Browse publications by year: 1999

  1. Kestel A
    Science, 1999 May 7;284(5416):913.
    PMID: 10357670
    MeSH terms: Animals; Animal Welfare*; Malaysia; Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology*; Paramyxoviridae Infections/transmission; Paramyxoviridae Infections/veterinary*
  2. Tee ES, Kandiah M, Awin N, Chong SM, Satgunasingam N, Kamarudin L, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999 Jun;69(6):1249-56.
    PMID: 10357747
    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and its consequent anemia constitute the commonest micronutrient deficiency in the world.

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether long-term, weekly iron-folate supplements administered at school would improve hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in adolescent girls, including those with mild-to-moderate anemia and hemoglobin concentrations indicating borderline anemia.

    DESIGN: Subjects were 266 girls with hemoglobin concentrations of 80-119.9 g/L (group A) and 358 girls with hemoglobin concentrations of 120-130 g/L (group B) who were otherwise healthy. Two hundred sixty-six girls in group A and 268 girls in group B were randomly assigned to receive either 60 or 120 mg Fe plus 3.5 mg folic acid weekly for 22 wk. Ninety of the girls in group B were randomly assigned to receive only 5 mg folic acid weekly. Capillary hemoglobin and plasma ferritin were measured at baseline and after 12 and 22 wk of supplementation.

    RESULTS: By the end of the study, 2% of the girls had dropped out and > 96% had taken > or = 20 of the 22 tablets; side effects were minimal. Mean plasma ferritin increased significantly in all iron-supplemented groups, independently of initial hemoglobin values and iron doses. Ferritin concentrations decreased in the girls supplemented with folic acid only. As expected, hemoglobin responses to iron were higher in group A than in group B and increases were positively correlated with initial plasma ferritin. Hemoglobin failed to respond to folate supplementation if initial plasma ferritin concentrations were low. Mean hemoglobin increased significantly and consistently in relation to the length of treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Long-term, weekly iron-folate supplementation was found to be a practical, safe, effective, and inexpensive method for improving iron nutrition in adolescent schoolgirls.

    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Capillaries; Drug Combinations; Female; Ferritins/blood*; Folic Acid/administration & dosage; Folic Acid/therapeutic use*; Hematinics/administration & dosage; Hematinics/therapeutic use*; Hemoglobins/analysis*; Humans; Iron/administration & dosage; Iron/therapeutic use*; Malaysia; Patient Compliance; Schools; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/classification; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy*
  3. Haresh K, Suresh K, Khairul Anus A, Saminathan S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1999 Apr;4(4):274-7.
    PMID: 10357863
    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology*; Bangladesh; Drug Resistance; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical; Emigration and Immigration; Feces/parasitology; Humans; Indonesia; Malaysia; Metronidazole/pharmacology*; Singapore; Time Factors; Colony Count, Microbial; Blastocystis Infections/drug therapy; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*; Blastocystis hominis/drug effects*; Blastocystis hominis/growth & development
  4. Zulkifli I, Fauziah O, Omar AR, Shaipullizan S, Siti Selina AH
    Vet. Res. Commun., 1999 Mar;23(2):91-9.
    PMID: 10359153
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde vaporization of a hatcher on the tracheal epithelium of chick embryos, and on the production performance and behaviour of commercial broiler chicks. In experiment 1, chick embryos were exposed to 23.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour during the last 3 days of incubation. Tracheal samples were taken at 0, 6, 30 and 54 h after exposure to formaldehyde and examined by scanning electron microscopy for pathological changes. Observable lesions included excessive accumulation of mucus, matted cilia, loss of cilia and sloughing of the epithelium. The lesions were more severe in chicks exposed for 54 h as compared to those exposed for 6 or 30 h. In experiment 2, 60 chicks that had been exposed to formaldehyde vapour as above and 60 control chicks were used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde fumigation on production performance and behaviour. Formaldehyde vaporization resulted in higher weekly (days 0-6 and 21-27) and total (days 0-41) feed intake and poorer weekly (days 0-6, 7-13, 21-27 and 28-34) and overall (days 0-41) feed conversion ratios. Body weight, mortality and behaviour (eating, drinking, sitting and standing activities) were not affected by formaldehyde fumigation.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Chick Embryo; Chickens; Disinfectants/administration & dosage; Disinfectants/pharmacology*; Epithelial Cells/drug effects; Female; Formaldehyde/administration & dosage; Formaldehyde/pharmacology*; Fumigation/adverse effects*; Male; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Respiratory System/drug effects*; Trachea/drug effects
  5. Wu LL, Sazali BS, Adeeb N, Khalid BA
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):23-6.
    PMID: 10361481
    Clinical diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is difficult at birth without neonatal screening. In line with the priorities of the national health services in Malaysia towards preventive medicine, early diagnosis and treatment of CH is emphasised. We conducted a pilot study at Kuala Lumpur's Maternity Hospital between April 1995 and November 1995 to estimate the incidence of CH and also evaluated the problems associated with large-scale neonatal screening using a commercial TSH kit on cord bloodspots.
    MeSH terms: Congenital Hypothyroidism*; Female; Fetal Blood*; Humans; Hypothyroidism/blood; Hypothyroidism/epidemiology; Hypothyroidism/prevention & control*; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Pilot Projects; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Thyrotropin/blood*; Incidence; Neonatal Screening/methods*
  6. Manonmani V, Tan CT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):32-5.
    PMID: 10361483
    To determine the characteristics of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the multiracial population of Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; Epilepsy/etiology; Epilepsy/epidemiology*; Epilepsy/physiopathology; Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Infant; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Age of Onset
  7. Chin PW, Koh CK, Wong KT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):44-5.
    PMID: 10361486
    A 28-year-old lady suffering from systemic lupus erythomatosus (SLE) with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) and who was on oral cyclophosphamide and prednisolone presented with left lower limb 'cellulitis'. The 'cellulitis' of the left lower limb failed to respond to usual antibiotics which prompted evaluation of the clinical diagnosis. The diagnosis is made based on the presence of granulomas, multinucleated giant cells and acid fast bacilli on the skin biopsy.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cellulitis/diagnosis*; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications; Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/complications; Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis*; Immunocompromised Host*
  8. Ang HH, Cheang HS
    Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 1999 Apr;79(4):497-500.
    PMID: 10361892
    The anxiolytic effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in mice was examined. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack extract produced a significant increase in the number of squares crossed (controls= 118.2 +/- 10.2 squares), but significantly decreased both the immobility (controls = 39.4+/- 4.0 sec) and fecal pellets (controls= 12.3 +/-2.1 fecal pellets) when compared with control mice in the open-field test; they significantly increased the number of entries (controls=6.7+/-0.5 entries) and time spent (controls=42.9+/-0.1 sec) in the open arms, but decreased both the number of entries (controls= 13.2+/-0.7 entries) and time spent (controls= 193.4+/-0.7 sec) when compared with the control mice in the closed arms of the elevated plus-maze test. Furthermore, fractions of E. longifolia Jack extract decreased the fighting episodes significantly (controls= 18.0+/-0.4 fighting episodes) when compared with control mice. In addition, these results were found to be consistent with anxiolytic effect produced by diazepam. Hence, this study supports the medicinal use of this plant for anxiety therapy.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Diazepam/pharmacology; Glaucarubin/analogs & derivatives*; Glaucarubin/pharmacology; Male; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plants, Medicinal*; Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology*; Plant Roots; Maze Learning/drug effects; Quassins*; Mice
  9. Najib Nik A Rahman N, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Ali Mohd M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1999 Mar;64(3):249-54.
    PMID: 10363840
    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Antimalarials/pharmacology*; Female; Malaysia; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plants, Medicinal/chemistry*; Plasmodium berghei/drug effects*; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects*; Solvents; Mice; In Vitro Techniques
  10. Boey CC, Goh KL, Lee WS, Parasakthi N
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):151-2.
    PMID: 10365351
    To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in healthy Malaysian children and to discover whether differences exist among children of different races.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; China/ethnology; Developing Countries; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; India/ethnology; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Incidence; Seroepidemiologic Studies; Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification*; Helicobacter Infections/ethnology*; Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*; Age Distribution; Sex Distribution; Asian Continental Ancestry Group*
  11. Ho JJ, Amar HS, Mohan AJ, Hon TH
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):175-80.
    PMID: 10365356
    To examine the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental handicap at 2 years of age in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) admitted in 1993 to a level 3 Malaysian nursery.
    MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance; Central Nervous System/growth & development*; Child Development/physiology; Child, Preschool; Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Immunization/statistics & numerical data; Infant Mortality*; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Nervous System Diseases/etiology; Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology*; Nurseries, Hospital/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index; Social Class; Prevalence; Confidence Intervals; Chi-Square Distribution; Odds Ratio; Case-Control Studies; Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/growth & development*
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 1999 Apr 30;48(16):335-7.
    PMID: 10366143
    During March 1999, health officials in Malaysia and Singapore, in collaboration with Australian researchers and CDC, investigated reports of febrile encephalitic and respiratory illnesses among workers who had exposure to pigs. A previously unrecognized paramyxovirus (formerly known as Hendra-like virus), now called Nipah virus, was implicated by laboratory testing in many of these cases. Febrile encephalitis continues to be reported in Malaysia but has decreased coincident with mass culling of pigs in outbreak areas. No new cases of febrile illness associated with Nipah virus infection have been identified in Singapore since March 19, 1999, when abattoirs were closed. This report summarizes interim findings from ongoing epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in Malaysia and Singapore.
    MeSH terms: Abattoirs; Animals; Animal Husbandry; Disease Outbreaks*; Fever; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Respirovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Respirovirus Infections/transmission; Respirovirus Infections/veterinary; Singapore/epidemiology; Swine; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology; Occupational Exposure; Respirovirus/isolation & purification*; Encephalitis, Viral/etiology; Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology*
  13. Foo LC, Zulfiqar A, Nafikudin M, Fadzil MT, Asmah AS
    Eur. J. Endocrinol., 1999 Jun;140(6):491-7.
    PMID: 10366404
    Iodine deficiency endemia is defined by the goitre prevalence and the median urinary iodine concentration in a population. Lack of local thyroid volume reference data may bring many health workers to use the European-based WHO/International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD)-recommended reference for the assessment of goitre prevalence in children in different developing countries. The present study was conducted in non-iodine-deficient areas in Malaysia to obtain local children's normative thyroid volume reference data, and to compare their usefulness with those of the WHO/ICCIDD-recommended reference for the assessment of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Age Factors; Anthropometry; Body Surface Area; Child; Female; Goiter/epidemiology; Goiter/pathology; Health Surveys; Humans; Iodine/deficiency*; Iodine/urine; Malaysia; Male; Reference Values; Sex Factors; Thyroid Gland/pathology*; Thyroid Gland/ultrasonography
  14. Tan YY, Wade JD, Tregear GW, Summers RJ
    Br. J. Pharmacol., 1999 May;127(1):91-8.
    PMID: 10369460
    The binding characteristics of the relaxin receptor in rat atria, uterus and cortex were studied using a [33P]-labelled human gene 2 relaxin (B33) and quantitative receptor autoradiography. The binding kinetics of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were investigated in slide-mounted rat atrial sections. The binding achieved equilibrium after 60 min incubation at room temperature (23+/-1 degrees C) and dissociated slowly. The association and dissociation rate constants were 4.31+/-0.34x10(8) M(-1) x min(-1) and 1.55+/-0.38x10(-3) min(-1) respectively. Thus, the kinetic dissociation constant was 3.46+/-0.59 pM. Binding was saturable to a single population of non-interacting sites throughout atria, in uterine myometrium and the 5th layer of cerebral cortex. The binding affinities (pK(D)) of [33P]-human gene 2 relaxin (B33) were 8.92+/-0.09 in atrial myocardium and 8.79+/-0.04 in cerebral cortex of male rats, and 8.79+/-0.10 in uterine myometrium. Receptor densities in the cerebral cortex and atria were higher than in uterine myometrium, indicating that relaxin also has important roles in non-reproductive tissues. In male rats, treatment with 17beta-oestradiol (20 microg in 0.1 ml sesame oil s.c., 18-24 h) significantly decreased the density of relaxin receptors in atria and cerebral cortex. Identical treatment in female rats had no significant effect in atria and cerebral cortex, but it significantly increased the density of relaxin receptors in uterine myometrium. Relaxin binding was competitively displaced by porcine and rat native relaxins. Porcine native relaxin binds to the relaxin receptor in male rat atria (8.90+/-0.02), and cerebral cortex (8.90+/-0.03) and uterine myometrium (8.89+/-0.03) with affinities not significantly different from human gene 2 (B33) relaxin. Nevertheless, rat relaxin binds to the receptors with affinities (8.35+/-0.09 in atria, 8.22+/-0.07 in cerebral cortex and 8.48+/-0.06 in uterine myometrium) significantly less than human gene 2 (B33) and porcine relaxins. Quantitative receptor autoradiography is the method of choice for measurement of affinities and densities of relaxin receptor in atria, uterine myometrium and cerebral cortex. High densities were found in all these tissues. 17beta-oestradiol treatment produced complex effects where it increased the densities of relaxin receptors in uterus but decreased those in atria and cerebral cortex of the male rats, and had no effect on the atria and cerebral cortex of the female rats.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Autoradiography; Binding, Competitive; Cerebral Cortex/drug effects; Cerebral Cortex/metabolism*; Estradiol/pharmacology*; Female; Heart Atria/drug effects; Heart Atria/metabolism; Humans; Kinetics; Male; Myocardium/metabolism*; Myometrium/drug effects; Myometrium/metabolism; Phosphorus Radioisotopes; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism; Relaxin/metabolism*; Swine; Uterus/drug effects; Uterus/metabolism*; Receptors, Peptide/drug effects; Receptors, Peptide/metabolism*; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; Rats; In Vitro Techniques
  15. Tan EC, Lee BW, Tay AW, Chew FT, Tay AH
    Allergy, 1999 Apr;54(4):402-3.
    PMID: 10371104
    MeSH terms: Alleles; Asthma/genetics*; Haplotypes; Humans; Lymphotoxin-alpha/genetics; Malaysia; Singapore; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics*; Genetic Variation; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics*
  16. Scheltinga SA, van der Zwan AW, Mongkolsuk T, Sujirachato K, Chiewsilp P, Tilanus MG
    Tissue Antigens, 1999 May;53(5):507-9.
    PMID: 10372546
    Southern Thai Muslims (STM)--from Nakon Si Thammarat, whose ancestors come mainly from Malaysia--constitute more than half of all Thai Muslims which, in total, represent approximately 10% of the country's population. The most common A2 subtypes in STM were A*0203 (n=15), A*0201 (n=8) and A*0207 (n=7). In this study, samples with unexpected amplification patterns were sequenced. Three individuals were indicative of a novel A2 allele, now known as A*02012.
    MeSH terms: Base Sequence; Humans; Islam; Molecular Sequence Data; Thailand; Genetic Variation*; HLA-A2 Antigen/classification; HLA-A2 Antigen/genetics*; DNA, Complementary
  17. Raju SS, Noor AR, Gurthu S, Giriyappanavar CR, Acharya SB, Low HC, et al.
    Pharmacol. Res., 1999 Jun;39(6):451-4.
    PMID: 10373242
    There are no definite reports regarding the effects of chronic fluoxetine on animal models of epilepsy. Since chronically administered fluoxetine, in comparison to acutely administered fluoxetine has different effects on CNS, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine pretreatment, on a median anticonvulsant dose (ED50) of phenytoin in male ICR albino mice. Additionally, the effects of fluoxetine pretreatment on median convulsive current (CC50) in the presence and absence of phenytoin were investigated and results were compared. The maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test was used to estimate the ED50of phenytoin. The electroshock threshold test was used to estimate CC50. ED50and CC50values were calculated by probit analysis. The effects of the chronic and acute fluoxetine groups on the ED50of phenytoin were significantly different (P<0.05), and on CC50this difference was not statistically significant. Chronic fluoxetine insignificantly increased the ED50of phenytoin and decreased the CC50while acute fluoxetine decreased the ED50of phenytoin and increased the CC50. Our results indicate that chronic fluoxetine does not have an antiepileptic property and it may have dubious proconvulsant properties, contrary to acute fluoxetine.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anticonvulsants/pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Electroshock; Fluoxetine/pharmacology*; Male; Mice, Inbred ICR; Phenytoin/pharmacology; Seizures/drug therapy*; Seizures/etiology; Seizures/physiopathology; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology*; Mice
  18. Ee YS, Lai LC, Reimann K, Lim PK
    Oncol. Rep., 1999 6 22;6(4):843-6.
    PMID: 10373668
    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been shown to inhibit the growth of mammary epithelial cells and may play a protective role in mammary carcinogenesis. In contrast, oestrogens promote the development of breast cancer. Oestrone sulphate (E1S) is a huge reservoir of active oestrogens in the breast being converted to the weak oestrogen, oestrone (E1), by oestrone sulphatase. E1 is reversibly converted by oestradiol-17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to the potent oestrogen, oestradiol (E2). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the TGF-beta1 isoform on growth and oestrogen metabolism in the hormone-dependent MCF-7 and hormone-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that TGF-beta1 significantly inhibited cell growth and stimulated the conversion of E1S to E1 and E1 to E2 in the MCF-7 cell line. In the MDA-MB-231 cell line TGF-beta1 significantly stimulated cell growth and inhibited the interconversions between E1 and E2. In conclusion, the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MCF-7 cell line would appear to confer a protective effect in breast cancer. However, its ability to increase the amount of E2 would increase the risk of breast cancer. Which of these effects predominates in vivo remains to be explored. The growth stimulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on the MDA-MB-231 cell line probably acts through a mechanism independent of the effect of TGF-beta1 on oestrogen concentrations since this cell line is hormone unresponsive.
    MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms/enzymology; Breast Neoplasms/metabolism*; Breast Neoplasms/pathology; Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control; Cell Division/drug effects; Cell Line; Estrogens/metabolism*; Humans; Sulfatases/metabolism; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology*; Chemoprevention
  19. Caplan CE
    CMAJ, 1999 Jun 1;160(11):1607.
    PMID: 10374006
    MeSH terms: Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology; Agricultural Workers' Diseases/virology*; Animals; Animal Husbandry*; Disease Outbreaks*; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Swine; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology*; Virus Diseases/epidemiology; Virus Diseases/transmission; Virus Diseases/virology*; Morbillivirus Infections/epidemiology; Morbillivirus Infections/transmission*
  20. Murray G
    Aust. Vet. J., 1999 May;77(5):339.
    PMID: 10376108
    MeSH terms: Animals; Australia; Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration*; Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control*; Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission; Humans; International Cooperation*; Malaysia; Swine; Swine Diseases/prevention & control*; Swine Diseases/transmission; Zoonoses*
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