Browse publications by year: 2008

  1. Karim AA, Tie AP, Manan DMA, Zaidul ISM
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2008 Jul;7(3):215-228.
    PMID: 33467803 DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2008.00042.x
      The common industrial starches are typically derived from cereals (corn, wheat, rice, sorghum), tubers (potato, sweet potato), roots (cassava), and legumes (mung bean, green pea). Sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) starch is perhaps the only example of commercial starch derived from another source, the stem of palm (sago palm). Sago palm has the ability to thrive in the harsh swampy peat environment of certain areas. It is estimated that there are about 2 million ha of natural sago palm forests and about 0.14 million ha of planted sago palm at present, out of a total swamp area of about 20 million ha in Asia and the Pacific Region, most of which are under- or nonutilized. Growing in a suitable environment with organized farming practices, sago palm could have a yield potential of up to 25 tons of starch per hectare per year. Sago starch yield per unit area could be about 3 to 4 times higher than that of rice, corn, or wheat, and about 17 times higher than that of cassava. Compared to the common industrial starches, however, sago starch has been somewhat neglected and relatively less attention has been devoted to the sago palm and its starch. Nevertheless, a number of studies have been published covering various aspects of sago starch such as molecular structure, physicochemical and functional properties, chemical/physical modifications, and quality issues. This article is intended to piece together the accumulated knowledge and highlight some pertinent information related to sago palm and sago starch studies.
    MeSH terms: Agriculture; Attention; Manihot; Edible Grain; Zea mays; Fabaceae; Solanum tuberosum; Oryza; Soil; Starch; Triticum; Molecular Structure; Peas; Ipomoea batatas; Arecaceae; Sorghum; Wetlands; Forests; Vigna
  2. Amar Singh HSS, Azman AB, Sararaks S
    ISBN: 978-983-42269-8-5
    Amar Singh HSS, Azman AB, Sararaks S. The Medical Research Handbook. Planning a Research Project, First Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Health Systems Research; 2008

    Newer edition (Second Edition): no free full text
    MeSH terms: Research
  3. Citation: Management of HIV Infection in Children. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2008

    Keywords: CPG
    MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Child; Humans; Malaysia; HIV Infections; Guidelines as Topic
  4. Citation: Management of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2008

    Keywords: CPG
    MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Humans; Malaysia; Pregnancy; HIV Infections; Guidelines as Topic
  5. Ahmad Fadzil MH, Ihtatho D, Affandi AM, Hussein SH
    PMID: 19163606 DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4650103
    Skin colour is vital information in dermatological diagnosis. It reflects pathological condition beneath the skin and commonly being used to indicate the extent of a disease. Psoriasis is a skin disease which is indicated by the appearance of red plaques. Although there is no cure for psoriasis, there are many treatment modalities to help control the disease. To evaluate treatment efficacy, PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) which is the current gold standard method is used to determine severity of psoriasis lesion. Erythema (redness) is one parameter in PASI. Commonly, the erythema is assessed visually, thus leading to subjective and inconsistent result. In this work, we proposed an objective assessment of psoriasis erythema for PASI scoring. The colour of psoriasis lesion is analyzed by DeltaL, Deltahue, and Deltachroma of CIELAB colour space. References of lesion with different scores are obtained from the selected lesions by two dermatologists. Results based on 38 lesions from 22 patients with various level of skin pigmentation show that PASI erythema score can be determined objectively and consistent with dermatology scoring.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Dermatology/methods*; Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted; Equipment Design; Humans; Models, Theoretical; Pattern Recognition, Automated/methods*; Psoriasis/diagnosis*; Psoriasis/physiopathology*; Skin/metabolism; Skin Pigmentation*; Vision, Ocular; Models, Statistical; Observer Variation
  6. Ang CF, Ong CS, Rukmana A, Pham Thi KL, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2008 Aug;57(Pt 8):1039-1040.
    PMID: 18628510 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.47850-0
    MeSH terms: Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology; Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use; Asia; Genotype; Humans; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics*; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification*; Phenotype; Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Drug Resistance, Multiple*
  7. Al-Herz W
    J Clin Immunol, 2008 Mar;28(2):186-93.
    PMID: 18008151
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are heterogeneous group of illnesses that predispose patients to serious complications. Registries for these disorders have provided important epidemiological data and shown both racial and geographical variations. The clinical features of 76 patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders registered in Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry from 2004 to 2006 were recorded. Ninety-eight percent of the patients presented in childhood. The prevalence of these disorders in children was 11.98 in 100,000 children with an incidence of 10.06 in 100,000 children. The distribution of these patients according to each primary immunodeficiency category is: combined T and B cell immunodeficiencies (21%), predominantly antibody immunodeficiency (30%), other well defined immunodeficiencies (30%), diseases of immune dysregulation (7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (8%), and complement deficiencies (4%). The consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 77%. The patients had a wide range of clinical features affecting different body systems. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in Kuwait and have a significant impact into the health system.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Child; Child, Preschool; Consanguinity; Female; Humans; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/diagnosis; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology*; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Kuwait/epidemiology; Male; Registries*; Prevalence
  8. Pendley CJ, Becker EA, Karl JA, Blasky AJ, Wiseman RW, Hughes AL, et al.
    Immunogenetics, 2008 Jul;60(7):339-51.
    PMID: 18504574 DOI: 10.1007/s00251-008-0292-4
    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are quickly becoming a useful model for infectious disease and transplantation research. Even though cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions are used for these studies, there has been limited characterization of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics of distinct geographic populations. Here, we identified 48 MHC class I cDNA nucleotide sequences in eleven Indonesian cynomolgus macaques, including 41 novel Mafa-A and Mafa-B sequences. We found seven MHC class I sequences in Indonesian macaques that were identical to MHC class I sequences identified in Malaysian or Mauritian macaques. Sharing of nucleotide sequences between these geographically distinct populations is also consistent with the hypothesis that Indonesia was a source of the Mauritian macaque population. In addition, we found that the Indonesian cDNA sequence Mafa-B7601 is identical throughout its peptide binding domain to Mamu-B03, an allele that has been associated with control of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viremia in Indian rhesus macaques. Overall, a better understanding of the MHC class I alleles present in Indonesian cynomolgus macaques improves their value as a model for disease research, and it better defines the biogeography of cynomolgus macaques throughout Southeast Asia.
    MeSH terms: Alleles*; Animals; Genes, MHC Class I*; Genetics, Population; Indonesia; Macaca fascicularis/genetics*; Macaca fascicularis/immunology
  9. Bhat S, Rao G, Murthy KD, Bhat PG
    Indian J Clin Biochem, 2008 Apr;23(2):191-4.
    PMID: 23105750 DOI: 10.1007/s12291-008-0042-2
    High ambient temperature has been reported to increase oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidant defence in transition dairy cows. It is also known to cause an increase in plasma cortisol levels in goats, European hedgehog and human volunteers. High levels of glucocorticoids have been reported to decrease blood glutathione and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in rats. Although institutional animal houses in research laboratories of developed countries maintain animals in air-conditioned rooms at constant temperature, the same is not true of animal houses in the developing countries especially those belonging to smaller institutions and this could affect the results of the experiments being conducted on these animals. The present research study was done to assess the effects of seasonal variations on the status of erythrocyte oxidative damage, antioxidant defence and plasma cortisol levels in adult female Wistar rats. Rats were kept in their home cages and were left in non-air-conditioned procedure rooms in two different seasons, Hot season (March-May) and Cool season (June to September). Erythrocyte Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased in rats exposed to high ambient temperature and humidity of the hot season as compared to the rats of the cool season. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased in the hot season group of rats. The results of our experiments showed that exposure of adult female Wistar rats to high ambient temperature and humidity of the hot season increases neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant defence in them.
  10. Mandarano G, Sim J
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2008 Oct;4(4):e28.
    PMID: 21611015 DOI: 10.2349/biij.4.4.e28
    The magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) examination has all but replaced the diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) examination for imaging the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts in many practical aspects of the clinical setting. Despite this increase in popularity, many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiographers still find aspects of the MRCP examination quite challenging. The aim of this tutorial paper is to provide useful technical advice on how to overcome such perceived challenges and thus produce a successful diagnostic MRCP examination. This paper will be of interest to novice MRI radiographers who are at the beginning of their learning curve in MRCP examination. Other MRI radiographers who are interested in practical tips for protocol variations may also find the paper useful.
  11. Sim L
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2008 Oct;4(4):e32.
    PMID: 21611017 DOI: 10.2349/biij.4.4.e32
    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.
  12. Umareddy I, Tang KF, Vasudevan SG, Devi S, Hibberd ML, Gu F
    J Gen Virol, 2008 Dec;89(Pt 12):3052-3062.
    PMID: 19008393 DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.2008/001594-0
    Outbreaks of dengue disease are constant threats to tropical and subtropical populations but range widely in severity, from mild to haemorrhagic fevers, for reasons that are still elusive. We investigated the interferon (IFN) response in infected human cell lines A549 and HepG2, using two strains (NGC and TSV01) of dengue serotype 2 (DEN2) and found that the two viruses exhibited a marked difference in inducing type I IFN response. While TSV01 infection led to activation of type I antiviral genes such as EIF2AK2 (PKR), OAS, ADAR and MX, these responses were absent in NGC-infected cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that NGC but not TSV01 suppressed STAT-1 and STAT-2 activation in response to type I IFN (alpha and beta). However, these two strains did not differ in their response to type II IFN (gamma). Although unable to suppress IFN signalling, TSV01 infection caused a weaker IFN-beta induction compared with NGC, suggesting an alternative mechanism of innate immune escape. We extended our study to clinical isolates of various serotypes and found that while MY10245 (DEN2) and MY22713 (DEN4) could suppress the IFN response in a similar fashion to NGC, three other strains of dengue [EDEN167 (DEN1), MY02569 (DEN1) and MY10340 (DEN2)] were unable to suppress the IFN response, suggesting that this difference is strain-dependent but not serotype-specific. Our report indicates the existence of a strain-specific virulence factor that may impact on disease severity.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Antiviral Agents/metabolism; Cell Line; Dengue Virus/classification; Dengue Virus/pathogenicity*; Gene Expression Regulation*; Humans; Interferon Type I/metabolism*; Liver/cytology; Liver/virology*; Lung/cytology; Lung/virology*; Phosphorylation; Serotyping; Species Specificity; Signal Transduction*; Cell Line, Tumor; STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism; STAT2 Transcription Factor/metabolism; Host-Pathogen Interactions
  13. Suvarna BS
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2008 7 1;6(23):406-11.
    PMID: 20071830
    MeSH terms: Adult; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diet therapy; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diet therapy; Asthma/diet therapy; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diet therapy; Bipolar Disorder/diet therapy; Burns/diet therapy; Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy; Child; Diabetes Mellitus/diet therapy; Drug Interactions; Dysmenorrhea/diet therapy; Female; Humans; Macular Degeneration/diet therapy; Male; Neoplasms/diet therapy; Obesity/diet therapy; Osteoporosis/diet therapy; Skin Diseases/diet therapy; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diet therapy; Treatment Outcome; Dietary Supplements*; Fatty Acids, Omega-6/therapeutic use*
  14. Md Zain F, Hong JYH, Wu LL, Harun F, Rasat R, Jalaludin MY, et al.
    Citation: Annual Report of the Diabetes in Children & Adolescent Registry (DiCARE) 2006-2007. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2008

    The objective of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents Registry (DiCARE) under the Ministry of Health (MOH) is to collect information about diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in Malaysia. This is important in estimating the incidence of diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents and at the same time evaluating the risk factors and the management. The registry aims to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of health care among the young diabetics and the health economics of diabetes. The issues related to diabetes care can be looked into and solved when the patients are still young, with the hope that they will become knowledgeable adults who can reasonably handle their diabetes well and thus decrease the long term complications. This information is deemed important in assisting the MOH, Non-Governmental Organizations, healthcare providers and industries in the planning and evaluation of diabetes mellitus prevention and control.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Child; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Humans; Malaysia; Registries; Incidence
  15. Ismail F
    ISBN: 978-983-3433-58-2
    Citation: Quality of Diabetes Care at MOH Healthcare Facilities: SIQ Investigation Guideline, Fifth Edition. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2011
    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Humans; Malaysia; Medical Audit; Public Sector; Guidelines as Topic
  16. Yeap SS
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11:323-326.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00404.x
    Osteoporosis only became a 'disease' entity in the 20th century. After the initial observations and definitions of osteoporosis based on Caucasian populations, systematic research in Asian populations started in the 1980s. Significant variations between different ethnic groups with respect to the rate of osteoporotic fractures, bone mineral density and disease risk factors emerged from the data; this article highlights some of the earlier important findings and the dissimilarities. Osteoporosis is therefore not a homogeneous disease across the world.
    MeSH terms: Asia; Ethnic Groups; Malaysia; Osteoporosis; Risk Factors; Bone Density
  17. Lai PSM, Chua SS, Chan SP, Low WY
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11(4):421-429.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00402.x
    Background: Osteoporotic fractures will soon become a common problem in Asian countries including Malaysia, as the growth in the elderly population will be more marked in this region. This leads to loss of independence and reduced quality of life (QOL). QOL is used as an outcome measure in clinical trials to focus the management of diseases on the patient rather than the disease. To date, no such instrument for measuring QOL of osteoporosis patients has been validated in Malaysia. Aim: To investigate the reliability and validity of the English version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO) in Malaysia. Methods: QUALEFFO was administered twice to postmenopausal osteoporotic women on alendronate. The patient group consisted of 46 women with back pain while the control group consisted of 42 women without back pain. Results: High internal consistency was seen in all domains in the QUALEFFO with Cronbach α of 0.74-0.95 and 0.53-0.89 in the patient and control group, respectively. Factor analysis also showed that each domain consisted of one component except for the social domain. The test-retest reliability showed high correlation coefficient in all domains (0.50-0.90, P < 0.001). Patients with back pain showed significantly worse QOL in the overall total QUALEFFO score compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The English version of QUALEFFO was found to be reliable and valid for the evaluation of patients with osteoporosis and who understand English in Malaysia. This study also indicates that patients with back pain have poorer QOL. © 2008 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Female; Malaysia; Osteoporosis; Quality of Life
  18. Chua KH, Kee BP, Tan SY, Lian LH
    DOI: 10.3923/jms.2008.437.442
    In this study, we analysed the genetic polymorphisms present in the third intron region of Interleukin-4 gene in Malaysian patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Overall, the RP I and II alleles were found evenly distributed in both the SLE patients and control individuals. There was no significant association observed in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between SLE patients and healthy controls. The result obtained is similar to a previous study carried out on SLE Chinese patients in Taiwan.
    MeSH terms: Gene Frequency; Genotype; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic*; Malaysia; Interleukin-4; Gene Expression
  19. Radzi AM, Hun KS, Kong N, Yahaya N
    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease exhibiting extensive clinical heterogeneity. Genetic factors and immune dysregulation play important roles in its development. Apoptosis is a physiologic process that regulates normal homeostasis. It is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by impairing elimination of autoreactive T and B cells. Apo-1/Fas which is a transmembrane protein mediates apoptosis and is a member of the tumour necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family. It transduces the apoptotic signal into susceptible target cells. Recent studies have focused on the apoptosis mediated by these proteins in the causation of several autoimmune disorders including SLE. Aim: To determine the frequency of Apo-1/Fas promoter gene polymorphism in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy controls and to investigate its role in the susceptibility of SLE in a cohort of Malaysian Chinese SLE patients Materials and methods: 107 Chinese patients and 60 matched controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by MvaI restriction enzyme digestion. The MvaI RFLP is located at the -670 position from the transcription starting site and results from an A→G substitution which alters the MvaI restriction site. Results: G/G genotype was found in 25% of patients and controls while the A/A genotype in 23% and 31.6% of patients and controls respectively. Heterozygous form was noted in 43% of the normal population compared to 51% in SLE patients. There was also no significant difference in the allele frequencies of G and A in both groups studied. Conclusion: We suggest that polymorphism of the Apo-1/Fas promoter gene does not play a role in disease susceptibility in Chinese patients with SLE. © 2008 Japan International Cultural Exchange Foundation.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Gene Frequency; Genes; Genotype; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic*; Malaysia; Restriction Mapping; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Apoptosis
  20. Teh CL, Chan GYL, Lee J
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11(1):24-29.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00325.x
    Objective: There are limited data on hospitalization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Asian countries. Our aim of this study is to describe the characteristics and poor prognostic factors in our patients. Method: We performed a retrospective study of SLE hospitalization during a 1-year period (2006) in our centre. Results: There were 125 episodes of hospitalization of 79 patients with SLE. This is the first report of SLE patients from the native population of east Malaysia. The cause of admission was flare of SLE (80.8%), infection (23.2%), renal biopsy (22.4%) and others (4%). There was only one admission for thromboembolism. Patients with both flare of SLE and infection have the longest median length of stay of 11 days (IQR 5,24) requiring more intensive care therapy (P < 0.01). Readmission occurred in 31.4% and was associated with admission for other reasons during the first admission. Flare of SLE was protective against readmission (P < 0.05, OR = 0.36). There were six deaths (4.8% of admissions). The deaths were due to infection in three patients, active SLE in two and acute myocardial infarction in one. The deaths have a higher cumulative prednisolone dose than the survivals (P < 0.01). In multivariate modelling, the only predictor of death was high Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index score (P < 0.05, OR = 9.61 per increase of 1 score). Conclusion: Active disease and infection remains the main cause of admission, readmission and death in SLE patients. © 2008 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Azathioprine; Cyclophosphamide; Death; Female; Hospitalization; Hospitals, General; Hydroxychloroquine; Infection; Length of Stay; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic*; Malaysia; Male; Methylprednisolone; Prednisolone; Prognosis; Thromboembolism; Survival Rate; Multivariate Analysis
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