Browse publications by year: 1999

  1. Singh B, Bobogare A, Cox-Singh J, Snounou G, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1999 Apr;60(4):687-92.
    PMID: 10348249
    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that uses Plasmodium genus-specific primers for the initial PCR (nest 1) amplification and either genus- or species-specific primers for the nest 2 amplifications was tested on laboratory and field samples. With in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples, it was capable of detecting six parasites/microl of blood using DNA prepared from 25-microl blood spots on filter paper. The assay was evaluated on fingerprick blood samples collected on filter paper from 129 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area in Malaysia. Malaria prevalence by genus-specific nested PCR was 35.6% (46 of 129) compared with 28.7% (37 of 129) by microscopy. The nested PCR detected seven more malaria samples than microscopy in the first round of microscopic examination, malaria in three microscopically negative samples, six double infections identified as single infections by microscopy and one triple infection identified as a double infection by microscopy. The nested PCR assay described is a sensitive technique for collecting accurate malaria epidemiologic data. When coupled with simple blood spot sampling, it is particularly useful for screening communities in remote regions of the world.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Humans; Plasmodium falciparum/genetics*; Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification*; Sensitivity and Specificity; Species Specificity; DNA, Protozoan/analysis; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods*; Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology*; DNA Primers; Parasitemia/parasitology
  2. Faizah O, Merican Z, Hassan MF, Khalid BA, Mohamed J, Radzi M
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1999 Jun;8(2):106-12.
    PMID: 24393793
    Edible oils have different effects on lipid profiles and on the propensity for producing lipid peroxidation products. These two properties of edible oils can affect arterial structure, ultimately leading to atherosclerosis. Hypertension is said to be a predisposing factor for atherosclerosis and can accelerate its process. This paper investigates the effects of three edible oils, namely soya bean oil, palm oil and ghee, on the ultrastructure of the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats at the end of a 4 month feeding period. It was found that ghee produced significant structural changes to the aortic wall when compared with palm oil or soya bean oil, and that no noticeable structural differences were seen to occur on the aortas of the palm oil-fed and soya bean oil-fed groups of rats. This study suggests that the consumption of ghee, rather than palm or soya bean oil, is more likely to lead to the development of atherosclerosis.
    MeSH terms: Ghee; Animals; Aorta; Arteries; Hypertension; Plant Oils; Rats, Inbred SHR; Soybean Oil; Lipid Peroxidation; Causality; Atherosclerosis; Rats
  3. Ganapathy K, Bradbury JM
    Avian Pathol., 1999 Jun;28(3):229-37.
    PMID: 26915378 DOI: 10.1080/03079459994713
    Mycoplasma imitans (Mim) has been isolated from ducks, geese and partridges, and is closely related to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg). The pathogenicity of Mim for chicks was investigated in single and mixed infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by giving IBV strain M41 at 1-day-old and Mim 2 days later. Single infections with IBV or Mim were also performed. No clinical signs or gross lesions were seen in chicks infected with Mim or uninfected control chicks, but they were seen in the other two groups. Clinical scores were consistently higher in birds with mixed infections than those infected with IBV alone, and were significantly higher (P < 0.05) between days 7 and 14. More birds developed sinusitis, tracheitis and airsacculitis (with greater severity) in the mixed than the single IBV infections. Mim was recovered more frequently and in greater numbers from the respiratory tract of birds with mixed than single infections. It was recovered from the lower trachea, air sacs and lungs only in mixed infections. Seroconversion to Mim occurred by day 14 in mixed infections, but not until day 21 in single infections. It appears that Mim can act synergistically with IBV in young chickens in a similar manner to Mg, although Mg may act as a primary pathogen under some circumstances.
  4. Mohammed KB, Ma TH
    Mutat. Res., 1999 May 19;426(2):193-9.
    PMID: 10350597
    The clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the insecticide Dimethoate (Cygon-2E), herbicides Atrazine, Simazine (Princep), Dicamba (Banvel D) and Picloram (Tordon) were studied using the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. In clone 4430, dimethoate fumes both significantly increased the pink mutation events and reduced the number of stamen hairs per filament with increasing dosages. The pink mutation events were elevated by the liquid treatment with Picloram at 100 ppm concentration. The result of Trad-MCN test on Dimethoate fumes was not significantly different between the control and treated groups. The herbicide Atrazine showed positive effects at 10-50 ppm dose (liquid) and signs of overdose at 100 and 500 ppm concentrations. Simazine was mildly positive in elevating the MCN frequencies in the dose range of 5 to 200 ppm (liquid doses). Both Dicamba and Picloram induced a dosage-related increase in MCN frequencies in the Trad-MCN tests using Tradescantia clone 03. However, in higher dosages (200 ppm or higher), there were signs of overdose, reduction of MCN frequencies and physical damage of the leaves and buds of plant cuttings.
    MeSH terms: Absorption; Atrazine/toxicity; Dicamba/toxicity; Dimethoate/toxicity; Environmental Monitoring/methods; Gases; Geography; Herbicides/toxicity*; Malaysia; Mutagenicity Tests; Mutagens/toxicity*; Pesticides/toxicity*; Picloram/toxicity; Plants/drug effects*; Plants/genetics; Simazine/toxicity; Solutions; Micronucleus Tests
  5. Harba MI, Teng LY
    Front Med Biol Eng, 1999;9(1):31-47.
    PMID: 10354908
    Cross-correlating two surface EMG signals detected at two different locations along the path of flow of action potential enables the measurement of the muscle fiber average conduction velocity in those active motor units monitored by the electrodes. The position of the peak of the cross-correlation function is the time delay between the two signals and hence the velocity may be deduced. The estimated velocity using this technique has been observed previously to depend on the location of the electrodes on the muscle surface. Different locations produced different estimates. In this paper we present a measurement system, analyze its inherent inaccuracies and use it for the purpose of investigating the reliability of measurement of conduction velocity from surface EMG. This system utilizes EMG signals detected at a number of locations on the biceps brachii, when under light tension, to look for any pattern of variations of velocity as a function of location and time. It consists of a multi-electrode unit and a set of eight parallel on-line correlators. The electrode unit and the parallel correlators ensure that these measurements are carried out under the same physical and physiological conditions of the muscle. Further, the same detected signals are used in different measurement configurations to try to understand the reasons behind the observed variations in the estimated velocity. The results obtained seem to suggest that there will always be an unpredictable random component superimposed on the estimated velocity, giving rise to differences between estimates at different locations and differences in estimates with time at the same location. Many factors contribute to this random component, such as the non-homogeneous medium between the muscle fibers and the electrodes, the non-parallel geometry and non-uniform conduction velocity of the fibers, and the physical and physiological conditions of the muscle. While it is not possible to remove this random component completely from the measurement, the user must be aware of its presence and how to reduce its effects.
    MeSH terms: Action Potentials/physiology*; Adult; Algorithms; Arm; Electrodes; Electromyography/instrumentation; Electromyography/methods*; Humans; Muscle Contraction/physiology; Neural Conduction; Reaction Time; Reproducibility of Results; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/physiology*
  6. Abugassa I, Sarmani SB, Samat SB
    Appl Radiat Isot, 1999 Jun;50(6):989-94.
    PMID: 10355102
    This paper focuses on the evaluation of the k0 method of instrumental neutron activation analysis in biological materials. The method has been applied in multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and from NIES (National Institute for Environmental Sciences) No. 5. Hair samples from people resident in different parts of Malaysia, in addition to a sample from Japan, were analyzed. In addition, human kidney stones from members of the Malaysian population have been analyzed for minor and trace elements. More than 25 elements have been determined. The samples were irradiated in the rotary rack (Lazy Susan) at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology and Research (MINT). The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, including 1573 tomato leaves and 1572 citrus leaves. In this method the deviation of the 1/E1+ alpha epithermal neutron flux distribution from the 1/E law (P/T ratio) for true coincidence effects of the gamma-ray cascade and the HPGe detector efficiency were determined and corrected for.
    MeSH terms: Citrus/chemistry; Hair/chemistry*; Humans; Japan; Kidney Calculi/chemistry*; Malaysia; Neutron Activation Analysis/methods; Reference Standards; Trace Elements/analysis*; Plant Leaves; Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry
  7. Subramaniam V, Stewart MW, Smith JF
    J Pain Symptom Manage, 1999 May;17(5):376-83.
    PMID: 10355217
    To study the process of establishment, and evaluate the outcome of participation, in a self-help support group for people with chronic nonmalignant pain, members of a newly-established, consumer-led group participated in two interviews 5 months apart and a researcher observed group meetings. Participants reported significant benefits from participating in the group. They had a significant increase in functional ability and activity, and reported decreased recourse to health professionals, particularly family physicians. This study indicates that pain support groups can play a valuable role for people in pain, assisting with support and rehabilitation, and meeting needs that health professionals are often not appropriate or able to provide.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Chronic Disease; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Self-Help Groups*
  8. Kestel A
    Science, 1999 May 7;284(5416):913.
    PMID: 10357670
    MeSH terms: Animals; Animal Welfare*; Malaysia; Swine/virology*; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology*; Paramyxoviridae Infections/transmission; Paramyxoviridae Infections/veterinary*
  9. Tee ES, Kandiah M, Awin N, Chong SM, Satgunasingam N, Kamarudin L, et al.
    Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1999 Jun;69(6):1249-56.
    PMID: 10357747 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/69.6.1249
    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and its consequent anemia constitute the commonest micronutrient deficiency in the world.
    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether long-term, weekly iron-folate supplements administered at school would improve hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in adolescent girls, including those with mild-to-moderate anemia and hemoglobin concentrations indicating borderline anemia.
    DESIGN: Subjects were 266 girls with hemoglobin concentrations of 80-119.9 g/L (group A) and 358 girls with hemoglobin concentrations of 120-130 g/L (group B) who were otherwise healthy. Two hundred sixty-six girls in group A and 268 girls in group B were randomly assigned to receive either 60 or 120 mg Fe plus 3.5 mg folic acid weekly for 22 wk. Ninety of the girls in group B were randomly assigned to receive only 5 mg folic acid weekly. Capillary hemoglobin and plasma ferritin were measured at baseline and after 12 and 22 wk of supplementation.
    RESULTS: By the end of the study, 2% of the girls had dropped out and > 96% had taken > or = 20 of the 22 tablets; side effects were minimal. Mean plasma ferritin increased significantly in all iron-supplemented groups, independently of initial hemoglobin values and iron doses. Ferritin concentrations decreased in the girls supplemented with folic acid only. As expected, hemoglobin responses to iron were higher in group A than in group B and increases were positively correlated with initial plasma ferritin. Hemoglobin failed to respond to folate supplementation if initial plasma ferritin concentrations were low. Mean hemoglobin increased significantly and consistently in relation to the length of treatment.
    CONCLUSION: Long-term, weekly iron-folate supplementation was found to be a practical, safe, effective, and inexpensive method for improving iron nutrition in adolescent schoolgirls.

    Comment in: Picciano MF. Iron and folate supplementation: an effective intervention in
    adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1069-70. PubMed PMID:

    Study site: 3 secondary schools, Samarahan district, Sarawak, Malaysia
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Analysis of Variance; Capillaries; Drug Combinations; Female; Ferritins/blood*; Folic Acid/administration & dosage; Folic Acid/therapeutic use*; Hematinics/administration & dosage; Hematinics/therapeutic use*; Hemoglobins/analysis*; Humans; Iron/administration & dosage; Iron/therapeutic use*; Malaysia; Patient Compliance; Schools; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/blood; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/classification; Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy*
  10. Haresh K, Suresh K, Khairul Anus A, Saminathan S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1999 Apr;4(4):274-7.
    PMID: 10357863
    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology*; Bangladesh; Drug Resistance; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical; Emigration and Immigration; Feces/parasitology; Humans; Indonesia; Malaysia; Metronidazole/pharmacology*; Singapore; Time Factors; Colony Count, Microbial; Blastocystis Infections/drug therapy; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology*; Blastocystis hominis/drug effects*; Blastocystis hominis/growth & development
  11. Zulkifli I, Fauziah O, Omar AR, Shaipullizan S, Siti Selina AH
    Vet. Res. Commun., 1999 Mar;23(2):91-9.
    PMID: 10359153
    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of formaldehyde vaporization of a hatcher on the tracheal epithelium of chick embryos, and on the production performance and behaviour of commercial broiler chicks. In experiment 1, chick embryos were exposed to 23.5 ppm of formaldehyde vapour during the last 3 days of incubation. Tracheal samples were taken at 0, 6, 30 and 54 h after exposure to formaldehyde and examined by scanning electron microscopy for pathological changes. Observable lesions included excessive accumulation of mucus, matted cilia, loss of cilia and sloughing of the epithelium. The lesions were more severe in chicks exposed for 54 h as compared to those exposed for 6 or 30 h. In experiment 2, 60 chicks that had been exposed to formaldehyde vapour as above and 60 control chicks were used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde fumigation on production performance and behaviour. Formaldehyde vaporization resulted in higher weekly (days 0-6 and 21-27) and total (days 0-41) feed intake and poorer weekly (days 0-6, 7-13, 21-27 and 28-34) and overall (days 0-41) feed conversion ratios. Body weight, mortality and behaviour (eating, drinking, sitting and standing activities) were not affected by formaldehyde fumigation.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Chick Embryo; Chickens; Disinfectants/administration & dosage; Disinfectants/pharmacology*; Epithelial Cells/drug effects; Female; Formaldehyde/administration & dosage; Formaldehyde/pharmacology*; Fumigation/adverse effects*; Male; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Respiratory System/drug effects*; Trachea/drug effects
  12. Wu LL, Sazali BS, Adeeb N, Khalid BA
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):23-6.
    PMID: 10361481
    Clinical diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is difficult at birth without neonatal screening. In line with the priorities of the national health services in Malaysia towards preventive medicine, early diagnosis and treatment of CH is emphasised. We conducted a pilot study at Kuala Lumpur's Maternity Hospital between April 1995 and November 1995 to estimate the incidence of CH and also evaluated the problems associated with large-scale neonatal screening using a commercial TSH kit on cord bloodspots.
    MeSH terms: Congenital Hypothyroidism*; Female; Fetal Blood*; Humans; Hypothyroidism/blood; Hypothyroidism/epidemiology; Hypothyroidism/prevention & control*; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Pilot Projects; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; Thyrotropin/blood*; Incidence; Neonatal Screening/methods*
  13. Manonmani V, Tan CT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):32-5.
    PMID: 10361483
    To determine the characteristics of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the multiracial population of Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; Epilepsy/etiology; Epilepsy/epidemiology*; Epilepsy/physiopathology; Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Infant; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Age of Onset
  14. Chin PW, Koh CK, Wong KT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Jan;40(1):44-5.
    PMID: 10361486
    A 28-year-old lady suffering from systemic lupus erythomatosus (SLE) with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) and who was on oral cyclophosphamide and prednisolone presented with left lower limb 'cellulitis'. The 'cellulitis' of the left lower limb failed to respond to usual antibiotics which prompted evaluation of the clinical diagnosis. The diagnosis is made based on the presence of granulomas, multinucleated giant cells and acid fast bacilli on the skin biopsy.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cellulitis/diagnosis*; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications; Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/complications; Tuberculosis, Cutaneous/diagnosis*; Immunocompromised Host*
  15. Ang HH, Cheang HS
    Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 1999 Apr;79(4):497-500.
    PMID: 10361892
    The anxiolytic effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in mice was examined. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack extract produced a significant increase in the number of squares crossed (controls= 118.2 +/- 10.2 squares), but significantly decreased both the immobility (controls = 39.4+/- 4.0 sec) and fecal pellets (controls= 12.3 +/-2.1 fecal pellets) when compared with control mice in the open-field test; they significantly increased the number of entries (controls=6.7+/-0.5 entries) and time spent (controls=42.9+/-0.1 sec) in the open arms, but decreased both the number of entries (controls= 13.2+/-0.7 entries) and time spent (controls= 193.4+/-0.7 sec) when compared with the control mice in the closed arms of the elevated plus-maze test. Furthermore, fractions of E. longifolia Jack extract decreased the fighting episodes significantly (controls= 18.0+/-0.4 fighting episodes) when compared with control mice. In addition, these results were found to be consistent with anxiolytic effect produced by diazepam. Hence, this study supports the medicinal use of this plant for anxiety therapy.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Diazepam/pharmacology; Glaucarubin/analogs & derivatives*; Glaucarubin/pharmacology; Male; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plants, Medicinal*; Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology*; Plant Roots; Maze Learning/drug effects; Quassins*; Mice
  16. Najib Nik A Rahman N, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Ali Mohd M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1999 Mar;64(3):249-54.
    PMID: 10363840
    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Antimalarials/pharmacology*; Female; Malaysia; Plant Extracts/pharmacology*; Plants, Medicinal/chemistry*; Plasmodium berghei/drug effects*; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects*; Solvents; Mice; In Vitro Techniques
  17. Boey CC, Goh KL, Lee WS, Parasakthi N
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):151-2.
    PMID: 10365351
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in healthy Malaysian children and to discover whether differences exist among children of different races.

    METHODS: Serum samples from asymptomatic children tested for H. pylori seropositivity using an ELISA test.

    RESULTS: Five hundred and fourteen healthy urban Malaysian children aged 0.5 to 17 (mean 5.9) years from three different racial groups had their blood tested for H. pylori antibodies. The overall prevalence was 10.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between boys and girls, but a significant rise was noted with increasing age (P = 0.009). Seropositivity was most common in the Indians and lowest in the Malays (P = 0.001). Father's level of education did not affect the child's rate of H. pylori seropositivity.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity among asymptomatic urban Malaysian children is lowest in Malays. Intermediate in Chinese and highest in Indians. The racial differences found in children are consistent with those found in Malaysian adults.

    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; China/ethnology; Developing Countries; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; India/ethnology; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Incidence; Seroepidemiologic Studies; Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification*; Helicobacter Infections/ethnology*; Helicobacter Infections/microbiology*; Age Distribution; Sex Distribution; Asian Continental Ancestry Group*
  18. Ho JJ, Amar HS, Mohan AJ, Hon TH
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):175-80.
    PMID: 10365356
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental handicap at 2 years of age in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) admitted in 1993 to a level 3 Malaysian nursery.

    METHODS: All VLBW babies born in the hospital or referred for neonatal care during 1993 were enrolled prospectively in the study. At 2 years of age development was assessed using the Griffiths mental scales. Neurological, hearing and visual assessments were graded into five groups according to functional handicap. Control infants were randomly selected during attendance at a primary health care clinic.

    RESULTS: One hundred and fifty VLBW infants were admitted and 82 (54.6%) survived to 2 years, of whom 77 (93.9%) were assessed. The mean General Quotient (GQ) on the Griffiths Scales was 94 (15.7) for the study group and 104 (8.3) for the 60 controls. For GQ, 21 (27.3%) of the study population were 1 or more SD below the mean (18 between 1 and 2 SD and 3 > 2 SD) compared with 1 (1.6%) of the controls who was 1-2 SD below the mean. Visual impairment occurred in 2 study infants and none of the controls. There was no hearing impairment in either group. Cerebral palsy occurred in 3 (1 mild and 2 moderate-severe) of the study group and none of the controls. Functionally 18 (23.3%) of the study group had mild handicap, 1 (1.3%) moderate, 2 (2.5%) severe, 2 (2.5%) multiply severe and 54 (70.2%) were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Although survival was low, overall rates of functional handicap were similar to those reported in developed countries but the proportion with moderate or severe handicap was low.

    MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance; Central Nervous System/growth & development*; Child Development/physiology; Child, Preschool; Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Immunization/statistics & numerical data; Infant Mortality*; Infant, Newborn; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Nervous System Diseases/etiology; Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology*; Nurseries, Hospital/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index; Social Class; Prevalence; Confidence Intervals; Chi-Square Distribution; Odds Ratio; Case-Control Studies; Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/growth & development*
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 1999 Apr 30;48(16):335-7.
    PMID: 10366143
    During March 1999, health officials in Malaysia and Singapore, in collaboration with Australian researchers and CDC, investigated reports of febrile encephalitic and respiratory illnesses among workers who had exposure to pigs. A previously unrecognized paramyxovirus (formerly known as Hendra-like virus), now called Nipah virus, was implicated by laboratory testing in many of these cases. Febrile encephalitis continues to be reported in Malaysia but has decreased coincident with mass culling of pigs in outbreak areas. No new cases of febrile illness associated with Nipah virus infection have been identified in Singapore since March 19, 1999, when abattoirs were closed. This report summarizes interim findings from ongoing epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in Malaysia and Singapore.
    MeSH terms: Abattoirs; Animals; Animal Husbandry; Disease Outbreaks*; Fever; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Respirovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Respirovirus Infections/transmission; Respirovirus Infections/veterinary; Singapore/epidemiology; Swine; Swine Diseases/transmission; Swine Diseases/virology; Occupational Exposure; Respirovirus/isolation & purification*; Encephalitis, Viral/etiology; Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology*
  20. Foo LC, Zulfiqar A, Nafikudin M, Fadzil MT, Asmah AS
    Eur. J. Endocrinol., 1999 Jun;140(6):491-7.
    PMID: 10366404
    Iodine deficiency endemia is defined by the goitre prevalence and the median urinary iodine concentration in a population. Lack of local thyroid volume reference data may bring many health workers to use the European-based WHO/International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD)-recommended reference for the assessment of goitre prevalence in children in different developing countries. The present study was conducted in non-iodine-deficient areas in Malaysia to obtain local children's normative thyroid volume reference data, and to compare their usefulness with those of the WHO/ICCIDD-recommended reference for the assessment of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Age Factors; Anthropometry; Body Surface Area; Child; Female; Goiter/epidemiology; Goiter/pathology; Health Surveys; Humans; Iodine/deficiency*; Iodine/urine; Malaysia; Male; Reference Values; Sex Factors; Thyroid Gland/pathology*; Ultrasonography
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