A study was undertaken to identify the oral health status and treatment needs of 403 drug abusers enrolled in a drug rehabilitation center in Perak, Malaysia. The prevalence of dental caries was 97.0%. Calculus was present in 82.1% of the dentate individuals, but only 14.6% had pockets greater than 3mm. The mean DMFT observed was 11.7, with missing teeth (MT=9.6) constituting the major component. Denture needs were high (67.2%), but only 11.4% of individuals had prostheses.
MeSH terms: Anodontia; Calculi; Dental Caries; Dentures; Health Status; Humans; Malaysia; Prevalence; Substance Abuse Treatment Centers; Tooth Loss; Drug Users
The application of PCR technique in genetic screening was demonstrated using the genetic materials from buccal cells of the students in the class. Two factors were taken into consideration when designing the experiments. The DNA region to be amplified should not be associated with any disease state. This is to eliminate any emotional and ethical problems associated with the experiments. In this practical, the presence and absence of a 38 bp sequence in the intron of COLIA2 gene were studied. The students were also shown on how to analyse the presence of homozygous and heterozygous alleles and the genetic variations that might be observed in the different ethnic groups of students. Another factor was the time taken to complete the experiment. Our experience showed that this experiment would take at least six hours to obtain and analyse the results. It is therefore suitable to be used in class teaching.
Recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth are difficult to treat because of no known definite aetiology. This paper presents the use of lactic acid bacteria thought to modulate the host immune response to affect improvements in the disease. Twenty-five patients with the disease were treated with 6 lactic bacteria capsules (in the form of OMX capsules) daily for a period of six months, and their responses were evaluated. Seventeen patients (73.9%) became free of the disease six months later, while 6 (26.1 %) experienced very dramatic improvements. Two patients were lost to follow-up. It is concluded that lactic acid bacteria is beneficial in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth.
MeSH terms: Bacteria; Capsules; Face; Humans; Stomatitis, Aphthous; Bacterial Capsules; Lactic Acid; Lost to Follow-Up
Oral recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal disease. Despite much clinical and research attention, the causes remain incompletely understood. Treatment options include no treatment, treatment of associated systemic diseases, topical medications, systemic treatment and palliative treatments. The most effective treatments involve agents that suppress or modulate the immune function. Topical agents are preferred due to its limited side-effects. Adjunct pain control and prevention of secondary infections is sometimes necessary.
The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions are aphthous ulcerations commonly referred to as canker sores. The clinical characteristic of oral recurrent aphthous ulceration/stomatitis(ORAS) is well defined and can be partly described as an oval or rounded ulcer covered by a grey-white or yellowish fibrinous exudate and surrounded by an erythematous halo. There is intense or moderate pain and the ulcers heal in about 10 - 14 days for the more common type and more than 2 weeks for the severe type. Recurrence of the ulcers occurs at intervals within a year or over several years. Variations of ORAS described above have made studies on aetiology and treatment difficult to interpret due to differing descriptions of differing diseases with similar clinical signs and symptoms and possibly differing aetiologies. A classification that was considered useful as a working model for ORAS was formulated in 1978. While the classification of ORAS had been widely accepted since 1978, the cause for ORAS is still unknown and its aetiology in general remains unclear. However, its immunopathogenesis is now becoming more clearly defined.
Diagnosis by histopathology remams as one of the most important investigative methods used to establish a definitive diagnosis of a lesion or disease state. The provision of oral tissue diagnostic services is therefore an essential function of an Oral Pathology unit. A review of the English language literature disclosed that much of the documented information on the patterns of oral diagnostic services were from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. This paper provides an overview of such surveys carried out in these countries.
MeSH terms: Canada; Diagnostic Services; Great Britain; Language; Pathology, Oral; Surveys and Questionnaires; United States; Disclosure
The role of smoking as a contributory factor in the progression of the periodontal disease process has long been suspected and recently a large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favorably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical and regenerative. This paper will review the current literature regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and present an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis.
The allele frequencies for the apolipoprotein B (apo B) 5'-Ins/Del and 3'-VNTR polymorphisms varied significantly (p < 0.01) among Singaporeans of Chinese, Malay and Indian descent. We calculated the unbiased expected heterozygosities for the 5'-Ins/Del polymorphism as 0.3357, 0.1984 and 0.2418, and for the 3'-VNTR as 0.5980, 0.5260 and 0.6749, respectively, in the Chinese, Malays and Indians. Compared to heterozygosities reported for other populations, the Singaporeans differed from most Caucasians in having significantly lower values but were closely related to other non-Caucasians. Thirteen alleles, with a bimodal distribution, were observed at the 3'-VNTR polymorphic locus; the alleles occurring most frequently among the Chinese and Malays were of 35 or 53 repeats, and among the Indians, of 37 or 47 repeats. The Del allele was associated with elevated serum cholesterol (p = 0.023), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.001) in the Chinese, and apo B (p = 0.007) in the Indians. Likewise, the larger 3'-VNTR alleles (> 41 repeats) were associated with raised cholesterol (p = 0.018), LDL-C (p = 0.025), and triglyceride (p = 0.001) in the Chinese. The two polymorphisms were not in significant linkage disequilibrium (D = -0.0029, p = 0.494) in the three ethnic groups.
Lowiaceae, a family of the Zingiberales, comprise 11 species in the single genus Orchidantha. Here we present the first report on the pollination of Lowiaceae and describe a new system of dung-beetle pollination from Sarawak, Borneo. Orchidantha inouei has a zygomorphic flower located just above the ground. Observations revealed that the plant is visited frequently and is pollinated by scarabaeid dung beetles, mainly members of the genus Onthophagus. All four species of Onthophagus collected on O. inouei have also been caught using traps baited with dung or carrion in Borneo. Onthophagus was presumably attracted to the dung-like odor of the flower. Pollination of O. inouei is different from other examples of beetle pollination in that its flower provides neither reward nor protected space. Dung beetles are excellent at following a particular dung scent. Orchidantha is the only genus that includes species lacking floral nectar. It is interesting that this deception pollination using dung beetles was found in Zingiberales, in which all known species have mutual and specialized relationships with their long-distance, but costly, pollinators-bees, birds, and bats.
Pollination ecology of an emergent tree species, Shorea (section Mutica) parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae), was studied using the canopy observation system in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, during a general flowering period in 1996. Although the species has been reported to be pollinated by thrips in Peninsular Malaysia, our observations of flower visitors and pollination experiments indicated that beetles (Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae, Coleoptera) contributed to pollination of S. parvifolia in Sarawak. Beetles accounted for 74% of the flower visitors collected by net-sweeping, and 30% of the beetles carried pollen, while thrips accounted for 16% of the visitors, and 12% of the thrips carried pollen. The apical parts of the petals and pollen served as a reward for the beetles. Thrips stayed inside the flower almost continuously after arrival, and movements among flowers were rare. Fruit set was significantly increased by introduction of beetles to bagged flowers, but not by introduction of thrips. Hand-pollination experiments and comparison of fruit set in untreated, bagged, and open flowers suggested that S. parvifolia was mainly outbreeding.
A variety of betel/areca nut/tobacco habits have been reviewed and categorized because of their possible causal association with oral cancer and various oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and on account of their widespread occurrence in different parts of the world. At a recent workshop in Kuala Lumpur it was recommended that "quid" be defined as "a substance, or mixture of substances, placed in the mouth or chewed and remaining in contact with the mucosa, usually containing one or both of the two basic ingredients, tobacco and/or areca nut, in raw or any manufactured or processed form." Clear delineations on contents of the quid (areca nut quid, tobacco quid, and tobacco and areca nut quid) are recommended as absolute criteria with finer subdivisions to be added if necessary. The betel quid refers to any quid wrapped in betel leaf and is therefore a specific variety of quid. The workshop proposed that quid-related lesions should be categorized conceptually into two categories: first, those that are diffusely outlined and second, those localized at the site where a quid is regularly placed. Additional or expanded criteria and guidelines were proposed to define, describe or identify lesions such as chewer's mucosa, areca nut chewer's lesion, oral submucous fibrosis and other quid-related lesions. A new clinical entity, betel-quid lichenoid lesion, was also proposed to describe an oral lichen planus-like lesion associated with the betel quid habit.
The uniqueness of anatomical structures and their variations provides the basis for forensic identification of unknown deceased persons. Similar to fingerprints, each frontal sinus is so distinctive and unique that the chances of two individuals having the same morphology of the frontal sinuses is extremely remote. Radiographs, especially the occipitomental view commonly used in the assessment of paranasal pathology, provide excellent records of these sinuses. The case illustrated here is an application of the frontal sinus identification of a victim in a mass disaster.
Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) is a plant pararetrovirus and a member of the Caulimoviridae family and closely related to viruses in the Badnavirus genus. The coat protein of RTBV is part of the large polyprotein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3). ORF3 of an RTBV isolate from Malaysia was sequenced (accession no. AF076470) and compared with published sequences for the region that encodes the coat protein or proteins. Molecular mass of virion proteins was determined by mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF) performed on purified virus particles from three RTBV isolates from Malaysia. The N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of the coat protein were deduced from the mass spectral analysis, leading to the conclusion that purified virions contain a single coat protein of 37 kDa. The location of the coat protein domain in ORF3 was reinforced as a result of immunodetection reactions using antibodies raised against six different segments of ORF3 using Western immunoblots after SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing of proteins purified from RTBV particles. These studies demonstrate that RTBV coat protein is released from the polyprotein as a single coat protein of 37 kDa.
Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28 degreesC with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg-1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. A total of 43 strains were selected for comparison of their sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) whole-cell protein patterns with a SDS-PAGE database of LAB. Isolates from product A were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus farciminis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecalis, and Weissella confusa. Five strains belonging to clusters which could not be allocated to existing species by SDS-PAGE were further identified by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. One strain was distantly related to the Lactobacillus casei/Pediococcus group. Two strains were related to Weissella at the genus or species level. Two other strains did not belong to any previously described 16S rRNA group of LAB and occupied an intermediate position between the L. casei/Pediococcus group and the Weissella group and species of Carnobacterium. The latter two strains belong to the cluster of LAB that predominated in product B. The incidence of new species and subspecies of LAB in chili bo indicate the high probability of isolation of new LAB from certain Southeast Asian foods. None of the isolates exhibited bacteriocin activity against L. plantarum ATCC 14917 and LMG 17682.
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by 2000. A plan of action for polio eradication in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) by 1995 was adopted in 1990. The plan was based on routine and supplemental vaccination activities with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in the eight countries where polio was endemic (Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Vietnam). Regionwide, the number of reported polio cases decreased from approximately 6000 in 1990 to zero in 1998. This report describes the extensive efforts to eliminate the last chains of poliovirus transmission in the Mekong River area.