Browse publications by year: 2008

  1. Citation: The first annual report of the National Eye Database 2007. Goh PP, Hussein E, Mustari Z, Ismail M, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2008
    MeSH terms: Eye Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Registries
  2. Shahrir M, Shahdan M, Shahid M, Sulaiman W, Mokhtar AM, Othman M, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2008;11:287-292.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2008.00379.x
    Aim: This is a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) descriptive study, the first of its kind carried out in Malaysia.
    Methods: This descriptive study involved 1084 RA patients' epidemiological and clinical data taken from Selayang, Putrajaya, Taiping and Seremban hospitals from June 2004 to December 2005.
    Results: One thousand and eighty-four RA patients'data were analysed; 960 (88.6%) patients were female and 124 (11.4%) were male, approximately 8 : 1 M : F ratio. The majority of the patients were Indian (591; 54.5%), followed by the Malays (340; 31.4%), Chinese (126; 11.6%), indigenous (13; 1.2%) and others (14; 1.3%). Mean age was 49.6 ± 11.8 years with the youngest being 15 years and the oldest 88 years of age. Mean age for males was 52.0 ± 12.0 and females 49.3 ± 11.7 years (P =; 0.017). Most of these patients were housewives (565; 52.1%), followed by paid workers (266; 24.5%), retired patients (80; 7.4%), unemployed (76; 7.0%) and others (97; 8.9%). Mean duration of illness was 8.4 ± 6.7 years; 805 (74.3%) patients were relatively new patients (≤ 2 years illness duration) and 279 (25.7%) patients had illness duration > 2 years. Eight hundred and six (74.4%) were seropositive RA patients and 385 (35.5%) had presence of deformity. The majority of patients were treated with methotrexate (178; 16.4%), followed by combination of methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine (143; 13.2%), leflunomide (140; 12.9%), sulfasalazine (133; 12.3%) and combination of methotrexate and sulfasalazine (108; 10%).
    Conclusion: In the above study, the majority of patients were female (960; 88.6%), Indian (591; 54.5%), had a mean age of 49.6 ± 11.8 years, most were housewives with a mean duration of illness of 8.4 ± 6.7 years and were treated with methotrexate (178; 16.4%). The results of the study may help Malaysian rheumaologists to understand their patients better and treat RA holistically.
    Comment in: Yeap SS. Comment on: Multicentre survey of rheumatoid arthritis patients from Ministry of Health rheumatology centres in Malaysia. Int J Rheum Dis. 2009 Jul;12(2):177-8; author reply 179. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2009.01403.x. PubMed PMID: 20374340.
    MeSH terms: Celecoxib; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Arthrodesis; Arthroplasty; Azathioprine; China/ethnology; Cyclophosphamide; Diclofenac; Female; Humans; Hydroxychloroquine; Ibuprofen; India/ethnology; Ketoprofen; Malaysia; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Mefenamic Acid; Methotrexate; Naproxen; Occupational Therapy; Penicillamine; Piroxicam
  3. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Gout. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2008
    MeSH terms: Gout; Humans; Malaysia; Rheumatology; Guidelines as Topic
  4. Citation: Buku Panduan Penggunaan Khidmat Doktor Swasta Untuk Perkhidmatan Kesihatan di Klinik Kesihatan. Putrajaya: Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia; 2008

    Guideline on utilisation of private doctors in public primary care clinics. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2008
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Malaysia; Private Sector; Guidelines as Topic; General Practitioners
  5. Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S’) tungsten complex is one of the most promising photocatalyst to be used in photolysis of water to produce hydrogen. The first step of the synthesis involves a metathesis reaction of tetrapropylammonium bromide [{(C3H7)4N}Br] and ammonium tetrathiotungstate [(NH4)2WS4] to form a tetrapropylammonium tetrathiotungstate [{(C3H7)4N}2WS4] (precursor). Then, the precursor was reacted with phenylacetylenecarboxylic acid (C9H6O2) to form tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S’) tungsten complex (C27H18O2S6W). The infra-red, ultra violet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental micro-analysis of C, H, N and S agreed with the characteristic of the tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S’) tungsten complex. The (W-S), (C-S) and (C=O) stretching frequencies were detected at 511, (1470 and 1035) and 1655 cm-1, respectively. The 1H NMR spectrum showed six protons in the complex. The 13C NMR showed only 7 signals for carbon atom in the benzene ring, ethylene groups and carboxylic acid pendant group due to the symmetry of the molecules. The reaction yield was about 50 percent. Photolysis of acetone spiked H2O showed that the catalyst was able to produced 1.8µmol/h hydrogen.
  6. Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Aloi aluminium tempaan terawat haba siri 6XXX perlu melalui pelbagai proses termomekanik sebelum sedia digunakan sebagai badan luar kereta. Penuaan tabii yang lama pada suhu bilik memberi kesan yang tidak baik terhadap pengerasan tuaan. Ramai pengkaji telah memperkenalkan langkah tambahan seperti pra-penuaan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan respons pengerasan tuaan aloi Al-1.2Si-0.5Mg-0.25Fe berbentuk kepingan melalui penambahan Zr antara 0.02 hingga 0.30% bt. Aloi yang dikaji dilindap kejut air ke suhu bilik dan dibiarkan mengalami penuaan tabii selama 14 hari sebelum rawatan haba pada suhu 180ºC selama 30 minit dan juga 11 jam. Mikrokekerasan aloi Al-1.2Si-0.5Mg-0.25Fe tanpa Zr ialah 80.2 VHN untuk rawatan haba 30 minit dan 105.0 VHN untuk rawatan haba 11 jam. Mikrokekerasan, kekuatan tegangan dan kekuatan alah aloi yang mengandungi Zr dan dirawat haba pada 180ºC selama 11 jam adalah jauh lebih tinggi berbanding dengan set aloi yang sama tetapi dirawat haba selama 30 minit. Namun begitu, aloi yang mengandungi 0.30% bt. Zr dan dirawat haba selama 30 minit mempunyai mikrokekerasan, kekuatan tegangan dan kekuatan alah yang lebih tinggi daripada aloi tanpa Zr tetapi dirawat haba selama 11 jam. Peningkatan sifat mekanik yang dilaporkan dikaitkan dengan fenomena penghalusan butiran.
  7. Siti Fazlili Abdullah, Shahidan Radiman, Muhammad Azmi Abdul Hamid, Noor Baa’yah Ibrahim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Oleic acid (OA) capped wolfram (VI) oxide, WO3 nanoparticles were chemically synthesized and characterized by means of Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tribological properties of the capped WO3 nanoparticles as an additive in base oils were investigated using a four-ball machine. Results show that OA-capped WO3 nanoparticles are able to prevent water adsorption and capable of being dispersed stable in organic solvents which is base oils. The as-prepared capped WO3 nanoparticles have an average size of 15 nm. In addition, OA-capped WO3 nanoparticles as an additive in base oils perform good anti-wear (AW) and anti-friction (AF) properties owing to the formation of a boundary film.
    MeSH terms: Adsorption; Fourier Analysis; Oxides; Plant Oils; Solvents; Tungsten; Water; Friction; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared; Oleic Acid; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission; Nanoparticles
  8. Chong NS
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Offset curves arise in a variety of industrial applications such as robot’s path planning and numerical control machining in the textile, shoe and automobile industries. Rational curves, in particular the rational cubics, are widely accepted as a standard representation for design problems and geometric modellers but their offset curves are in general not rational. Given a rational cubic or quartic spline, we present two local methods to approximate its offset curve using a rational Bézier spline of the same degree. This approximate offset curve interpolates the positions and unit tangents at both ends of the exact offset curve segments and its curvatures at these endpoints are consistent with the offset distance and the corresponding curvatures of the given curve. It has second order geometric continuity if the given curve is so. The accuracy of the approximation can be refined by a local iterative subdivision process.
  9. Chin WC, Zaidi Isa, Abu Hassan Shaari Mohd. Nor
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    This article study the influences of structural break to the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in Malaysian stock markets from year 1996 to 2006. A fractionally integrated autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (FIGARCH) model combines with sudden changes of volatility is develops to study the possibility of structural change in Asian financial crisis and currency crisis. Our empirical results evidence substantially reduction in long memory clustering volatility after the inclusion of sudden changes in the volatility. Finally, the estimation, diagnostic and model selection evaluations indicate that the fractionally integrated model with structural change is out-performed compared to the standard model.
    MeSH terms: Agriculture; Memory; Periodicity; Volatilization; Cluster Analysis
  10. Khoo KS, Sukiman Sarmani, Amran Majid, Ti KL
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    A gradient of neutron flux distribution in an irradiation channel in research reactor is considered to have effect on the k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) measurement. A study has been carried out to determine: (1) the variation of the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f); (2) the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (!), and; (3) the neutron flux in an irradiation container at four selected irradiation channels, use being made of an Au-Cr-Mo monitor set. In this work, f was found to range from 15.5 – 16.3, while ! was found to range from 1.52 × 10-2 – 5.58 × 10-2. Additionally, within the selected irradiation channels the variation in calculated thermal neutron flux within one irradiation container was found to vary from 11.8% - 26.7%. The results of analysis have provided a determination of variation in the neutron parameters, f and !, and neutron flux between the irradiation channels and within the irradiation container.
  11. Mohd. Reusmaazran Yusof, Roslinda Shamsudin, Syafiq Baharuddin, Idris Besar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) as a bone graft substitute was produced via gas technique with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) namely 20, 30 and 50%. Hydroxyapatite(HA) slurries with different concentration were produced by mixing between H2O2 solutions and HA powder (L/P) with different ratio i.e. 0.9 to 2.20 ml.g-1. Different L/P ratio and H2O2 concentration affected the porosity, interconnectivity and compressive strength of HAp sample. Changes in L/P ratio between 0.9 to 2.20 ml.g-1, increases the porosity around 50 - 65% at 20% H2O2 concentration. Porosity increases with the L/P values and H2O2 concentration which 76% of porosity was obtained at 50% H2O2 and 2.20 mlg-1 of L/P. The compressive strength of HAp is in the range of 0.5 to 2.15 MPa and is found decreasing with the increasing of L/P values.
    MeSH terms: Hydrogen Peroxide; Powders; Porosity; Durapatite; Bone Substitutes; Compressive Strength; Tissue Scaffolds
  12. Chia CH, Sarani Zakaria, Farahiyan R, Liew TK, Nguyen KL, Mustaffa Abdullah, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized using the chemical coprecipitation method. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were likely formed via dissolution-recrystallization process. During the precipitation process, ferrihydrite and Fe(OH)2 particles formed aggregates and followed by the formation of spherical Fe3O4 particles. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and in single crystal form. The synthesis temperature and the degree of agitation during the precipitation were found to be decisive in controlling the crystallite and particle size of the produced Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Lower temperature and higher degree of agitation were the favorable conditions for producing smaller particle. The magnetic properties (saturation magnetization and coercivity) of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles increased with the particle size.
    MeSH terms: Cold Temperature; Ferric Compounds; Magnetics; Particle Size; Solubility; Temperature; Ferrosoferric Oxide; Magnetite Nanoparticles
  13. Ali Ahmadzadeh, Sarani Zakaria, Rozaidi Rasid, Sharifah Nabihah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Biofiber is used in the polymer based composite as a renewable resource due to its positive environmental benefits, biodegradable properties, low cost and high toughness. Biocomposite was fabricated using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as filler in phenolated EFB (PEFB) matrix. Phenolated EFB (PEFB) obtained from liquefaction of EFB in phenol was used as a biopolymer to replace novolak phenolic resin which is commonly used in composite materials. Sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst in the liquefaction reaction. The effect of thermal aging and blending ratio of PEFB matrix and EFB fibers on the mechanical properties of composites has been studied. The flexural data before and after thermal aging revealed the optimum amount of EFB filler is 50% . The result showed better compatibility between EFB and PEFB when compared with EFB and commercial novolak resin.
    MeSH terms: Biopolymers; Formaldehyde; Fruit; Phenols; Polymers; Sulfuric Acids; Phenol
  14. Jumat Salimon, Rozaini Abdullah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02±0.01%, acid value (1.50±0.07%), iodine value (91.70 ± 1.44 mg/g), peroxide value (0.66±0.04 miliequivalence/kg) and saponification value of 208.5±0.47 mg/g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00±0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96±0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89±0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (22.00%), POP(16.48%), 000(16.48%), 00L(16.23%) and OLL(13.00%).
  15. Norlaili Abu Bakar, Musa Ahmad, Rusli Daik
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on acrylate monomer was prepared at 80°C for 5 hours using p-xylene and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a template and crosslinking agent respectively. The polymer obtained was washed with a mixture of acetic acid and methanol (1:4) and dried in the vacuum oven at 80°C. FTIR spectrum showed that all the templates were leached out from polymer during excessive washing and drying stage. The rebinding test result showed that the MIP was bonded with the analyte in the presence of organic solvents as shown by FTIR spectroscopy. The SEM micrograph showed that non-imprinted polymer (NIP) had no cavity as compared to MIP.
  16. Fathul Karim Sahrani, Zaharah Ibrahim, Adibah Yahya, Madzlan Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    In the attempt to isolate indigenous marine sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from coastal samples, we obtained some swarm forming bacteria. The isolates were screening using Starkey’s medium and detection of main groups of SRB were carried out using commercially kits (SRB BART kits, Droycon Bioconcepts Inc., Canada). From the growth characteristic, only two isolates were strongly suggested as marine SRB. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis these SRB were closely related and could be designated as Desulfovibrio sp. and Citrobacter freundii, with the highest sequence similarity of 98% and 93%, respectively.
  17. Kamaruzzaman Yunus, Ong MC
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Surface sediments collected from two transects (30 sampling points) in the Kerteh mangrove forest had been analyzed for Co, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr concentrations with the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Co was 8.91±1.89 µg/g dry weight, Cu was 29.0±12.8 µg/g dry weight, Pb was 11.7±6.85 µg/g dry weight, Zn was 22.3±13.7 µg/g dry weight and Cr was 13.2±9.07 µg/g dry weight. Their concentrations are significantly higher near the front mangrove and decline as the sampling points of each transect near the back mangrove area. The calculated enrichment factors (EF) obtained for Zn and Cr can be considered to have the terigeneous in sources while Co, Cu and Pb, which had slightly higher value, were probably influenced by anthropogenic input.
  18. Masni Mohd Ali, Mudge SM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Thirty two compounds of fatty acids were found in a 50 cm sediment core taken from Conwy Estuary, United Kingdom. Their distribution pattern changed with depth from short chain fatty acids (C12 - C20) predominance to long chain compounds (C21 – C25). The decrease of short chain fatty acids along the core suggested that early diagenesis occurred due to microbial and chemical degradation. The increase of longer chain compounds was probably caused by greater preservation or greater contribution from terrestrial organic matter. The percentage of branched fatty acids, odd/even and 18:1ω7/18:0 ratios showed similar distribution, linking them with bacterial activity in the sediment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separated the terrestrial derived fatty acids (long chain compounds) from the marine (short chain saturated compounds, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids) and bacterial (odd chain length with their branched derivatives and 18:1ω7 acid) derived compounds.
  19. Jong DL, Park BG, Jung KD
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Bottom-contact pentacene OTFTs are fabricated using cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) insulator and its reliability characteristics are analyzed. The hysteresis of the OTFTs is mainly caused by the electrons that are injected from the gate electrode to the cross-linked PVA insulator. To block the injection of electrons, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO2 layer is inserted between the gate electrode and the cross-linked PVA layer, so that the minimum hysteresis can be obtained. In addition, the effects of the gate bias stress as a function of time is investigated to examine the long-term reliability of the device during the operation.
    MeSH terms: Ethanol; Electrodes; Electrons; Naphthacenes; Polyvinyl Chloride; Silicon Dioxide; Reproducibility of Results
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