This study was carried out to determine the nutritional status of 16 elite netball players of the Commonwealth Games 1998, during centralised training at Bukit Jalil. The mean age of the subjects was 21.1 Â± 3.1 year. The physical characteristics were assessed through antropometric measurements. The dietary intake was estimated as a mean of 3-days weighed food record while the physical activity pattern was determined by time and motion study which was carried out simultaneously. A biochemical analysis test was carried out to evaluate the haemoglobin status of the athletes. The results indicated that the mean body weight and height were 62.5 Â± 7.9 kg and 1.69 Â± 0.06 meter, respectively. The percentage average body fat of the subjects was 23.7 Â± 2.8. Mean energy intake was recorded as 2726 Â± 507 kcal/day while energy expenditure was 3225 Â± 409 kcal/d with a negative energy balance of 499 kcal. The contribution of calories from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 59%, 16% and 26%, respectively. Intake of most micronutrients was sufficient and met the Malaysian RDA. The percentage average of the daily physical activity pattern revealed that 74% was spent for light activities, 12% for moderate while 14% for heavy activities. 94% of the athletes took supplements which vitamin C was the most popular (64%).
MeSH terms: Adipose Tissue; Ascorbic Acid; Body Weight; Energy Intake; Energy Metabolism; Hemoglobins; Motor Activity; Nutritional Status; Time and Motion Studies; Micronutrients; Dietary Supplements; Athletes
This comparative study was conducted to determine the anthropometric measurements and body composition of football teams in the UK and Malaysia. A total of 32 footballers from two teams were studied. The teams were the St Maryâ€™s University team (UK) and the Selangor Reserved League team. The height and body weight of the subjects were measured using SECA digital balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using Harpenden skinfold callipers at four sites (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) and the VO2 max of the subjects was estimated by participation in a multi-stage 20m shuttle-run test. The UK team were significantly heavier (p
MeSH terms: Body Composition; Body Weight; Football; Malaysia; Skinfold Thickness; Soccer; Universities
A longitudinal study was conducted to relate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with growth during adolescence. Subjects comprise 70 boys and 69 girls aged between ten and thirteen years at the time of recruitment. Parameters studied include anthropometric measurements and BMR, which was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor. Measurements were carried out serially once every six months, with a total of 713 BMR data points collected over three years. Mean BMR of boys aged 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were 4.96 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.28 Â± 0.71 MJ/day, 5.73 Â± 0.68 MJ/day and 5.92 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, respectively; while mean BMR of girls in the 10, 11, 12 and 13 year age groups were 4.96 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 4.85 Â± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.05 Â± 0.55 MJ/day and 4.94 Â± 0.51 MJ/day, respectively. Comparison of measured BMR with BMR values predicted from the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations shows that the predictive equations overestimated the BMR of Malaysian boys by 3% and that of girls by 5%. The Henry & Rees (1991) equations for populations in the tropics underestimated BMR of boys and girls by 1% and 2%, respectively. Linear regression equations to predict BMR based on body weight were derived according to sex and age groups. It is recommended that these predictive equations be used for the estimation of BMR of Malaysian adolescents.
The effect of nicardipine on fasting plasma lipid profiles was studied in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Twenty four New Zealand White rabbits (2.2 - 2.8 kg) were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (control) was fed a normal diet, group II (HC) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet and group III (HC+NICA) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet with nicardipine treatment (0.5mg kg-1 body weight twice daily intramuscularly for 10 weeks). The following parameters which included fasting plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A and B were measured before and after 10 weeks of study. In the present study we observed that a 2% cholesterol diet caused a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. However, the increase in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were not prevented by treatment with nicardipine. Nicardipine appeared to cause further increase in HDL cholesterol and prevented further rise in plasma triglycerides after 10 weeks of treatment.
A 47 year old Chinese housewife with a silicone gel-filled implant mammoplasty carried out 10 years ago presented with a palpable painless lump in the right breast. Excision biopsy revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Right simple mastectomy and axillary sampling was done followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The history, safety, potential complications of silicone breast implants are reviewed and discussed.
A morphine-like spasmolytic action (not naloxone reversible; involving the inhibition of acetylcholine release) and also effects on the transmural transport of electrolytes (Na+ and K+) and water have been reported as possible modes of the antidiarrhoeal action of polar fractions of Psidium guajava leaf extractives. Fresh leaves of Psidium guajava collected from the vicinity of the campus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan State of Malaysia, were washed in water and air-dried at a room temperature of 22 0C. The material was then oven-dried at 60 0C for 3 days, machine-ground into a coarse powder, and extracted with methanol (75%) for a total of 48 hours. The extract was centrifuged for 15 min. at 2,000 rev/min, and the supernatant was dried by rotary evaporation. A stock solution of 200 mg/ml in sterile distilled and deionised water was prepared, and the pH was adjusted to 7.2 with 0.01N HCl.The objective for this study was to verify if the reported modes of the antidiarrhoeal action should be broadened to include direct antimicrobial actions on some of the more common bacteria known to cause toxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Serial dilutions of a watersoluble, freeze-dried methanolic extract were tested on 10 such organisms, grown separately on nutrient agar plates, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each of these bacteria. These included the causative agents for (i) enteric fever (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella paratyphi C), (ii) food poisoning (Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus), (iii) dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei), and (iv) cholera (Vibrio cholerae). The growth of all these organisms was inhibited at the MIC of 10mg/ml of the extract, which is equivalent to 2.5Âµg/ml of active extractable flavonoids . The most sensitive organisms (MIC = 1mg/ml) were Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri.
The population in Malaysia use various types of health and food supplements. These products are considered safe and are used without any concern for their toxicity. Among the products used as health supplements are products that contain lactic acid bacteria. This project studied the acute and subacute toxicity of a product containing minerals, herbs, vitamins and live lactic acid bacteria, on Sprague- Dawley rats. Acute toxicity was tested 24 hours after a single dose and subacute toxicity was studied 24 hours after 7 days of daily dosing. The parameters that were studied were alanine aminotransferase (AL T,SGPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), serum urea, ratios of weight of kidney and liver weight to body weight and percentage changes in body weights. The contents of capsules of the product (6, 8 or lO capsules for acute studies and 6, 10 and 12 for subacute studies) were mixed with corn oil and fed orally to rats. Control rats were fed with corn oil alone. In the acute studies, the level of ALT in the rats treated with the contents of the capsule was lower than controls. There were no significant changes in the other parameters of the rats in the treatment groups as compared to controls. There were no significant differences in all the parameters between rats in the treatment groups as compared to controls in the subacute studies. Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high doses of the product did not show signs of toxicity in the parameters that were studied.
Ludwig's angina is a rare type of facial infection usually reported in adults. This paper presents a case of Ludwig's angina infection occurring in a 3 year-old Malay boy. The dentists must be able to detect such presentation early. Hospitalization for monitoring of airway is essential.
Chlorhexidine gluconate and hexitidine have been used in many oral health care products as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Based on the clinical observations and the plaque and gingivitis scores, chlorhexidine gluconate has been reported to be a better agent. In this study, the anti-adherence properties of chlorhexidine gluconate and hexitidine on individual bacteria strains isolated from a 3-hour plaque (Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis 1 and Actinomyces sp.) and on a whole 6-hour plaque culture were determined and compared. The study showed that chlorhexidine gluconate inhibited almost 100 % the adherence of the individual bacteria strains and 87.7 % the adherence of a whole 6-hour plaque culture to the saliva-coated glass surface. Hexitidine appeared to be more selective in its effect. It was shown to inhibit the adherence of S. sanguis and Actinomyces sp. to saliva-coated glass surface by 86.5 % and 51.4 % respectively. Its effect on the S. mitis 1 strains is comparable to that of a whole 6-hour plaque culture where inhibition to adherence were less than 4 % for both.
The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel was assessed in 4805 16-year-old schoolchildren in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in Malaysia. In this sample, the mouth prevalence was 56.0%; tooth prevalence was 21.8%. There were significant differences between children in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas, urban and rural areas as well as between the ethnic groups. However, there was no significant gender difference. Prevalences were lower than those reported in most other Asiancountries. However, direct comparisons could not be madedue to differences in indices and methodology used.
The aim of this research is to study how the physical changes in the maxillofacial trauma patients affect them psychologically in patients of different ages, sexes, races, socioeconomic backgrounds, types and severity of injury. The study was conducted by doing a questionnaire survey, which was divided into physical and psychological components. In the physical component, the questions were mainly related to the physical injuries to the patient, which could be visualized clinically and functionally. The psychological component consisted of analyzing the impact of the maxillofacial trauma to the psychological profile. Twenty patients of both sexes and ages, ranged from 15 to 62 years old were interviewed. The main cause of trauma was from motor vehicle accidents. This study appears to show that maxillofacial trauma may have a psychological impact on patients.
MeSH terms: Accidents, Traffic; Female; Humans; Male; Maxillofacial Injuries; Surveys and Questionnaires; Sexual Behavior; Motor Vehicles
A study was undertaken to identify the oral health status and treatment needs of 403 drug abusers enrolled in a drug rehabilitation center in Perak, Malaysia. The prevalence of dental caries was 97.0%. Calculus was present in 82.1% of the dentate individuals, but only 14.6% had pockets greater than 3mm. The mean DMFT observed was 11.7, with missing teeth (MT=9.6) constituting the major component. Denture needs were high (67.2%), but only 11.4% of individuals had prostheses.
MeSH terms: Anodontia; Calculi; Dental Caries; Dentures; Health Status; Humans; Malaysia; Prevalence; Substance Abuse Treatment Centers; Tooth Loss; Drug Users
The application of PCR technique in genetic screening was demonstrated using the genetic materials from buccal cells of the students in the class. Two factors were taken into consideration when designing the experiments. The DNA region to be amplified should not be associated with any disease state. This is to eliminate any emotional and ethical problems associated with the experiments. In this practical, the presence and absence of a 38 bp sequence in the intron of COLIA2 gene were studied. The students were also shown on how to analyse the presence of homozygous and heterozygous alleles and the genetic variations that might be observed in the different ethnic groups of students. Another factor was the time taken to complete the experiment. Our experience showed that this experiment would take at least six hours to obtain and analyse the results. It is therefore suitable to be used in class teaching.
Recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth are difficult to treat because of no known definite aetiology. This paper presents the use of lactic acid bacteria thought to modulate the host immune response to affect improvements in the disease. Twenty-five patients with the disease were treated with 6 lactic bacteria capsules (in the form of OMX capsules) daily for a period of six months, and their responses were evaluated. Seventeen patients (73.9%) became free of the disease six months later, while 6 (26.1 %) experienced very dramatic improvements. Two patients were lost to follow-up. It is concluded that lactic acid bacteria is beneficial in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth.
MeSH terms: Bacteria; Capsules; Face; Humans; Stomatitis, Aphthous; Bacterial Capsules; Lactic Acid; Lost to Follow-Up
Oral recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal disease. Despite much clinical and research attention, the causes remain incompletely understood. Treatment options include no treatment, treatment of associated systemic diseases, topical medications, systemic treatment and palliative treatments. The most effective treatments involve agents that suppress or modulate the immune function. Topical agents are preferred due to its limited side-effects. Adjunct pain control and prevention of secondary infections is sometimes necessary.
The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions are aphthous ulcerations commonly referred to as canker sores. The clinical characteristic of oral recurrent aphthous ulceration/stomatitis(ORAS) is well defined and can be partly described as an oval or rounded ulcer covered by a grey-white or yellowish fibrinous exudate and surrounded by an erythematous halo. There is intense or moderate pain and the ulcers heal in about 10 - 14 days for the more common type and more than 2 weeks for the severe type. Recurrence of the ulcers occurs at intervals within a year or over several years. Variations of ORAS described above have made studies on aetiology and treatment difficult to interpret due to differing descriptions of differing diseases with similar clinical signs and symptoms and possibly differing aetiologies. A classification that was considered useful as a working model for ORAS was formulated in 1978. While the classification of ORAS had been widely accepted since 1978, the cause for ORAS is still unknown and its aetiology in general remains unclear. However, its immunopathogenesis is now becoming more clearly defined.
Diagnosis by histopathology remams as one of the most important investigative methods used to establish a definitive diagnosis of a lesion or disease state. The provision of oral tissue diagnostic services is therefore an essential function of an Oral Pathology unit. A review of the English language literature disclosed that much of the documented information on the patterns of oral diagnostic services were from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. This paper provides an overview of such surveys carried out in these countries.
MeSH terms: Canada; Diagnostic Services; Great Britain; Language; Pathology, Oral; Surveys and Questionnaires; United States; Disclosure
The role of smoking as a contributory factor in the progression of the periodontal disease process has long been suspected and recently a large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favorably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical and regenerative. This paper will review the current literature regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and present an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis.
The allele frequencies for the apolipoprotein B (apo B) 5'-Ins/Del and 3'-VNTR polymorphisms varied significantly (p < 0.01) among Singaporeans of Chinese, Malay and Indian descent. We calculated the unbiased expected heterozygosities for the 5'-Ins/Del polymorphism as 0.3357, 0.1984 and 0.2418, and for the 3'-VNTR as 0.5980, 0.5260 and 0.6749, respectively, in the Chinese, Malays and Indians. Compared to heterozygosities reported for other populations, the Singaporeans differed from most Caucasians in having significantly lower values but were closely related to other non-Caucasians. Thirteen alleles, with a bimodal distribution, were observed at the 3'-VNTR polymorphic locus; the alleles occurring most frequently among the Chinese and Malays were of 35 or 53 repeats, and among the Indians, of 37 or 47 repeats. The Del allele was associated with elevated serum cholesterol (p = 0.023), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.001) in the Chinese, and apo B (p = 0.007) in the Indians. Likewise, the larger 3'-VNTR alleles (> 41 repeats) were associated with raised cholesterol (p = 0.018), LDL-C (p = 0.025), and triglyceride (p = 0.001) in the Chinese. The two polymorphisms were not in significant linkage disequilibrium (D = -0.0029, p = 0.494) in the three ethnic groups.