Whitefly-transmitted, cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) have been detected on cucurbit crops in Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. Pumpkin plants showing leaf curling, blistering, and yellowing symptoms were observed in the AVRDC fields (Tainan, Taiwan) during 2001 and in nearby farmers' fields during 2005. Two samples from symptomatic plants were collected in 2001 and six collected in 2005. Viral DNAs were extracted (2), and the PCR, with previously described primers, was used to detect the presence of begomoviral DNA-A (4), DNA-B (3), and associated satellite DNA (1). Begomoviral DNA-A was detected in one of the 2001 samples and in all 2005 samples. The PCR-amplified 1.5 kb viral DNA-A from one positive sample each from the 2001 and 2005 collections was cloned and sequenced. On the basis of the 1.5-kb DNA-A sequences, specific primers were designed to completely sequence the DNA-A component. The overlap between fragments obtained using primer walking ranged from 43 to 119 bp with 100% nt identities. The complete DNA-A sequences were determined for the two isolates as 2,734 bp (2001) (GenBank Accession No. DQ866135) and 2,733 bp (2005) (GenBank Accession No. EF199774). Sequence comparisons and analyses were performed using the DNAMAN Sequence Analysis Software (Lynnon Corporation, Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada). The DNA-A of the begomovirus isolates each contained the conserved nanosequence-TAATATTAC and six open reading frames, including two in the virus sense and four in the complementary sense. On the basis of a 99% shared nucleotide sequence identity, they are considered isolates of the same species. BLASTn analysis and a comparison of the sequence with others available in the GenBank database ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) indicated that the Taiwan virus shared its highest nt identity (more than 95%) with the Squash leaf curl Philippines virus (GenBank Accession No. AB085793). Virus-associated satellite DNA was not found in any of the samples. DNA-B was found in both samples, providing further evidence that the virus was the same as the bipartite Squash leaf curl Philippines virus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Squash leaf curl Philippines virus in Taiwan. References: (1) R. W. Briddon et al. Virology 312:106, 2003. (2) R. L. Gilbertson et al. J. Gen. Virol. 72:2843, 1991. (3) S. K. Green et al. Plant Dis. 85:1286, 2001. (4) M. R. Rojas et al. Plant Dis. 77:340, 1993.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.; family Anacardiaceae) is one of the world's most important fruit crops and is widely grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Since 2001, a leaf spot disease was found in mango orchards of Taiwan. Now, the disease was observed throughout (approximately 21,000 ha) Taiwan in moderate to severe form, thus affecting the general health of mango trees and orchards. Initial symptoms were small, yellow-to-brown spots on leaves. Later, the irregularly shaped spots, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in diameter, turned white to gray and coalesced to form larger gray patches. Lesions had slightly raised dark margins. On mature lesions, numerous black acervuli, measuring 290 to 328 μm in diameter, developed on the gray necrotic areas. Single conidial isolates of the fungus were identified morphologically as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae (Henn.) Steyaert (2,3) and were consistently isolated from the diseased mango leaves on acidified (0.06% lactic acid) potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium incubated at 25 ± 1°C. Initially, the fungus grew (3 mm per day) on PDA as a white, chalky colony that subsequently turned gray after 2 weeks. Acervuli developed in culture after continuous exposure to light for 9 to 12 days at 20 to 30°C. Abundant conidia oozed from the acervulus as a creamy mass. The conidia (17.6 to 25.4 μm long and 4.8 to 7.1 μm wide) were fusiform and usually straight to slightly curved with four septa. Three median cells were olivaceous and larger than the hyaline apical and basal cells. The apical cells bore three (rarely four) cylindrical appendages. Pathogenicity tests were conducted with either 3-day-old mycelial discs or conidial suspension (105 conidia per ml) obtained from 8- to 10-day-old cultures. Four leaves on each of 10 trees were inoculated. Before inoculation, the leaves were washed with a mild detergent, rinsed with tap water, and then surface sterilized with 70% ethanol. Leaves were wounded with a needle and exposed to either a 5-mm mycelial disc or 0.2 ml of the spore suspension. The inoculated areas were wrapped with cotton pads saturated with sterile water and the leaves were covered with polyethylene bags for 3 days to maintain high relative humidity. Wounded leaves inoculated with PDA discs alone served as controls. The symptoms described above were observed on all inoculated leaves, whereas uninoculated leaves remained completely free from symptoms. Reisolation from the inoculated leaves consistently yielded P. mangiferae, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. Gray leaf spot is a common disease of mangos in the tropics and is widely distributed in Africa and Asia (1-3); however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of gray leaf spot disease affecting mango in Taiwan. References: (1) T. K. Lim and K. C. Khoo. Diseases and Disorders of Mango in Malaysia. Tropical Press. Malaysia, 1985. (2) J. E. M. Mordue. No. 676 in: CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Surrey, England, 1980. (3) R. C. Ploetz et al. Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994.
A stem canker disease on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae) was found in plants in Hawaii and Puerto Rico. A fungus associated with cankers was identified as Dolabra nepheliae C. Booth & Ting (1). Numerous black, stipitate, elongate ascomata were produced within cracks of cankers. These ascomata contain elongate, bitunicate asci amid unbranched, interthecial elements and thin, cylindrical, hyaline ascospores measuring 96 to 136 × 2.5 to 3.5 μm. This fungus was originally described from Malaysia on N. lappaceum (1) and is also known on pulasan (N. mutabile Blume) in Australia (2). Classified by the Food and Agriculture Organization as a 'minor disease', the canker appears to be relatively common in Hawaii and was most likely introduced into Puerto Rico on imported germplasm. Nevertheless, efforts are underway to study the potential damage of this disease as well as mechanisms of control, including introduction of disease resistant clones. Specimens have been deposited at the U.S. National Fungus Collections (Hawaii on Nephelium BPI 878189, Puerto Rico (PR) on Nephelium BPI 878188, and PR on Litchi BPI 878190). Although a specimen of D. nepheliae on L. chinensis was collected from Hawaii in 1984 by G. Wong and C. Hodges and deposited as BPI 626373, this fungus was not known on Nephelium spp. in Hawaii and was not previously known from Puerto Rico on either host. References: (1) C. Booth and W. P. Ting. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 47:235, 1964. (2) T. K. Lim and Y. Diczbalis. Rambutan. Page 306 in: The New Rural Industries. Online publication. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Australia, 1997.
Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa, is an annual that is grown primarily for its inflated calyx, which is used for drinks and jellies. It is native from India to Malaysia, but was taken at an early date to Africa and is now widely grown in the tropics and subtropics (2). In late 2005, dying plants were noted by a producer in South Florida. Plants wilted, became chlorotic, and developed generally unthrifty, sparse canopies. Internally, conspicuous vascular discoloration was evident in these plants from the roots into the canopy. After 5 days on one-half-strength potato dextrose agar (PDA), salmon-colored fungal colonies grew almost exclusively from surface-disinfested 5 mm2 pieces of vascular tissue. On banana leaf agar, single-spored strains produced the following microscopic characters of Fusarium oxysporum: copious microconidia on monophialides, infrequent falcate macroconidia, and terminal and intercalary chlamydospores. Partial, elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α) sequences were generated for two of the strains, O-2424 and O-2425, and compared with previously reported sequences for the gene (3). Maximum parsimony analysis of sequences showed that both strains fell in a large, previously described clade of the F. oxysporum complex (FOC) that contained strains from agricultural hosts, as well as human clinical specimens (2; clade 3 in Fig. 4); many of the strains in this clade have identical EF1-α sequences. Strains of F. oxysporum recovered from wilted roselle in Egypt, O-647 and O-648 in the Fusarium Research Center collection, were distantly related to the Florida strains. We are not aware of other strains of F. oxysporum from roselle in other international culture collections. Roselle seedlings were inoculated with O-2424 and O-2425 by placing a mycelial plug (5 mm2, PDA) over a small incision 5 cm above the soil line and then covering the site with Parafilm. Parafilm was removed after 1 week, and plants were incubated under ambient temperatures (20 to 32°C) in full sun for an additional 5 weeks (experiment 1) or 7 weeks (experiment 2). Compared with mock-inoculated (wound + Parafilm) control plants, both O-2424 and O-2425 caused significant (P < 0.05) vascular disease (linear extension of discolored xylem above and below wound site) and wilting (subjective 1 to 5 scale); both isolates were recovered from affected plants. F. oxysporum-induced wilt of roselle has been reported in Nigeria (1) and Malaysia (4) where the subspecific epithet f. sp. rosellae was used for the pathogen. We are not aware of reports of this disease elsewhere. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum-induced wilt of roselle in the United States. Research to determine whether the closely related strains in clade 3 of the FOC are generalist plant pathogens (i.e., not formae speciales) is warranted. References: (1) N. A. Amusa et al. Plant Pathol. J. 4:122, 2005. (2) J. Morton. Pages 81-286 in: Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resource Systems, Inc., Winterville, NC, 1987. (3) K. O'Donnell et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:5109, 2004. (4) K. H. Ooi and B. Salleh. Biotropia 12:31, 1999.
Foreword. M K Rajakumar
Introduction: The transformation of health care in Malaysia. p1. CHEE HENG LENG AND SIMON BARRACLOUGH
PART I: The state and the private sector in the financing and provision of health care. p17
1 The growth of corporate health care in Malaysia. p19. CHEE HENG LENG AND SIMON BARRACLOUGH
2 Regulating Malaysia’s private health care sector. p40. NIK ROSNAH WAN ABDULLAH
3 Rising health care costs: the contradictory responses of the Malaysian state. p59. PHUA KAI LIT
4 Malaysian health policy in comparative perspective. p72. M. RAMESH
5 The welfarist state under duress: global influences and local contingencies in Malaysia. p85. CHAN CHEE KHOON
6 Equity in Malaysian health care: an analysis of public health expenditures and health care facilities. p102. WEE CHONG HUI AND JOMO K.S.
PART II: People’s access to health care. p117
7 Health care for the Orang Asli: consequences of paternalism and non-recognition. p119. COLIN NICHOLAS AND ADELA BAER
8 Women’s access to health care services in Malaysia. p137. CHEE HENG LENG AND WONG YUT LIN
9 HIV/AIDS health care policy and practice in Malaysia. p154. HUANG MARY S.L. AND MOHD NASIR MOHD TAIB
10 Health care and long-term care issues for the elderly. p170. ONG FON SIM
11 Health care in Sarawak: model of a public system. p187. KHOO KHAY JIN
Epilogue: Civil society and health care policy in Malaysia. p208. CHEE HENG LENG AND SIMON BARRACLOUGH
MeSH terms: Aged; Delivery of Health Care; Economics; Health Expenditures; Health Policy; Health Services Accessibility; Malaysia; Rural Health; HIV Infections; Review; Health Care Costs; Private Sector; Public Sector; Healthcare Financing
Evaluation of: Jada SR, Lim R, Wong CI et al.: Role ofUGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Cancer Sci. 98(9), 1461-1467 (2007). The pharmacokinetics and toxicity of irinotecan vary widely among patients. This review focuses primarily on a study of the role of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28, and ABCG2 421C>A in three Asian cancer patient populations treated with a 3-weekly regimen of irinotecan. In that study, a statistically significantly higher level of SN-38 and a relatively lower degree of glucuronidation occurred in patients with the UGT1A1*6 homozygote genotype than in patients with the reference genotype. The UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an increased risk of severe neutropenia. In addition, the study of gene allele frequencies in three healthy Asian populations indicated that the allelic frequency of UGT1A1*6 was higher in the healthy Chinese subjects than in the Malaysian or Indian subjects. UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 421C>A were not associated with the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 or the severity of neutropenia. In this evaluation, we put this study into the context of similar studies of irinogenetics (irinotecan pharmacogenetics) in Asians and discuss the application of UGT1A1 testing in Asian cancer patients treated with irinotecan-containing regimens.
During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large children's hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity.
MeSH terms: Adolescent; Animals; Cercopithecus aethiops; Child; Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology*; Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/transmission; Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/virology*; Humans; Phylogeny; Vero Cells; Vietnam/epidemiology; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods; Enterovirus A, Human/genetics; Enterovirus A, Human/isolation & purification; Capsid Proteins/genetics; Cell Line, Tumor
The fabrication of an optical biosensor by using stacked films where 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) was immobilized in a hybrid nafion/sol-gelsilicate film and laccase in a chitosan film for the detection of phenolic compounds wasdescribed. Quinone and/or phenoxy radical product from the enzymatic oxidation ofphenolic compounds was allowed to couple with MBTH to form a colored azo-dye productfor spectrophometric detection. The biosensor demonstrated a linear response to catecholconcentration range of 0.5-8.0 mM with detection limit of 0.33 mM and response time of10 min. The reproducibility of the fabricated biosensor was good with RSD value of 5.3 %(n = 8) and stable for at least 2 months. The use of the hybrid materials of nafion/sol-gelsilicate to immobilize laccase has altered the selectivity of the enzyme to various phenoliccompounds such as catechol, guaicol, o-cresol and m-cresol when compared to the non-immobilized enzyme. When immobilized in this hybrid film, the biosensor response onlyto catechol and not other phenolic compounds investigated. Immobilization in this hybridmaterial has enable the biosensor to be more selective to catechol compared with the non-immobilized enzyme. This shows that by a careful selection of different immobilizationmatrices, the selectivity of an enzyme can be modified to yield a biosensor with goodselectivity towards certain targeted analytes.
An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.
Abductor pollicis longus (APL) muscle is known to exhibit different variations with respect to its attachments. Various studies have reported the splitting of the APL muscle. Comparative anatomical findings of split insertion of APL is commonly found in chimpanzees, gorillas and gibbons. In the present study, we describe an anomalous APL muscle, which originated from the posterior surface of the shaft of the radius and ulna and traversed a course deep to the extensor retinaculum. Interestingly, immediately after emerging form the deeper aspect of extensor retinaculum, the thin tendon of the APL muscle continued again as a muscular belly in relation to the dorsolateral part of the 1st metacarpal bone, to end as a tendon with its attachment to the base of the proximal phalanx. Such an unusual variation of APL with its attachment into proximal phalanx is a rare finding and may be of importance in altering the mechanics of the thumb during abduction. The clinical significance of such an anatomical variation of APL may be important during reconstructive surgeries involving thumb and also of academic interest.
Over two hundred bacteria were isolated from the halosphere, rhizosphere and endophyte of Malaysian maize plantation and screened for phytases activity. Thirty isolates with high detectable phytase activity were chosen for media optimization study and species identification. Ten types of bacterial phytase producers have been discovered in this study, which provides opportunity for characterization of new phytase(s) and various commercial and environmental applications. The majority of the bacterial isolates with high detectable phytase activity were of endophyte origin and 1.6% of the total isolates showed phytase activity of more than 1 U/ml. Most of the strains produced extra-cellular phytase and Staphylococcus lentus ASUIA 279 showed the highest phytase activity of 1.913 U/ml. All 30 species used in media optimization study exhibit favorable enzyme production when 1% rice bran was included in the growth media.
Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL) was prepared using a strain of Geotrichum candidum isolated from local soil. At the time of maximum lipase activity (54 h), the mycelia to which the lipase was bound were harvested by filtration and centrifugation. Dry MBL was prepared by lyophilizing the mycelia obtained. The yield of MBL was 3.66 g/l with a protein content of 44.11 mg/g. The lipase activity and specific lipase activity were 22.59 and 510 U/g protein, respectively. The moisture content of the MBL was 3.85%. The activity of free (extracellular) lipase in the culture supernatant (after removal of mycelia) was less than 0.2 U/ml. The MBL showed selectivity for oleic acid over palmitic acid during hydrolysis of palm olein, indicating that the lipase from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acid containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.
The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids (TFA) contents of samples of five Malaysian cream crackers biscuit brands were determined by gas-liquid chromatography, using a 60 m Supelco SP2340 fused silica capillary column and flame ionization detection. The identities of the fatty acids were established by comparing their retention times with authentic standards from Supelco. The results were expressed as relative percentages. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the samples ranged from 48.90% to 54.87% of total fatty acids. As for the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the total PUFA in the samples ranged from 9.97% to 11.73% of total fatty acids. Total trans fatty acids (TFA) ranged from 0.17% to 0.77% of total fatty acids. The monotrans 18:2 tc or 18:2 ct isomer content ranged from 0.07% to 0.10% of total fatty acids and the ditrans 18:2 isomer (9t, 12t) was not detected. The results indicate that all the fat sources of the 5 sample crackers biscuit brands were palm oil based.
Salmonella enterica is one of the major causes of bacterial foodborne infection. The aims of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance and the genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica isolated from street foods and clinical samples and to understand the correlation between the prevalence of serovars and genotypes with their source (street food and clinical samples) and geographic origin (Negeri Sembilan, Malacca and Selangor in Peninsular Malaysia). The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR analysis distinguished the Salmonella isolates into 19 ERIC types, with one untypable isolate. Dendrograms were specifically constructed for the S. Biafra and S. Typhi isolates. Identical or very similar ERIC types among the S. Biafra isolates from street food samples indicate transmission of the S. Biafra among the street foods, as well as possible cross-contamination of the street foods. In addition, the identical or very similar ERIC types among the S. Typhi isolates from human samples examined suggest possible similarity in their source of infection. All the twenty four isolates were resistant to rifampin and none were resistant to cefuroxime. Most isolates displayed multiple resistances. Dendrogram of antibiotic resistances produced six clusters, with similarity levels between 18.8% and 100%. Generally, street food and clinical isolates tend to cluster apart. Dendrogram to cluster the antibiotic groups showed that they could be grouped according to classes based on mode of inhibition. The findings suggest that street food contaminated with drug-resistant Salmonella enterica can be an important factor in the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica.
Processed meat products, such as burgers, sausages, meatballs, salami and nuggets are currently popular with urban consumers. However, in general, they are high in cholesterol, total lipid and saturated fatty acids. Four beef burger formulations were prepared, each containing 15% fat from either beef fat (control), palm fat (PF), red PF or a blend of PF and red PF at a ratio of 1:1 at 15% fat. A rat assay was carried out to determine lipid profile, apparent digestibility (AD) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of rats fed with beef burger diets containing palm based fats. Treatment with PF and red PF beef burger diets did not affect the total cholesterol concentration but resulted in higher HDL-cholesterol concentration in their blood serum. The rats fed with dried burger diets containing PF and red PF had higher AD value (90.0% and 89.3%, respectively) and was not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to the group fed with dried burger containing beef fat (90.7) over the 10 days experimental diet period. PER values of all treatments except for casein were not significantly different (P < 0.05). There was also no difference (P < 0.05) in food intake and body weight gain between all rats fed with dried burger containing different types of palm based fats. In summary, the utilization of PF and red PF in beef burger increased the HDLcholesterol and had no effect on the concentration of total cholesterol in rat blood serum. Addition of palm based fats into beef burgers did not change AD and PER.
This study investigated the protein quality of two sets of Roselle seeds processed differently (dried and boiled). Twenty weanling Sprague Dawley rats were used to conduct the growth and nitrogen balance studies. Rats were fed with 10% (w/w) protein from dried (DS) and boiled (BS) Roselle seeds powder for 4 weeks. Casein was used in this study as a standard reference protein. There was a significantly higher (p < 0.05) food intake and weight gain by rats fed with BS compared with DS. In the growth study, there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) of BS compared to DS, but it was significantly different with casein (CD). PER value of rats fed with DS was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than casein. In the nitrogen balance study, true nitrogen absorption (TNA) and nitrogen balance (NB) of BS group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than DS group. However, apparent digestibility (AD), true digestibility (TD) and biological value (BV) for both diets was not significantly different. This study showed that the protein quality of dried Roselle seeds was similar to the Roselle seeds boiled at 100oC for 30 minutes.
The objective of this project was to determine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of bread supplemented with four different levels (control, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of pumpkin flour. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat, fibre and ash) attributes were determined in the raw pumpkin, pumpkin flour (PF), control and supplemented breads. Sensory attributes were conducted on the control and supplemented breads. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 15% pumpkin flour significantly (p
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to assay for the detection of specific genes in the genomes of the Aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental and shellfish sources, particularly aero and hlyA genes, responsible for aerolysin and hemolysin toxins production in this genus. The results showed that: (i) the 1500 bp amplicon of the hlyA gene was detected in 20/38 of the Aeromonas hydrophila, 13/38 of the A. caviae and 6/9 of the A. veronii biovar sobria isolates; (ii) the 690 bp amplicon of the aero gene was detected in 20/38 of A. hydrophila, 17/38 of A. caviae and 6/9 of A. veronii biovar sobria isolates; (iii) the nucleotide blast results of aerolysin gene sequences of the representative strains of A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. veronii biovar sobria revealed a high homology of 94%, 95% and 95% with published sequences, respectively and ; (iv) the protein blast showed 97%, 94% and 96% homology when compared to the published sequences, respectively. The finding of A. hydrophila virulence genes in other members of the genus Aeromonas, may give a new perspective to the significance of these results. The method described here may be a useful detection tool to assist in further investigation of aero and hlyA genes in the genus Aeromonas, especially for food microbiologist.
This study was carried out to extract and compare the characteristic ability of globulins from cottonseed, alfalfa seed, pea seed, mung bean and French bean with cocoa seeds to produce cocoa-specific aroma precursors. The extracted globulins were compared through SDS PAGE, amino acid and oligopeptide profiles. A very low recovery was obtained during globulin extraction from different seeds ranging from 0.5% to 2.7%. Cottonseed produced the highest total protein (13.90 mg/g), followed by cocoa seed (11.91 mg/g), whereas alfalfa seed, mung bean, pea seed and French bean produced 7.86, 4.77, 4.59 and 3.89 mg/g respectively. Two distinctive bands of 51.1 and 33.0 kDa were observed for cocoa vicilin-class globulin (VCG) from SDS PAGE. More than three bands were shown for other seed globulins. Comparative HPLC analyses of the obtained peptide mixtures revealed different and complex patterns of predominantly hydrophobic peptides. A similar high content of amides (glutamic acids-glutamine, aspartic acid- asparagine and arginine) and low concentrations of lysine were observed in all seeds globulin.
Solvent-extracted Moringa oleifera seed oil was transesterified using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM 60) (Novozymes Bagsvaerd Denmark) at 1% (w/w) concentration, shaken at 60oC and 200 rpm for up to 24h. After transesterification, the oil was fractionated with acetone at -18oC and without acetone at 10oC to obtain two fractions, stearin and olein fractions. Incubation of the transesterified oil at 10oC for 24 h resulted in the formation of fat crystals, which settled at the bottom of the flask in sample transesterified for 24 h, while the control (0 h) sample became rather viscous with fat crystals in suspension. Transesterification resulted in a change in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of the oil, which in turn affected its solid fat content (SFC) and thermal behavior. The SFC value at 0oC after 24 h of reaction was 10.35% and significantly (P