Browse publications by year: 1999

  1. Ferraro KF, Su Y
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 1999 Jan;54(1):S3-15.
    PMID: 9934397
    OBJECTIVES: This article examines how financial strain and social relations may independently and jointly influence psychological distress among older people in four nations.

    METHODS: Data from four Western Pacific nations (N = 3,277) are used to test additive and multiplicative models of the relationships between financial strain, social relations, and psychological distress.

    RESULTS: Financial strain is associated with higher levels of psychological distress in three of the four nations. Interactive models of the effects of financial strain and social relations on distress were uncovered in three of the four nations, but the type of social relation influencing the strain-distress relationship varied. Subjective-health and IADLs were significant predictors of psychological distress in all four nations.

    DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that although financial strain is quite likely to lead to psychological distress among elders, this can be mitigated, at least in part, by social relationships. Modernization was not associated with higher psychological distress.

    MeSH terms: Activities of Daily Living; Aged/psychology*; Aged, 80 and over; Cross-Cultural Comparison*; Female; Fiji; Health Status; Humans; Interpersonal Relations*; Korea; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Philippines; Poverty*; Stress, Psychological/etiology*
  2. Init I, Mak JW, Lokman Hakim S, Yong HS
    Parasitol. Res., 1999 Feb;85(2):131-4.
    PMID: 9934962
    A total of 20 isolates of Blastocystis were characterized using a single set of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. The amplification product revealed five types of pattern. All four isolates from Singapore yielded PCR products quite different from those of the local isolates. However, most of the local isolates showed a major product at either 280 or 500 bp, or both. We also suspected that the amplification product detected at 280 bp might be an indicator of the pathogenicity of this parasite. One isolate (M12) obtained from a monkey showed patterns similar to those of human isolates (10203 and KP1) and probably belongs to the same strain. The results indicate that the intraspecific or interstrain variations in these 20 Blastocystis isolates belong to 5 different patterns. The differences among isolates of the same strain revealed by the presence or absence of certain amplification products showed further intrastrain variations in this parasite.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Haplorhini; Humans; Singapore; Species Specificity; Genetic Variation; Virulence; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods; Blastocystis/classification*; Blastocystis/genetics*; Blastocystis/isolation & purification; Blastocystis/pathogenicity; DNA Primers
  3. Vennila GD, Suresh Kumar G, Khairul Anuar A, Rajah S, Saminathan R, Sivanandan S, et al.
    Parasitol. Res., 1999 Feb;85(2):162-4.
    PMID: 9934969
    The shedding pattern of the protozoan parasite, Blastocystis hominis, is investigated in man and in experimental animal infections. The shedding pattern of the vacuolar and cystic forms of Blastocystis hominis in infected individuals have been shown in the present study to be irregular. The study shows that there is marked fluctuation in the shedding of the parasite from day to day, varying from as high as 17 to 0 per x40 microscopic field. The cystic stages when estimated in 8 Blastocystis-infected individuals ranged from as high as 7.4x10(5) cysts per gram of stool to 0. The shedding of cystic and vacuolar forms observed over a period of 20 days in experimentally-infected Wistar rats were not only shown to be irregular but the amount varied from host to host. The study has important diagnostic implications in that the stool samples must be collected more than once from patients showing clinical signs and symptoms to eliminate the cause of it to Blastocystis. The study also shows that there are asymptomatic individuals who pass a large amount of cysts as such individuals should be treated to prevent transmission to others.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Feces/parasitology*; Humans; Species Specificity; Blastocystis Infections/parasitology; Blastocystis Infections/physiopathology*; Blastocystis Infections/transmission; Rats, Wistar; Rats
  4. Adli DS, Stuesse SL, Cruce WL
    J. Comp. Neurol., 1999 Feb 15;404(3):387-407.
    PMID: 9952355
    Over 30 nuclei have been identified in the reticular formation of rats, but only a small number of distinct reticular nuclei have been recognized in frogs. We used immunohistochemistry, retrograde tracing, and cell morphology to identify nuclei within the brainstem of Rana pipiens. FluoroGold was injected into the spinal cord, and, in the same frogs, antibodies to enkephalin, substance P, somatostatin, and serotonin were localized in adjacent sections. We identified many previously unrecognized reticular nuclei. The rhombencephalic reticular formation contained reticularis (r.) dorsalis; r. ventralis, pars alpha and pars beta; r. magnocellularis; r. parvocellularis; r. gigantocellularis; r. paragigantocellularis lateralis and dorsalis; r. pontis caudalis, pars alpha and pars beta; nucleus visceralis secundarius; r. pontis oralis, pars medialis and pars lateralis; raphe obscurus; raphe pallidus; raphe magnus; and raphe pontis. The mesencephalic reticular formation contained locus coeruleus-subcoeruleus, r. cuneiformis, r. subcuneiformis, raphe dorsalis-raphe centralis superior, and raphe linearis. Thus, the reticular formation of frog, which is an anamniote, is organized complexly and is similar to the reticular formation in amniotes. Because many of these nuclei may be homologous to reticular nuclei in mammals, we used mammalian terminology for frog reticular nuclei.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Fluorescent Dyes; Immunohistochemistry; Neural Pathways/anatomy & histology; Neural Pathways/cytology; Neural Pathways/metabolism; Rana pipiens/anatomy & histology*; Raphe Nuclei/anatomy & histology; Raphe Nuclei/cytology; Raphe Nuclei/metabolism; Reticular Formation/anatomy & histology*; Reticular Formation/cytology; Reticular Formation/metabolism*; Serotonin/metabolism; Somatostatin/metabolism; Spinal Cord/anatomy & histology*; Spinal Cord/cytology; Spinal Cord/metabolism*; Stilbamidines*; Substance P/metabolism
  5. Manderson L
    Am J Public Health, 1999 Jan;89(1):102-7.
    PMID: 9987478
    In both African and Asian colonies until the late 19th century, colonial medicine operated pragmatically to meet the medical needs first of colonial officers and troops, immigrant settlers, and laborers responsible for economic development, then of indigenous populations when their ill health threatened the well-being of the expatriate population. Since the turn of the century, however, the consequences of colonial expansion and development for indigenous people's health had become increasingly apparent, and disease control and public health programs were expanded in this light. These programs increased government surveillance of populations at both community and household levels. As a consequence, colonial states extended institutional oversight and induced dependency through public health measures. Drawing on my own work on colonial Malaya, I illustrate developments in public health and their links to the moral logic of colonialism and its complementarity to the political economy.
    MeSH terms: Africa; Asia; Humans; Malaysia; Politics; Public Health/history*; Tropical Medicine/history*; Colonialism/history*; Internationality; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century
  6. Raj SM
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1999 Jan;60(1):165-6.
    PMID: 9988342
    Stool specimens of 104 primary schoolchildren (mean+/-SD age = 8.2+/-0.3 years) were examined for helminth eggs and for occult blood to investigate the possibility that trichuriasis causes occult intestinal bleeding in the absence of the overt Trichuris dysentery syndrome. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. Sixty-one children had Trichuris infection, 11 of whom had heavy infections (> 10,000 eggs per gram of feces [epg]), and 53 had Ascaris infections. No hookworm infection was detected. Baseline screening yielded only one weakly positive occult blood test result in a child with a light (800 epg) Trichuris infection. Serial stool occult blood testing on the 11 subjects with heavy trichuriasis and 8 uninfected controls yielded a single weakly positive result in the control group. The results provide no evidence that trichuriasis predisposes to significant occult gastrointestinal bleeding in children in the absence of the dysenteric syndrome.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Ascariasis/epidemiology; Child; Feces/parasitology; Female; Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis; Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology*; Humans; Malaysia/epidemiology; Male; Occult Blood*; Parasite Egg Count; Trichuriasis/complications*; Trichuriasis/epidemiology; Trichuris/isolation & purification; Prevalence; Ascaris lumbricoides
  7. Goh KL, Cutler A, Chua AB, Ding RP, Kandasami P, Mazlam MZ, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 1999 Jan;14(1):32-8.
    PMID: 10029275
    The aim of the present study was to determine the cost-efficiency of different duodenal ulcer disease treatment practices in Malaysia. Six Malaysian gastroenterologists met to discuss the direct costs related to Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication treatment. Five treatment strategies were compared: (i) histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA), acid suppression therapy for 6 weeks followed by maintenance therapy as needed; (ii) bismuth triple + proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth (120 mg, q.i.d.), metronidazole (400 mg; t.i.d.), tetracycline (500 mg, q.i.d.) for 7 days and PPI, b.i.d., for 7 days; (iii) OAC, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; (iv) OMC, omeprazole (20mg, b.i.d.), metronidazole (400mg, b.i.d.) and clarithromycin (500 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days; and (v) OAM, omeprazole (20 mg, b.i.d.), amoxycillin (1000 mg, b.i.d.) and metronidazole (400 mg, b.i.d.) for 7 days. A decision tree model was created to determine which therapy would be the most cost-effective. The model considered eradication rates, resistance to anti-microbial agents, compliance and cost implications of treatment regimens, physician visits and ulcer recurrences during a 1 year time period assumption. The H2RA maintenance therapy was the most expensive treatment at Malaysian Ringgit (MR) 2335, followed by bismuth triple therapy (MR 1839), OMC (MR 1786), OAM (MR 1775) and OAC, being the most cost-effective therapy, at MR 1679. In conclusion, HP eradication therapy is superior to H2RA maintenance therapy in the treatment of duodenal ulcer disease. Of the HP eradication regimens, OAC is the most cost-effective.
    MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use; Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use; Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Bismuth/therapeutic use; Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics*; Decision Support Techniques*; Drug Therapy, Combination; Duodenal Ulcer/drug therapy*; Duodenal Ulcer/economics*; Humans; Malaysia; Metronidazole/therapeutic use; Omeprazole/therapeutic use; Tetracycline/therapeutic use; Clarithromycin/therapeutic use; Models, Economic
  8. Hoe VB, Siong KH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1999 Mar;8(1):24-31.
    PMID: 24393732
    The proximate composition including mineral and vitamin contents of 16 fruits and 46 vegetables (leaves, fruits, palm hearts and shoots) of indigenous origin in Sarawak are provided. Fruits like dabai (Canarium odontophyllum), kembayau (Dacryodes rostrata f. cuspidata), durian nyekak (Durio kutejensis) and durian kuning (Durio graveolens) are very nutritious with high values for energy, protein and potassium. Among the vegetables, the protein content of letup (Passiflora foetida), kepayang (Pangium edule) and tubu (Pycnarrhena tumetacta) is high, ranging from 6 to 7%. The range of nutrients among foods of indigenous origin are generally comparable with those of many cultivated species except for vitamin C, which is lower. Teh Kampung (Leucosyke capitellata) leaves are particularly high in magnesium (626 mg/100 g). Some of the indigenous vegetables contain antinutritional factors. Kepayang has very high levels of hydrogen cyanide (1834 µg/g on dry basis) but this poison can be completely evaporated by boiling. Indigenous fruits and vegetables which are pesticide residue free are important food sources for rural populations. Nutritious indigenous fruits and vegetables have the potential to be promoted for wider use, domestication and commercialization.
  9. Thiruventhiran T, Goh BL, Leong CL, Cheah PL, Looi LM, Tan SY
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 1999 Jan;14(1):214-7.
    PMID: 10052513
    MeSH terms: Adult; Animals; Child; Female; Humans; Insect Bites and Stings/complications*; Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/etiology; Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/pathology; Kidney Tubules/pathology; Liver Diseases/diagnosis; Liver Diseases/etiology; Liver Function Tests; Male; Myoglobin/analysis; Wasps*; Acute Kidney Injury/etiology*; Acute Kidney Injury/pathology
  10. Yuen KH, Peh KK, Billa N
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 1999 Mar;25(3):353-6.
    PMID: 10071829
    The bioavailability of a generic preparation of naltrexone (Narpan) was compared with the innovator product, Trexan. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a completely randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using the parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC0-infinity, peak plasma concentration Cmax, and time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax. No statistically significant difference was observed between the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity and the logarithmically transformed Cmax values of the two preparations. Also, no statistically significant difference was observed between the untransformed Tmax values. In addition, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity values of Narpan over those of Trexan was found to lie between 0.87 and 1.01, while that of the logarithmic transformed Cmax values was between 0.94 and 1.23, both being within the bioequivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. The numerical values of the elimination half-life (t1/2) obtained with the two preparations were also not significantly different and were comparable to those reported in the literature.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Biological Availability; Humans; Male; Naltrexone/administration & dosage*; Naltrexone/blood; Naltrexone/pharmacokinetics*; Narcotic Antagonists/administration & dosage*; Narcotic Antagonists/blood; Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacokinetics*; Drugs, Generic*; Cross-Over Studies; Area Under Curve
  11. Peh KK, Yuen KH, Wong JW, Toh WT
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 1999 Mar;25(3):357-60.
    PMID: 10071830
    A study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of a generic product of atenolol (Normaten FC) with the innovator product, Tenormin. Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study conducted according to a randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC0-infinity, peak plasma concentration Cmax, and time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax. No statistically significant difference was obtained between the Tmax values and the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity and Cmax values of the two products. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmically transformed AUC0-infinity values of Normaten FC over those of Tenormin was found to lie between 0.82 and 0.98, while that of the logarithmically transformed Cmax values was between 0.82 and 1.09, both being within the bioequivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. The values of elimination half-life t1/2 between the two products were also found comparable and not significantly different statistically. The t1/2 values obtained in our study were slightly longer than those reported in the literature for other population groups.
    MeSH terms: Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage*; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/blood; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacokinetics*; Adult; Atenolol/administration & dosage*; Atenolol/blood; Atenolol/pharmacokinetics*; Biological Availability; Humans; Male; Tablets; Cross-Over Studies; Area Under Curve
  12. Yakub MA, Pau KK, Awang Y
    Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 1999 Feb;5(1):36-9.
    PMID: 10074567
    A minimally invasive approach to aortic valve surgery through a transverse incision ("pocket incision") at the right second intercostal space was examined. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 30 years underwent this approach. The third costal cartilage was either excised (n = 5) or dislocated (n = 11). The right internal mammary artery was preserved. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established with aortic-right atrial cannulation in all except the first case. Aortic valve replacements (AVR) were performed in 15 patients and one had aortic valve repair with concomitant ventricular septal defect closure. There was no mortality and no major complications. The aortic cross-clamp, CPB and operative times were 72 +/- 19 mins, 105 +/- 26 mins and 3 hrs 00 min +/- 29 mins respectively. The mean time to extubation was 5.7 +/- 4.0 hrs, ICU stay of 27 +/- 9 hrs and postoperative hospital stay of 5.1 +/- 1.2 days. Minimally invasive "pocket incision" aortic valve surgery is technically feasible and safe. It has the advantages of central cannulation for CPB, preservation of the internal mammary artery and avoiding sternotomy. This approach is cosmetically acceptable and allows rapid patient recovery.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aortic Valve Insufficiency/etiology; Aortic Valve Insufficiency/surgery*; Cardiopulmonary Bypass; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Retrospective Studies; Case-Control Studies; Treatment Outcome; Statistics, Nonparametric; Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods*
  13. Jamal F, Pit S, Facklam R, Beall B
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 1999 Jan-Feb;5(1):182-3.
    PMID: 10081694
    MeSH terms: Antigens, Bacterial*; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins*; Bacterial Proteins/genetics*; Carrier Proteins/genetics*; Humans; Malaysia; Molecular Sequence Data; Streptococcal Infections/microbiology*; Streptococcus pyogenes/classification; Streptococcus pyogenes/genetics*; Streptococcus pyogenes/isolation & purification; Bacterial Typing Techniques; Sequence Analysis, DNA
  14. Chung KM
    Optom Vis Sci, 1999 Feb;76(2):121-6.
    PMID: 10082059
    The clinical significance of fundus magnification produced during direct ophthalmoscopy of the corrected eye has not been fully established. Based on paraxial ray tracing, fundus magnification (M) can be defined by a simple equation, M = (K'/4) x (Fs/K), where K' is the dioptric axial power of the eye, Fs is the correcting thin lens power and K is the ocular ametropia. Refractive myopes produce greater fundus magnification than axial myopes, whereas refractive hyperopes produce lower fundus magnification than axial hyperopes. If we assume 15 x fundus magnification as our standard magnification for an emmetropic reduced eye, then wearing glasses or putting the focusing lens at or close to the anterior focus of the eye is able to achieve the standard magnification for axial myope and axial hyperope, whereas wearing contact lenses is able to achieve the standard magnification for refractive myope and refractive hyperope. Vertex distance has greater influence on fundus magnification produced during direct ophthalmoscopy than other funduscopic techniques. In conclusion, the newly defined formula has clinical applications during direct ophthalmoscopy.
    MeSH terms: Eyeglasses; Fundus Oculi*; Humans; Ophthalmoscopy*; Refraction, Ocular; Refractive Errors/pathology*; Refractive Errors/therapy*; Retina/pathology*
  15. Suleiman AB, Mathews A, Jegasothy R, Ali R, Kandiah N
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1999;77(2):190-3.
    PMID: 10083722
    A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported below and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions.
    PIP: This is a report on the methods, findings, resulting recommendations and actions of a study on maternal mortality in Malaysia during the period 1991-94. Maternal death was defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days following termination of pregnancy from any cause related to the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental causes. Between 1991 and 1994 there were 1066 reported maternal deaths, and the maternal mortality ratios for the successive years were respectively 44, 48, 46 and 39 per 100,000 live births. The primary causes of maternal death were postpartum hemorrhage (24%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (16%), obstetric pulmonary embolism (13%), and associated medical conditions (7%). Analysis of the 375 deaths from 1992 - 1993 showed that the maternal mortality ratio was 53/100,000 live births for deliveries performed at home, 36/100,000 in government hospitals, and 21/100,000 in private institutions. Shortcomings among health personnel were detected in several cases; these involved failure to diagnose, failure to appreciate the severity of a patient's condition, inadequate therapy, and inappropriate, delayed or failed adherence to protocols. The high proportion of maternal mortality associated with substandard care demonstrates that it is important to make the standard of care more widely available. Reports have been circulated to institutions and organizations providing maternal care and to medical schools. Articles and case histories have been published, and many new protocols and procedures have been developed. Furthermore, seminars have been organized and training modules have been distributed to all involved in the provision of maternity care.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Cause of Death; Female; Postpartum Hemorrhage/mortality; House Calls; Humans; Malaysia; Maternal Mortality*; Pre-Eclampsia/mortality; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/mortality; Prenatal Care; Puerperal Infection/mortality; Pulmonary Embolism/mortality; Review
  16. Hamzah AR, Jalaluddin MA, Raman R
    Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol., 1999 Mar;108(3):253-4.
    PMID: 10086617
    A patient with Turner's syndrome presented with a rare anomaly of absent oval window, inferiorly placed facial nerve, and abnormal stapes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this combination of malformations.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Ear, Middle/abnormalities*; Facial Nerve/abnormalities; Female; Humans; Oval Window, Ear/abnormalities; Stapes/abnormalities; Turner Syndrome/complications*
  17. Wong CF, Yuen KH, Peh KK
    Int J Pharm, 1999 Mar 25;180(1):47-57.
    PMID: 10089291
    A method using a texture analyzer equipment and chicken pouch as the biological tissue was investigated for measuring the bioadhesive properties of polymers under simulated buccal conditions. The method was evaluated using two polymers, namely Carbopol 974P and Methocel K4M while the instrument variables studied included the contact force, contact time and speed of withdrawal of the probe from the tissue. The parameters measured were the work of adhesion and peak detachment force. Longer contact time and faster probe speed not only gave better reproducibility of results, but also better sensitivities for both parameters measured. On the other hand, a certain level of contact force was found essential for achieving good bioadhesion, above which there was no further contribution to the bioadhesion process. When the method was applied to determine the bioadhesiveness of several polymers, the values obtained for the work of adhesion and peak detachment force were quite consistent in the ranking of the polymers. The Carbopols were found to have the highest values, followed by gelatin, sodium carboxymethyl celluloses and hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses. On the other hand, Alginic acid, Eudragit RLPO and RSPO, and Chitosan appeared to have low bioadhesive values.
    MeSH terms: Adhesives*; Animals; Biomechanical Phenomena; Chickens; Mucous Membrane/metabolism; Technology, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation*; Reproducibility of Results
  18. Low KS, Lee CK, Koo WH
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 1999 Apr;62(4):428-33.
    PMID: 10094725
    MeSH terms: Acids/isolation & purification; Acids/chemistry; Coloring Agents/isolation & purification; Coloring Agents/chemistry*; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Industrial Waste/analysis; Industry; Arachis*; Seeds; Spectrophotometry/methods; Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis*; Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
  19. Rohani MY, Raudzah A, Ng AJ, Ng PP, Zaidatul AA, Asmah I, et al.
    Epidemiol. Infect., 1999 Feb;122(1):77-82.
    PMID: 10098788
    During a 1-year period from October 1995 to September 1996, 273 isolations of Streptococcus pneumoniae were made from various types of clinical specimens. The majority of the isolates (39.2%) were from sputum whilst 27.5% were from blood, CSF and other body fluids. The organism was isolated from patients of all age groups, 31.1% from children aged 10 years and below, 64.7% of which come from children aged 2 years or below. The majority of the isolates belong to serotypes 1, 6B, 19B, 19F and 23F. Serotypes 1 and 19B were the most common serotypes associated with invasive infection. About 71.9% of the invasive infections were due to serotypes included in the available 23 valent polysaccharide vaccine. The rates of resistance to penicillin and erythromycin were 7.0 and 1.1% respectively. Our findings show that the serotypes of S. pneumoniae causing most invasive infections in Malaysia are similar to those in other parts of the world and the available vaccine may have a useful role in this population.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Bacterial Vaccines; Child; Child, Preschool; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Hospitalization; Humans; Infant; Malaysia/epidemiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Middle Aged; Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology*; Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology*; Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control; Population Surveillance; Serotyping; Streptococcus pneumoniae/classification*; Age Distribution; Pneumococcal Vaccines
  20. Raman R
    PMID: 23119520 DOI: 10.1007/BF02997994
    A mechanical explanation for the hyperacousis that sometimes occurs after stapedectomy or stapedotomy is offered.
External Links