This paper attempts to review epidemiological studies of oral cancer and precancer in Malaysia. The defmitions of prevalence, incidence, risk habits and oral cancer and precancers were discussed to better understand' the different types of studies conducted, which would be important in making comparisons between studies. Currently, epidemiological data on oral cancer in Malaysia are sketchy. The only incidence data for oral cancer in Malaysia was reported by Hirayama in 1966, 35 years ago. He estimated that 3.1 new cases per 100,000 population were diagnosed for the year 1963. A number of histopathological data of oral and maxillofacial biopsies were reported. Oral cancer accounted for one-fifth of all oral biopsies. A national study on oral mucosal lesions in Malaysia carried out in 1993/4 reported that there was a variation seen in the occurrence of oral premalignancy among the ethnic groups. The Indians and the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak were identified as high risk groups for oral cancer and precancer. It was also observed that both of the ethnic groups chewed betel quid. In conclusion, the epidemiological studies have provided useful data, which may be used in planning for future oral health programmes and research towards enhancing Malaysia's on-going effort in preventing the occurrence of these diseases.
Until today there are still a high percentage of oral microorganisms have not been identified due to inability to isolate using the cultural method. However, identification of uncultivable microorganisms associated with disease will permits clinicians for a more accurate diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures. Unculturable microorganisms are also involved in disease and may account for treatment failure since their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents would be unknown. Thus, the opportunity for a rational approach to the treatment of disease relies on the state of knowledge concerning its aetiology and pathogenesis. Recently developed molecular methods have made it possible to characterise mixed microflora in their entirety, including the substantial numbers of unculturable bacteria. The development of rapid molecular methods like PCR provides a reliable identification of unculturable microorganisms. This paper will review the current literature regarding the PCR techniques used to identify uncultivable oral microflora.
The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of C02 laser in relieving symptoms associated with Oral lichen planus (aLP) and lichenoid lesions (aLL) and the event of healing. Six patients were selected for this study with 13 sites treated. Each lesion was ablated with C02 laser and the wound allowed to heal undisturbed. Prior to treatment, 4 patients had both unprovoked and provoked pain and 2 patients rated for provoked pain only. After laser ablation, five out of six patients treated recorded no pain / 0 pain score. One month post-laser, the treated area was almost the same colour as the surrounding normal mucosa and soft in texture in all but one patient in which there was some fibrosis and residual plaque-like patch. Weconclude that the use of C02 laser in the treatment of aLP and aLL shows positive results in relieving symptoms associated with these lesions.
This is a preliminary survey on cast partial denture designs in the commercial dental laboratories. This survey was carried out for a month in three commercial dental laboratories in Klang Valley and Shah Alam which produce metal dentures in cobalt-chromium. One hundred and ten questionnaires with the designs were collected and analysed. The framework design on the cast was transferred into the design sheet section of the questionnaire. The aim was to investigate communication regarding denture design between clinicians and dental technician and the dentists' dependency on the technician. The design of cobalt-chromium partial dentures in relation to oral health was also assessed. The results indicated that 43.6% of the dentist who used the three laboratories delegated their removable partial design work to the dental technician. More than half of the dentists had some communication with the technicians, and only 18.2 % of the dentists prescribed clear instructions with details of components regarding denture design. Continuing dental education on partial denture design for both clinicians and dental technicians would be of value to provide reinforcement in the knowledge of the basic concept on denture designing. Communication and understanding between both parties would probably improve the quality of cobalt-chromium dentures constructed.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome using fixed and removable appliances, in the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya (U.M.). The study models of 25 fixed and 30 upper removable appliance cases, with complete written records were examined before and after orthodontic treatment using the PAR (Peer Assessment Rating) Index. All the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows. Eighty five percent of the cases selected as sample were either 'improved' or 'greatly improved'. Among the 10 cases which were 'greatly improved', all had high pre-treatment PAR points (> 35 PAR points). Conversely, all the eight cases classified as 'worse or no different' were with low pretreatment PAR scores « 20 PAR points). The mean treatment duration in this study was 23. I months, ranging from 2 months to 78 months. The results of this study showed that the standard of treatment in this Faculty were fairly acceptable.
Several national studies have been undertaken to assess the prevalence of fluorosis utilizing the Dean's Index. However, the latest national study undertaken in 1997 (1) had utilized the DDE Index and hence does not allow comparisons to be made with the earlier set of national data. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis using the Dean's Index in a sample of 12-13 year-old schoolchildren and to assess the relationship between fluorosis and their caries status. The sampling procedure involved a multistage, clustered and stratified random sampling. The sample comprised of 1519 schoolchildren attending 20 secondary government and governmentaided schools in fluoridated urban and rural areas of Klang District in Peninsular Malaysia. There were 772 males and 747 females. Each subject was administered a questionnaire to elicit the demographic information. Intra-oral examination for dental fluorosis and caries was performed for each subject. The results demonstrated that more than half of the subjects (54 %) had no fluorosis, 13.2% had questionable fluorosis, 31.3% had very mild to mild fluorosis, 1.4% had moderate fluorosis and only 0.1 % exhibited severe fluorosis. The mouth prevalence was 32.8 %. The Community Fluorosis Index was 0.48 indicating a borderline score for public health significance. Fifty-two percent of the children were caries free. The mean DMFT for all subjects was 1.1, F(0.6) being the main component. Although girls had a higher mean DMFT score as compared to boys this difference was not significant. Significant differences in DMFT scores were observed by urbani rural distributions and ethnic groups (p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between fluorosis and caries status. It is concluded that dental fluorosis does not appear to be a public health problem. Further coordinated in-depth research using similar criterias for assessing dental fluorosis is highly recommended.
This pilot survey was conducted to determine the main reason and the motivating factors which, influence patients in seeking orthodontic treatment. 115 patients aged 11-30 years old were taken from the orthodontic waiting list at the Dental Faculty, University Malaya dated December 1999 - May 2000. A structured questionnaire was designed and the survey of patients was carried out using the telephone. The desire to have a better dental appearance was the main reason (65 %) given by patients who were seeking orthodontic treatment. The most important motivating factor that influences patients in seeking orthodontic treatment was to attain straight teeth (48 %). In conclusion, patients seek orthodontic treatment mainly due to psychological reason, which is to improve dental appearance and aesthetic. Perceived needs of an orthodontic patient should also be taken into consideration before commencing orthodontic treatment to increase chances of mutually satisfying result for both the orthoqontist and patient.
MeSH terms: Esthetics; Faculty, Dental; Humans; Malaysia; Motivation; Personal Satisfaction; Surveys and Questionnaires; Telephone; Universities; Waiting Lists
CWorhexidine gluconate, a dicationic bisbiguanide agent, contains anti-plaque properties. Most chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinses presently available contain alcohol in varying concentrations. The role of alcohol in these mouth rinses is to act as a preservative and solvent although it may have deleterious effects on the oral epithelium on long term usage. Recently, an alcohol-free 0.12 % w/v chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse (Oradex®) has become available in Malaysia. This clinical study is aimed at determining the effects of this alcohol-free product compared to a placebo. A group of 60 meticulously screened subjects were assigned into two groups of 30 each. The first group started using the test product for 2 weeks followed by a washout period of 4 weeks. After this duration, this group used the placebo for a further 2 weeks. The 2nd group underwent similar protocol as the 1st except that this group started with the placebo. Measurements consisting of the following scores were recorded at baseline and after 2 weeks for each group: Plaque, Gingivitis: Papillary Bleeding, Stain and Calculus. Full mouth prophylaxis was carried out for all subjects after measurements at baseline as well as after the 2-week period. They were told to rinse with 15 ml of the designated mouth rinse twice daily for thirty seconds each after tooth brushing. The results of this study indicated that there was significant improvement in the plaque, gingival and papilla bleeding scores compared to the placebo. Stain and calculus scores were significantly increased for the test product when compared to the placebo. In conclusion, this study showed that alcohol-free 0.12 % w/v chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinse is effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis but causes staining and calculus formation.
MeSH terms: China/ethnology; Drug Industry/economics; Drug Industry/education; Drug Industry/history; Drug Industry/legislation & jurisprudence; Income/history; Indonesia/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Local Government; Politics*; Public Health/economics; Public Health/education; Public Health/history; Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence; Social Class; Social Problems/economics; Social Problems/ethnology; Social Problems/history; Social Problems/legislation & jurisprudence; Social Problems/psychology; Socioeconomic Factors*; Street Drugs/economics; Street Drugs/history; Crops, Agricultural/economics; Crops, Agricultural/history; Substance-Related Disorders/economics; Substance-Related Disorders/ethnology; Substance-Related Disorders/history; Substance-Related Disorders/psychology; History, 19th Century; History, 20th Century
MeSH terms: Humans; Japan/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Prejudice; Rape/legislation & jurisprudence; Rape/psychology; Sexual Behavior/ethnology; Sexual Behavior/history; Sexual Behavior/physiology; Sexual Behavior/psychology; War Crimes/economics; War Crimes/ethnology; War Crimes/history; War Crimes/legislation & jurisprudence; War Crimes/psychology; World War II; History, 20th Century
To identify gender difference in safe and unsafe practice of pesticide handling in tobacco farmers of Malaysia, we conducted a 20-item questionnaire interview on storage of pesticide (4 questions), mixing of pesticide (3 questions), use of personal protective equipment and clothing while spraying pesticide (7 questions), activities during and after spraying of pesticide (5 questions), and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (1 question) in 496 tobacco farmers (395 males and 101 females) in Bachok District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Duration of employment was significantly longer in females than those in males (p<0.001). In addition, proportion with no formal education in females was significantly higher than those in males (p<0.05). The following eight common factors were extracted from the 20 questionnaires by principal components factor analysis after varimax rotation in all farmers: (1) use of personal protective equipment, (2) unsafe work habit, (3) reading and following instructions on pesticide label, (4) security, storage and disposal of pesticide container, (5) safe work habit, (6) proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer, (7) use of personal protective clothing, and (8) safe handling of pesticide. Results of analysis of covariance for the eight factor scores of all male and female farmers, controlling for educational level and duration of employment, showed that: (1) factor scores for use of personal protective equipment (p<0.001), use of personal protective clothing (p<0.001) and safe work habit (p<0.001) in females were significantly lower than those in males; (2) conversely, factor scores for reading and following instruction on pesticide label (p<0.001) and proper handling of pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer (p<0.01) in males were significantly lower than those in females; and (3) there were no significant differences in other three factor scores (p>0.05). We therefore conclude that: (1) for female tobacco farmers, choice of personal attire tend to result in lower scores on use of personal protective equipment and personal protective clothing while personal hygiene practices result in lower score on safe work habit; and, (2) for male tobacco farmers, the lower scores on reading and following instruction on pesticide label and mixing pesticide and maintenance of pesticide sprayer in good condition suggests that they were not primarily involved in these activities. It is postulated that these differences in safe and unsafe practices of pesticide handling across gender is related to the choice of personal attire, personal hygiene practices and division of labour within farming households which in turn is influenced by prevailing sociocultural norms in the community.
Osteoporosis is recognised as a public health problem the world over. There is increasing awareness about this problem in Malaysia and this is particularly important, as our population gets older. This brief review aims to highlight the important aspects of history taking as well as the investigative approach to the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The modalities of bone mineral density measurements particularly with regards to the diagnosis and the monitoring of the disease are also discussed.
ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticography) was introduced in this hospital in late 1995. Since then, a lot of improvement have been achieved in the management of biliary tract diseases. Various general surgeons posted to this hospital have been trained in this procedure. A study was done to include all patients admitted for ERCP from August 1998 to July 1999. A total of 322 new patients with a mean of 26.9 cases a month had underwent this procedure. The duration of cannulation varied from 2 minutes to 45 minutes with a mean of 12 minutes. Cannulation rate by various surgeons differed. Overall success rate was 80%. Mortality was 0.6 % and morbidity was 0.9%. ERCP is safe and it takes at least 6 months of regular duodenoscopy before one can master the technique. Achieving 80% cannulation rate, has definitely reduced unnecessary common bile duct (CBD) explorations. During this study we have trained various surgeons in this procedure and at least 2 surgeons could be credentialled according to the guidelines provided by the Malaysian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. During this study we have identified various reasons for the failure of cannulation which are useful for future training of endoscopists.
MeSH terms: Biliary Tract Diseases; Catheterization; Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde; Common Bile Duct; Duodenoscopy; Gastroenterology; Humans; Surgeons
Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinoma is generally more common in the antrum/body and is of the intestinal type. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of gastric carcinoma in an area known to have a low prevalence of H. pylori. Pathology records of gastric carcinoma diagnosed at Hospital University Sains Malaysia between 1995 and 1999 were retrieved and studied. There were a total of 23 cases. The median age was 60 years. Eighteen patients were Malay and 5 were Chinese. The most common location of the tumour was the cardia/gastrooesophageal junction (61%, 14/23 patients). The majority was of the intestinal type (69.6%, 16/23). The frequency of gastric carcinoma appears to be exceptionally low in the area of study. The Chinese population was over-represented. The higher frequency of tumour in the cardia/gastro-oesophageal junction as compared to the antrum and body is in sharp contrast to most other studies. This reaffirms the notion that Helicobacter pylori infection is a causative agent for non-cardia gastric carcinomas.
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the AIDS population has a variable chest radiographic presentation. The association between the chest radiographic presentation of pulmonary TB and CD4 T-lymphocyte count in the HIV-infected patient was investigated in order to provide an empirical approach for early diagnosis, treatment, and isolation of these patients. A retrospective analysis of chest radiographs, CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, and clinical history of 80 patients from Hospital Kota Bharu, was performed. All patients were HIV-seropositive and had culture and /or cytology-proven pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographs were evaluated for the presence of atypical or typical patterns of pulmonary TB. Thirteen (16.2%) patients had typical postprimary pattern, where opacities were distributed at the upper zones, with or without cavitation. Sixty-seven (83.8%) patients had atypical patterns, consisting of normal chest radiograph, middle and/or lower zones parenchymal opacities, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion and miliary TB. Of these, 18 (22.5%) patients demonstrated normal chest radiographs, 36 (45%) patients showed parenchymal opacities at the middle and/or lower zones of the lungs, 30 (37.5%) had mediastinal lymphadenopathy, 18 (22.5%) revealed pleural effusion and 6 (7.5%) presented with miliary TB. Sixty-two (77.5%) patients had CD4 T-lymphocytes count less than 200 cells/ul. Of these patients, only 1 (1.6%) had typical pattern. Eighteen (22.5%) patients had CD4 T-lymphocyte count more than 200 cells/ul, where 12 (66.7%) of them showed typical pattern. Patients with CD4 T-lymphocytes count of less than 200 cells/ul, were more likely to produce normal chest radiographs, middle and /or lower zones parenchymal opacities and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The mean CD4 T-lymphocytes count were also found significantly lower. AIDS patients with pulmonary TB can present with both typical and atypical chest radiograph patterns. An AIDS patient who had CD4 T-lymphocytes count less than 200 cells/ul were more likely to present with atypical radiographic appearance of pulmonary TB. They required appropriate treatment and isolation until the diagnosis of pulmonary TB was confirmed.
Milk is a physiological fluid which has high nutritional value and soybean has strong antioxidant characteristics which is believed to inhibit carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of administration of soybean and goat's milk on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats (fed with diethylnitrosamine; DEN and acetylaminofluorene; AAF) by determining the activities of plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Thirty-six rats from the species Sprague-Dawley were divided into 6 groups : control, DEN/AAF, soybean, DEN/AAF with soybean treatment, goat's milk and DEN/AAF with goat's milk treatment. Soybean and goat's milk administrations were given 5 ml/day. The rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks and the blood was collected. Treatment with DEN/AAF caused an increase in ALP and GGT levels and a decrease in weight significantly (p<0.05). ALP and GGT activities decreased significantly after administration of soybean and goat's milk (p<0.05). Administration of goat's milk and soybean alone did not cause any changes in the enzyme activities. Comparison between the effect of soybean and goat's milk in reducing the enzyme activities (ALP and GGT) did not give significant values (p>0.05). However, a decrease in weight was observed in the rats given soybean as well as goat's milk. The results obtained suggested that soybean and goat's milk may work as anti cancer agents in hepatocarcinogenesis although further studies are required to further elucidate this aspect.
Twenty-eight isolates of E. faecalis and 5 isolates of E. hirae were isolated from chicken samples obtained from markets in Sri Serdang, Selangor. They were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. All of the isolates showed multiple resistance to the antibiotic tested. All Enterococcus spp. were resistant (100%) to ceftaxidime, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin. Resistance was also observed to norfloxacin (97%), tetracycline (91%), penicillin (85%), bacitracin (82%), chloramphenicol (61%) and the least resistance was to ampicillin (27%). High prevalence to vancomycin resistance was detected among the E. faecalis (27of 28) and E. hirae (4 of 5) isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance index ranging between 0.64 to 1.0 showed that all strains tested originated from high-risk contamination. Plasmid profile analysis of Enterococcus spp. revealed plasmid DNA bands ranging in size from 1.3 to 35.8 megadalton but some isolates were plasmidless. No correlation could be made between plasmid patterns and antibiotic resistance.
Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumour of childhood. This is a case report of a one-year-old boy who presented with a one-month history of progressive abdominal distension and weight loss. He was cachexic, anaemic, had gross hepatomegaly and ascites. He had been born prematurely with a birth weight of 1.23 kg, and his developmental milestones were delayed. Ultrasound and CT scan demonstrated a large solid tumour in the left lobe of the liver with a smaller superficial nodule in the right lobe. Serum alpha fetoprotein was significantly raised. A left lobe hepatectomy and complete excision of the right sided nodule was performed. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. Histopathological examination confirmed hepatoblastoma of the fetal type. The patient developed features of intestinal obstruction a few days after surgery and he succumbed ten days after re-laparotomy. The clinical presentation and investigation results in this case are characteristic. Recent reports have suggested a strong relationship between very low birth weight (< 1500gm)/prematurity and hepatoblastoma as is present in this case. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy in hepatoblastoma. A brief review of the literature on this tumour is presented.