Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Kee YY, Tan SS, Yong TK, Nee CH, Yap SS, Tou TY, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2012 Jan 20;23(2):025706.
    PMID: 22166812 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/23/2/025706
    Low-temperature growth of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) was obtained on catalyst-free amorphous glass substrates at 250 °C by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser deposition. These ITO NWs have branching morphology as grown in Ar ambient. As suggested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), our ITO NWs have the tendency to grow vertically outward from the substrate surface, with the (400) plane parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nanowires. These NWs are low in electrical resistivity (1.6×10⁻⁴ Ω cm) and high in visible transmittance (~90–96%), and were tested as the electrode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An enhanced current density of ~30 mA cm⁻² was detected at bias voltages of ~19–21 V with uniform and bright emission. We found that the Hall mobility of these NWs is 2.2–2.7 times higher than that of ITO film, which can be explained by the reduction of Coulomb scattering loss. These results suggested that ITO nanowires are promising for applications in optoelectronic devices including OLED, touch screen displays, and photovoltaic solar cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
  2. Tharsika T, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA, Sabri MF, Hoong WY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):14586-600.
    PMID: 25116903 DOI: 10.3390/s140814586
    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
  3. Shahrokh Abadi MH, Hamidon MN, Shaari AH, Abdullah N, Wagiran R
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(8):7724-35.
    PMID: 22164041 DOI: 10.3390/s110807724
    A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm(2) space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO(2) and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa) of O(2). A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
  4. Alim S, Kafi AKM, Jose R, Yusoff MM, Vejayan J
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jul 15;114:1071-1076.
    PMID: 29625222 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.184
    A novel third generation H2O2 biosensor is fabricated using multiporous SnO2 nanofiber/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite as a matrix for the immobilization of redox protein onto glassy carbon electrode. The multiporous nanofiber (MPNFs) of SnO2 is synthesized by electrospinning technique from the tin precursor. This nanofiber shows high surface area and good electrical conductivity. The SnO2 nanofiber/CNT composite increases the efficiency of biomolecule loading due to its high surface area. The morphology of the nanofiber has been evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltammetry and amperometry technique are employed to study and optimize the performance of the fabricated electrode. A direct electron transfer between the protein's redox centre and the glassy carbon electrode is established after fabrication of the electrode. The fabricated electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction to H2O2. The catalysis currents increases linearly to the H2O2 concentration in a wide range of 1.0 10-6-1.4×10-4M and the lowest detection limit was 30nM (S/N=3). Moreover, the biosensor showed a rapid response to H2O2, a good stability and reproducibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
  5. Ang HH, Lee EL, Cheang HS
    Int J Toxicol, 2004 Jan-Feb;23(1):65-71.
    PMID: 15162849 DOI: 10.1080/10915810490269654
    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia, has implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992, with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety (including the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Tongkat Ali, were analyzed for mercury content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 36% of the above products possessed 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury and, therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Out of these 36 products, 5 products that possessed 1.05 to 4.41 ppm of mercury were in fact have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia. However, the rest of the products that contain 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury still have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. Although this study showed that only 64% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to mercury, they cannot be assumed safe from mercury contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry
  6. Sagadevan S, Chowdhury ZZ, Johan MRB, Khan AA, Aziz FA, F Rafique R, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(10):e0202694.
    PMID: 30273344 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202694
    A cost-effective, facile hydrothermal approach was made for the synthesis of SnO2/graphene (Gr) nano-composites. XRD diffraction spectra clearly confirmed the presence of tetragonal crystal system of SnO2 which was maintaining its structure in both pure and composite materials' matrix. The stretching and bending vibrations of the functional groups were analyzed using FTIR analysis. FESEM images illustrated the surface morphology and the texture of the synthesized sample. HRTEM images confirmed the deposition of SnO2 nanoparticles over the surface of graphene nano-sheets. Raman Spectroscopic analysis was carried out to confirm the in-plane blending of SnO2 and graphene inside the composite matrix. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized sample under UV irradiation using methylene blue dye was observed. Incorporation of grapheme into the SnO2 sample had increased the photocatalytic activity compared with the pure SnO2 sample. The electrochemical property of the synthesized sample was evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
  7. Ebrahimiasl S, Yunus WM, Kassim A, Zainal Z
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(10):9207-16.
    PMID: 22163690 DOI: 10.3390/s111009207
    Nanocrystalline SnO(x) (x = 1-2) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnO(x) thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnO(x) nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnO(x). Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry
  8. Ibrahim I, Lim HN, Huang NM, Pandikumar A
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0154557.
    PMID: 27176635 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154557
    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry
  9. Rashid JI, Yusof NA, Abdullah J, Hashim U, Hajian R
    PMID: 25491829 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2014.09.010
    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemistry*
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