A sol-gel hybrid sorbent, methyltrimethoxysilane-tetraethoxysilane (MTMOS-TEOS) was successfully used as new dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent material in the determination of acrylamide in several Sudanese foods and analysis using GC-MS. Several important dSPE parameters were optimised. Under the optimised conditions, excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) was achieved using matrix matched standard calibration in the concentration range 50-1000 μg kg(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification ranged from 9.1 to 12.8 μg/kg and 27.8-38.9 μg/kg, respectively. The precision (RSD%) of the method was ⩽6.6% and recoveries of acrylamide obtained were in the range of 88-103%, (n=3). The LOD obtained is comparable with the LODs of primary secondary amine dSPE. The proposed MTMOS-TEOS dSPE method is direct and safe for acrylamide analysis, showed reliable method validation performances and good cleanup effects. It was successfully applied to the analysis of acrylamide in real food samples.
A relationship is proposed for the interfacial partitioning of protein in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The relationship relates the natural logarithm of interfacial partition coefficient, ln G to the PEG concentration difference between the top and bottom phases, Δ[PEG], with the equation ln G=AΔ[PEG]+B. Results showed that this relationship provides good fits to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in ATPS which is comprised of phosphate and PEG of four different molecular weight 1450g/mol, 2000g/mol, 3350g/mol and 4000g/mol, with the tie-line length (TLL) in the range of 44-60% (w/w) at pH 7.0. The decrease of A values with the increase of PEG molecular weight indicates that the correlation between ln G and Δ[PEG] decreases with the increase in PEG molecular weight and the presence of protein-polymer hydrophobic interaction. When temperature was increased, a non-linear relationship of ln G inversely proportional to temperature was observed. The amount of proteins adsorbed at the interface increased proportionally with the amount of BSA loaded whereas the partition coefficient, K remained relatively constant. The relationship proposed could be applied to elucidate interfacial partitioning behaviour of other biomolecules in polymer-salt ATPS.
The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.
A new extraction and cleanup procedure with gas chromatography was developed for the sensitive determination of acephate, dimethoate, malathion, diazinon, quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, chlorothalonil and carbaryl using 1-chloro-4-fluorobenzene as an internal standard in fruits and vegetables. Several extracting and eluting solvents for solid-phase extraction were investigated. The overall extracting solvent with a mixture of acetone:ethyl acetate:hexane (10:80:10, v/v/v) and a eluting solvent of 5% acetone in hexane used with the RPC18 cartridge gave the best recovery for all of the investigated pesticides, and minimized the interference from co-extractants. Under the optimal extraction and clean-up conditions, recoveries of 85 - 99% with RSD < 5.0% (n = 3) for most of the pesticides at the 0.02 - 0.5 mg/kg level were obtained. The limit of detection was between 0.005 - 0.01 mg/kg and the limit of quantification was 0.01 mg/kg. This analytical procedure was characterized with high accuracy and acceptable sensitivity to meet requirements for monitoring pesticides in crops.
The scarcity of data about the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in water bodies in Malaysia prompted us to develop a suitable analytical method to address this issue. We therefore developed a method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS) for the analysis of sixteen prescribed and two nonprescribed pharmaceuticals that are potentially present in water samples. The levels of these pharmaceuticals, which were among the top 50 pharmaceuticals consumed in Malaysia during the period 2011-2014, in influent and effluent of five sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Bangi, Malaysia, were then analyzed using the developed method. All of the pharmaceuticals were separated chromatographically using a 5 μm, 2.1 mm × 250 mm C18 column at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.3-8.2 ng/L, 6.5-89 ng/L, and 11.1-93.8 ng/L in deionized water (DIW), STP effluent, and STP influent, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. Recoveries were 51-108%, 52-118%, and 80-107% from the STP influent, STP effluent, and DIW, respectively, for most of the pharmaceuticals. The matrix effect was also evaluated. The signals from carbamazepine, diclofenac sodium, and mefenamic acid were found to be completely suppressed in the STP influent. The signals from other compounds were found to be influenced by matrix effects more strongly in STP influent (enhancement or suppression of signal ≤180%) than in effluent (≤94%). The signal from prednisolone was greatly enhanced in the STP influent, indicating a matrix effect of -134%. Twelve pharmaceuticals were frequently detected in all five STPs, and caffeine, prazosin, and theophylline presented the highest concentrations among all the pharmaceuticals monitored: up to 7611, 550, and 319 ng/L in the STP influent, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that prazosin has been detected in a water matrix in Malaysia. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
Mesoporous silica material, MCM-41, was utilized for the first time as an adsorbent in solid phase membrane tip extraction (SPMTE) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in urine prior to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) analysis. The prepared MCM-41 material was enclosed in a polypropylene membrane tip and used as an adsorbent in SPMTE. Four NSAIDs namely ketoprofen, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and naproxen were selected as model analytes. Several important parameters, such as conditioning solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the MCM-41-SPMTE method showed good linearity in the range of 0.01-10μg/mL with excellent correlation coefficients (r=0.9977-0.9995), acceptable RSDs (0.4-9.4%, n=3), good limits of detection (5.7-10.6μg/L) and relative recoveries (81.4-108.1%). The developed method showed a good tolerance to biological sample matrices.
Graphene-magnetite composite (G-Fe3O4) was successfully synthesized and applied as adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of two phenolic acids namely 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB) from stingless bee honey prior to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (HPLC-UV/Vis). Several MSPE parameters affecting extraction of these two acids were optimized. Optimum MSPE conditions were 50 mg of G-Fe3O4 adsorbent, 5 min extraction time at 1600 rpm, 30 mL sample volume, sample solution pH 0.5, 200 µL methanol as desorption solvent (5 min sonication assisted) and 5% w/v NaCl. The LODs (3 S/N) calculated for 4-HB and 3,4-DHB were 0.08 and 0.14 µg/g, respectively. Good relative recoveries (72.6-110.6%) and reproducibility values (RSD