. The findings auger well for the future implementation of cpath should the Oral Health Division decide to adopt cpath routinely in the public oral health care service.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  6. Ismail IA, Chan SC
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):4-10.
    PMID: 15535328 MyJurnal
    The knowledge and practice of doctors (n=40) towards complementary medicine (CM) in 16 health clinics in the Kinta District were assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-four (85%) responded. More than half felt that acupuncture (73.50), homeopathy (59%) and herbal medicine (59%) were occasionally harmful. Forty-four percent felt manipulative therapy was frequently harmful. Relaxation technique (79%) and nutritional therapy (44%) were considered most frequently useful. 59% used some form of CM. There were no significant differences found in usage rates by gender, age group and exposure to CM during undergraduate training. Sixty-seven percent had encouraged patients to seek CM. Seventy-three percent perceived an increasing demand for CM. Eighty-eight percent were in favour of a hospital based CM referral center. Only 6% were trained in CM.
    Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  7. Khoo EM, Kidd MR
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(2):59-63.
    PMID: 12862408 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400202
    The Australian and Malaysian systems of general practice were examined and compared. The issues of similarity and difference identified are discussed in this paper. Quality clinical practice and the importance of compulsory vocational training prior to entry into general practice and continuing professional development is one important area. A move towards preventive health care and chronic disease management was observed in both countries. Practice incentive programmes to support such initiatives as improved rates of immunisation and cervical smear testing and the implementation of information technology and information management systems need careful implementation. The Medicare system used in Australia may not be appropriate for general practitioners in Malaysia and, if used, a pharmaceutical benefit scheme would also need to be established. In both countries the corporatisation of medical practice is causing concern for the medical profession. Rural and aboriginal health issues remain important in both countries. Graduate medical student entry is an attractive option but workforce requirements mean that medical education will need individual tailoring for each country. Incorporating nurses into primary health care may provide benefits such as cost savings. The integration model of community centres in Malaysia involving doctors, nurses and allied health professionals, such as physiotherapists, in a single location deserves further examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  8. Said AH, Chia YC
    BMJ Open, 2017 03 01;7(3):e013573.
    PMID: 28249849 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013573
    OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in Malaysia. This study assessed the awareness, knowledge and practice of lipid management among primary care physicians undergoing postgraduate training in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Cross sectional study.

    SETTING: Postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 759 postgraduate primary care trainees were approached through email or hard copy, of whom 466 responded.

    METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management. The total cumulative score derived from the knowledge section was categorised into good or poor knowledge based on the median score, where a score of less than the median score was categorised as poor and a score equal to or more than the median score was categorised as good. We further examined the association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data. Associations were considered significant when p<0.05.

    RESULTS: The response rate achieved was 61.4%. The majority (98.1%) were aware of the national lipid guideline, and 95.6% reported that they used the lipid guideline in their practice. The median knowledge score was 7 out of 10; 70.2% of respondents scored 7 or more which was considered as good knowledge. Despite the majority (95.6%) reporting use of guidelines, there was wide variation in their clinical practice whereby some did not practise based on the guidelines. There was a positive significant association between awareness and the use of the guideline with knowledge score (p<0.001). However there was no significant association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness and use of the lipid guideline among postgraduate primary care trainees was good. However, there were still gaps in their knowledge and practice which are not in accordance with standard guidelines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  9. Ong SM, Lim YMF, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    BMC Geriatr, 2018 02 23;18(1):59.
    PMID: 29471806 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0750-2
    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is particularly important in older persons as they are more likely to experience adverse events compared to the rest of the population. Despite the relevance, there is a lack of studies on the possible association of patient, prescriber and practice characteristics with polypharmacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of polypharmacy among older persons attending public and private primary care clinics, and its association with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.

    CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  10. Khan M, Lamelas P, Musa H, Paty J, McCready T, Nieuwlaat R, et al.
    Glob Heart, 2018 06;13(2):93-100.e1.
    PMID: 29331282 DOI: 10.1016/j.gheart.2017.11.002
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The need to address CVD is greatest in low- and middle-income countries where there is a shortage of trained health workers in CVD detection, prevention, and control.

    OBJECTIVES: Based on the growing evidence that many elements of chronic disease management can be shifted to nonphysician health care workers (NPHW), the HOPE-4 (Heart Outcomes Prevention and Evaluation Program) aimed to develop, test, and implement a training curriculum on CVD prevention and control in Colombia, Malaysia, and low-resource settings in Canada.

    METHODS: Curriculum development followed an iterative and phased approach where evidence-based guidelines, revised blood pressure treatment algorithms, and culturally relevant risk factor counseling were incorporated. Through a pilot-training process with high school students in Canada, the curriculum was further refined. Implementation of the curriculum in Colombia, Malaysia, and Canada occurred through partner organizations as the HOPE-4 team coordinated the program from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In addition to content on the burden of disease, cardiovascular system pathophysiology, and CVD risk factors, the curriculum also included evaluations such as module tests, in-class exercises, and observed structured clinical examinations, which were administered by the local partner organizations. These evaluations served as indicators of adequate uptake of curriculum content as well as readiness to work as an NPHW in the field.

    RESULTS: Overall, 51 NPHW successfully completed the training curriculum with an average score of 93.19% on module tests and 84.76% on the observed structured clinical examinations. Since implementation, the curriculum has also been adapted to the World Health Organization's HEARTS Technical Package, which was launched in 2016 to improve management of CVD in primary health care.

    CONCLUSIONS: The robust curriculum development, testing, and implementation process described affirm that NPHW in diverse settings can be trained in implementing measures for CVD prevention and control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  11. Chin MC, Sivasampu S, Wijemunige N, Rannan-Eliya RP, Atun R
    Health Policy Plan, 2020 Feb 01;35(1):7-15.
    PMID: 31625556 DOI: 10.1093/heapol/czz117
    In Malaysia, first-contact, primary care is provided by parallel public and private sectors, which are completely separate in organization, financing and governance. As the country considers new approaches to financing, including using public schemes to pay for private care, it is crucial to examine the quality of clinical care in the two sectors to make informed decisions on public policy. This study intends to measure and compare the quality of clinical care between public and private primary care services in Malaysia and, to the extent possible, assess quality with the developed economies that Malaysia aspires to join. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the National Medical Care Survey 2014, a nationally representative survey of doctor-patient encounters in Malaysia. We assessed clinical quality for 27 587 patient encounters using data on 66 internationally validated quality indicators. Aggregate scores were constructed, and comparisons made between the public and private sectors. Overall, patients received the recommended care just over half the time (56.5%). The public sector performed better than the private sector, especially in the treatment of acute conditions, chronic conditions and in prescribing practices. Both sectors performed poorly in the indicators that are most resource intensive, suggesting that resource constraints limit overall quality. A comparison with 2003 data from the USA, suggests that performance in Malaysia was similar to that a decade earlier in the USA for common indicators. The public sector showed better performance in clinical care than the private sector, contrary to common perceptions in Malaysia and despite providing worse consumer quality. The overall quality of outpatient clinical care in Malaysia appears comparable to other developed countries, yet there are gaps in quality, such as in the management of hypertension, which should be tackled to improve overall health outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  12. Teh XR, Lim MT, Tong SF, Husin M, Khamis N, Sivasampu S
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0237083.
    PMID: 32780769 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237083
    INTRODUCTION: Adequate control of hypertension is a global challenge and is the key to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study evaluates management of hypertensive patients in primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 13 784 medical records from 20 selected public primary care clinics in Malaysia was performed for patients aged ≥30 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension and had at least one visit between 1st November 2016 and 30th June 2019. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for complex survey design was used to determine the association between process of care and blood pressure (BP) control among the hypertensive patients.

    RESULTS: Approximately 50% of hypertensive patients were obese, 38.4% of age ≥65 years old, 71.2% had at least one comorbidity and approximately one-third were on antihypertensive monotherapy. Approximately two-third of the hypertensive patients with diabetic proteinuria were prescribed with the appropriate choice of antihypertensive agents. Approximately half of the patients received at least 70% of the target indicated care and 42.8% had adequately controlled BP. After adjusting for covariates, patients who received counseling on exercise were positively associated with adequate BP control. Conversely, patients who were prescribed with two or more antihypertensive agents were negatively associated with good BP control.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that BP control was suboptimal and deficient in the process of care with consequent gaps in guidelines and actual clinical practices. This warrants a re-evaluation of the current strategies and approaches to improve the quality of hypertension management and ultimately to improve outcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  13. Norwati D, Harmy MY, Norhayati MN, Amry AR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(6):2901-4.
    PMID: 24761922
    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  14. Dhabali AA, Awang R, Zyoud SH
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2011 Aug;49(8):500-9.
    PMID: 21781650 DOI: 10.5414/cp201524
    BACKGROUND: The prescription of contraindicated drugs is a preventable medication error, which can cause morbidity and mortality. Recent data on the factors associated with drug contraindications (DCIs) is limited world-wide, especially in Malaysia.

    AIMS: The objectives of this study are 1) to quantify the prevalence of DCIs in a primary care setting at a Malaysian University; 2) to identify patient characteristics associated with increased DCI episodes, and 3) to identify associated factors for these DCIs.

    METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 1 academic year using computerized databases at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) from patients of USM's primary care. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used to characterize DCIs.

    RESULTS: There were 1,317 DCIs during the study period. These were observed in a cohort of 923 patients, out of a total of 17,288 patients, representing 5,339 DCIs per 100,000 patients, or 5.3% of all patients over a 1-year period. Of the 923 exposed patients, 745 (80.7%) were exposed to 1 DCI event, 92 (10%) to 2 DCI events, 35 (3.8%) to 3 DCI events, 18 (2%) to 4 DCI events, and 33 patients (3.6%) were exposed to 5 or more DCI events. The average age of the exposed patients was 30.7 ± 15 y, and 51.5% were male. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that being male (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.1 - 1.5; p < 0.001), being a member of the staff (OR = 3; 95% CI = 2.5 - 3.7; p < 0.001), having 4 or more prescribers (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2 - 3.6; p < 0.001), and having 4 or more longterm therapeutic groups (OR = 2.3; 95%CI = 1.7 - 3.1; p < 0.001), were significantly associated with increased chance of exposure to DCIs.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Malaysia that presents data on the prevalence of DCIs. The prescription of contraindicated drugs was found to be frequent in this primary care setting. Exposure to DCI events was associated with specific socio-demographic and health status factors. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between health outcomes and the exposure to DCIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  15. Henderson-Smart DJ, Lumbiganon P, Festin MR, Ho JJ, Mohammad H, McDonald SJ, et al.
    PMID: 17892586
    Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad research question is: Can the health of mothers and babies in Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia be improved by increasing the local capacity for the synthesis of research, implementation of effective interventions, and identification of gaps in knowledge needing further research?
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  16. Niti M, Ng TP
    J Epidemiol Community Health, 2003 Jan;57(1):17-22.
    PMID: 12490643
    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess avoidable hospitalisation as an indicator of quality of primary care by examining trends and gender and ethnic variations.
    DESIGN AND SETTING: Aggregated nationwide data in Singapore from 1991 to1998 were analysed for hospitalisations for chronic diseases that are avoidable by timely, appropriate, and effective primary care: asthma, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension (avoidable hospitalisations).
    MAIN RESULTS: Of a total of 1 479 494 hospitalisations, 6.7% were for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC). The annual rate of avoidable hospitalisation was 29.4 per 10 000 population. Women had lower rates of avoidable hospitalisations than men (22.4 versus 29.5 per 10 000), as well as for total hospitalisations (496.2 versus 515.5 per 10 000). Adjusted for total hospitalisation, men were 1.3 times more likely than women to be hospitalised for ACSC. With similar adjustments for baseline utilisation, Indian and Malays had 1.7 and 1.8 times higher rates of avoidable hospitalisations than Chinese. Avoidable hospitalisation decline was -9.1% overall; greater in men (-11.8%) than in women (-5.3%); greater for Chinese (-15.8%), than Malays (-1.1%) and Indians (increase of +4.3%).
    CONCLUSION: Gender and ethnic differences and declining trends in avoidable hospitalisation demonstrated in this study suggest that avoidable hospitalisation rates are a sensitive indicator for assessing quality of primary ambulatory care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  17. Yadav H, Lin WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2001;13 Suppl:S58-61.
    PMID: 12109251
    Malaysia enjoys a comprehensive range of health services, the government being committed to the principles of universal access to high quality health care, which the Ministry of Health provides through a wide variety of nation wide network of clinics and hospitals. One of the major problems is the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of health care in remote health centres. When patients are transferred from the health centres to the hospitals for further treatment, this not only incurs inconvenience to the patients and their family but also increases the cost to the health care system. Teleprimary care is one of the tools to overcome this problem. The doctors in the remote clinics are able to discuss the problem cases through teleconsultation with the doctors and specialist in the hospitals using an audiovisual system to provide better care in the health centers without transferring the patients to the hospitals. Only the essential and needy patients are referred to the hospitals. This has not only reduced the number of patients referred to the hospitals but it has reduced the cost to the health care system. It has also provided a more comprehensive care to the patients in the health centres. The doctors in the health centers are also provided training and are also updated on the latest in medicine. This method of training has made doctors in the health centers more efficient and satisfied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  18. Tourkmani AM, Alharbi TJ, Bin Rsheed AM, AlRasheed AN, AlBattal SM, Abdelhay O, et al.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018 08 02;13(1):161-165.
    PMID: 30641690 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.07.012
    AIMS: To examine the impact of Ramadan Focused Education Program (RFEP) on medications adjustment in type 2 diabetes patients in Ramadan.

    METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.

    RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
  19. Jiwa M, Othman S, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Khoo EM, Chia YC
    Qual Prim Care, 2012;20(5):317-20.
    PMID: 23113999
    Malaysia has achieved reasonable health outcomes even though the country spends a modest amount of Gross Domestic Product on healthcare. However, the country is now experiencing a rising incidence of both infectious diseases and chronic lifestyle conditions that reflect growing wealth in a vibrant and successful economy. With an eye on an ageing population, reform of the health sector is a government priority. As in other many parts of the world, general practitioners are the first healthcare professional consulted by patients. The Malaysian health system is served by public and private care providers. The integration of the two sectors is a key target for reform. However, the future health of the nation will depend on leadership in the primary care sector. This leadership will need to be informed by research to integrate care providers, empower patients, bridge cultural gaps and ensure equitable access to scarce health resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards
  20. Chan GC
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Mar;46(3):127-31.
    PMID: 15735877
    A study was conducted at primary healthcare level in the Melaka Tengah district of Malaysia to determine whether hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were managed according to guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards*
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