Browse publications by year: 2010

  1. Zaher S, Lyons D, Regan L
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 04 01;6(2):e28.
    PMID: 21611041 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.2.e28
    A 35 year-old para 1+0 underwent MRgFUS per study protocol for multiple uterine fibroids, the largest of which measured 5 cm. She conceived 10 months following the procedure. The patient was induced at 41+6 weeks and underwent a normal vaginal delivery.
    MeSH terms: Female; Humans; Leiomyoma; Uterus; Vagina
  2. Chitapanarux I, Tharavichitkul E, Lorvidhaya V, Sittitrai P, Pattarasakulchai T
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 07 01;6(3):e23.
    PMID: 21611042 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.3.e23
    OBJECTIVE: Induction chemotherapy (IC) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer has been studied in many clinical trials. This study was conducted to determine the response rate of IC with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin followed by CCRT with cisplatin for this group of patients, and the effect of the entire treatment on survival and time to disease progression.

    METHODS: Thirty patients with advanced and unresectable head and neck cancer were treated with 2 cycles of induction paclitaxel/ ifosfamide/ cisplatin. If the primary tumor had a complete or partial response, patients were treated with 2 more cycles of IC followed by radiotherapy 70 Gy plus 3 cycles of cisplatin. For those with less than partial response or disease progression were treated according to the discretion of the physicians.

    RESULTS: Ninety percent of patients had stage IV disease and 40% of them had primary tumor at maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. One patient (3%) achieved complete response (CR) and 18 patients had partial responses (PR) to IC. CCRT enhanced the response rate, resulting in a total of 3 CR (10%) and 16 PR (53%) to treatment. The median time to progression was 11.5 months. The median overall survival was 27 months. The most severe hematologic toxicity occurred during IC was grade3-4 neutropenia (40%). Grade 3-4 mucositis occurred in 68% of patients during CCRT.

    CONCLUSION: This novel combined-modality treatment program, is toxic but feasible, and can be administered for selected patients with advanced and unresectable head and neck cancer. © 2010 Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. All rights reserved.

  3. Sabih D, Ahmad E, Sabih A, Sabih Q
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 10 01;6(4):e38.
    PMID: 21611074 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.4.e38
    The authors report a case of a cephalopagus conjoined twin that was diagnosed at 29 weeks of gestation despite the mother having had two ultrasounds done previously. The fetus had one head and face, fused thoraces, common umbilicus but had two pelvises and two sets of genitalia. The fetus had four normally formed legs and arms.Antenatal ultrasound images are supplemented by post natal photographs. A review of literature, clues to ultrasound diagnosis and possible causes of missing this significant abnormality until the 3rd trimester are discussed.
    MeSH terms: Female; Fetus; Genitalia; Humans; Mothers; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Trimester, Third; Thorax; Twins; Twins, Conjoined; Umbilicus
  4. Wong M, Shum S, Chau W, Cheng C
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 10 01;6(4):e39.
    PMID: 21611075 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.4.e39
    Assessment of the stomach is not commonly included in routine scanning protocol of upper abdominal ultrasound (USG). However, assessment of the stomach in patients presenting with epigastric pain can yield invaluable results. This paper presents, as an illustration, a case of carcinoma of stomach detected by transabdominal ultrasound. The diagnosis is confirmed by subsequent CT, upper endoscopy and operation.
    MeSH terms: Gastroscopy; Humans; Stomach; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Abdominal Pain; Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
  5. Khurana NA, Khurana G, Uppal N
    Contemp Clin Dent, 2010 Oct;1(4):255-8.
    PMID: 22114433 DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.76396
    Socket sclerosis is usually asymptomatic and does not require any treatment. The only potential complication arises during orthodontic treatment, wherein sclerosed socket of the premolar teeth may be an obstacle in closing the space by movement of teeth through the extraction space. This article demonstrates the problems encountered during the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old Malaysian woman with socket sclerosis and the treatment strategy employed to overcome the same.
    MeSH terms: Bicuspid; Dental Care; Female; Humans; Joints; Movement; Sclerosis
  6. Holcomb GE, Aime MC
    Plant Dis., 2010 Feb;94(2):272.
    PMID: 30754293 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-2-0272C
    Plumeria spp., native to tropical America, are popular small trees grown widely in tropical areas of the world and as potted plants elsewhere. P. rubra and P. obtusa cultivars and hybrids are most common. A rust disease of a Plumeria sp. (likely P. rubra based on pointed leaf tips, leaves more than 18 cm (7 inches) long, and high rust susceptibility) was observed in November 2008 and again in June 2009 on homeowner plants in Baton Rouge, LA. A survey of five Baton Rouge retail nurseries in September 2009 revealed that 87% (90 of 103) of the plumeria plants were heavily infected with rust. Early symptoms included numerous 1-mm chlorotic spots on adaxial leaf surfaces followed by leaf chlorosis, necrosis, and abscission. Uredinia were numerous, mostly hypophyllous and yellowish orange. Urediniospores were catenulate, orange en masse, verrucose, globose, ovoid, ellipsoidal or angular, and measured 21.8 to 41.9 × 16.4 to 32.8 μm (average 29.4 × 22.6 μm). The rust was identified as Coleosporium plumeriae Pat. (= C. plumierae) (3). Teliospores were not found during this study. Pathogenicity tests were performed by spraying urediniospores (20,000/ml of deionized water) on three healthy Thai hybrid plumeria plants. Five leaves of each plant were misted with water and covered with plastic bags and three to five leaves were inoculated. Plants were held at 27°C for 27 h in a dew chamber and then moved outdoors. Typical rust symptoms and uredinia with urediniospores developed in 10 days on all inoculated leaves while noninoculated leaves remained healthy. Characteristics and spore measurements matched those of the rust from original infected plants. Additional plumeria rust inoculations were made to other Apocynaceae family members that included Allamanda cathartica, Catheranthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), Mandevilla splendens, Nerium oleander, and Vinca major. Catheranthus roseus was very susceptible to C. plumeriae with chlorotic leaf spots developing on the six inoculated plants after 8 days and uredinia with urediniospores appearing after 11 days. None of the other plant genera were susceptible to the rust. Plumeria rust was also observed on plumeria trees in urban landscapes in peninsular (Penang) and Bornean (Kota Kinabalu, Sabah) Malaysia in December 2007. To confirm identity, ~1,000 bp of nuclear rDNA 28S subunit from each (Lousiana, Penang, and Kota Kinabalu) was sequenced with rust-specific primers (1) and shared 100% identity (GenBank No. GU145555-6). Plumeria rust was first found on the island of Guadeloupe (3) and then spread to Central and South America. It has been known from Florida since 1960 under the synonym C. domingense (2), but has not been reported elsewhere in the continental United States. In more recent years, plumeria rust has spread to Hawaii, many Pacific islands, India, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia, and Nigeria (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of plumeria rust from Louisiana and Malaysia and of susceptibility of another member of the Apocynaceae, Madagascar periwinkle, to C. plumeriae. Voucher material from Louisiana and Malaysia has been deposited in the Mycology Herbarium of Louisiana State University (LSUM). References: (1) M. C. Aime. Mycoscience 47:112, 2006. (2) Anonymous. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. U.S. Dept. Agric. Handb. No. 165. Washington, D.C., 1960. (3) N. Patouillard. Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 18:171, 1902. (4) C. To-Anun et al. Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ. 4:41, 2004.
  7. Salati M, Wong MY, Sariah M, Nik Masdek H
    Plant Dis., 2010 May;94(5):642.
    PMID: 30754434 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0642A
    In December 2008, infected leaves of Trichosanthes cucumerina were observed on commercial cucurbit farms located in Pontian, Johor (south of West Malaysia). Bright yellow and small necrotic lesions were observed on the adaxial surface of the leaves, whereas sporangiophores were observed on pale yellowish brown-to-brown lesions on the abaxial surface. The length and width of the sporangia ranged from 19 to 36 μm (28.6) and 11 to 23 μm (17.6), respectively. The length of the sporangiophores ranged from 310 to 450 μm, with an average length of 380 μm. The pathogen was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis on the basis of the morphological criteria described by Palti and Cohen (2). To confirm the morphological findings, DNA was extracted from symptomatic tissue and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was PCR amplified using primers ITS5-P2 and ITS4 (3). The appropriate-sized amplicon was gel excised and column purified and then submitted for direct sequencing. The resulting 802 bp amplified ITS region was 100% identical to published P. cubensis sequences (GenBank Accession Nos. EU876603, EU876584, and AY198306). This sequence was deposited with NCBI GenBank under the Accession No. GU233293. In this study, pathogenicity tests were conducted using detached leaf disc assays (1) and a P. cubensis isolate obtained from T. cucumerina. For this purpose, leaf discs were excised from 6- to 8-week-old leaves of T. cucumerina using a 20-mm cork borer. Five leaf discs were placed with their abaxial surface facing upward on moist filter paper in petri dishes. Each of four leaf discs was inoculated with four 10-μl droplets of a 1 × 105 per ml sporangial suspension, whereas the fifth disc was inoculated with water droplets and served as a control. Three replications were completed. The leaf discs were placed in darkness at 14 ± 2°C for 24 h and subsequently incubated with a 12-h photoperiod. After 10 days, sporulation was observed on the sporangia-inoculated leaf discs with similar morphological features to the initial field samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. cubensis causing downy mildew of T. cucumerina in Malaysia. References: (1) A. Lebeda and M. P. Widrlechner. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 110:337, 2003. (2) J. Palti and Y. Cohen. Phytoparasitica 8:109, 1980. (3) H. Voglmayr and O. Constantinescu. Mycol. Res. 112:487, 2008.
  8. French-Monar RD, Patton AF, Douglas JM, Abad JA, Schuster G, Wallace RW, et al.
    Plant Dis., 2010 Apr;94(4):481.
    PMID: 30754480 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0481A
    In August 2008, 30% of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants in plots in Lubbock County, Texas showed yellowing, lateral stem dieback, upward leaf curling, enlargement of stems, adventitious roots, and swollen nodes. Yellowing in leaves was similar to that seen with zebra chip disease (ZC) of potato that was confirmed in a potato field 112 km away in July 2008 and was associated with a 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species (1), similar to findings earlier in 2008 in New Zealand and California (2,3). Tissue from four symptomatic plants of cv. Spitfire and two of cv. Celebrity were collected and DNA was extracted from midribs and petioles with a FastDNA Spin Kit (Qbiogene, Inc., Carlsbad, CA,). PCR amplification was done with 16S rRNA gene primers OA2 and OI2c, which are specific for "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" from potato and tomato and amplify a 1.1-kb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of this new species (1,3). Amplicons of 1.1 kb were obtained from all samples and these were sequenced in both orientations (McLab, San Francisco, CA). Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were identical for both Spitfire and Celebrity and were submitted to the NCBI as GenBank Accession Nos. FJ939136 and FJ939137, respectively. On the basis of a BLAST search, sequence alignments revealed 99.9% identity with a new species of 'Ca. Liberibacter' from potato (EU884128 and EU884129) in Texas (1); 99.7% identity with the new species "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" described from potato and tomato (3) in New Zealand (EU849020 and EU834130, respectively) and from the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli in California (2) (EU812559, EU812556); 97% identity with 'Ca L. asiaticus' from citrus in Malaysia (EU224393) and 94% identity with both 'Ca. L. africanus' and 'Ca. L. americanus' from citrus (EU921620 and AY742824, respectively). A neighbor-joining cladogram constructed using the 16S rRNA gene fragments delineated four clusters corresponding to each species, and these sequences clustered with "Ca. L. solanacearum". A second PCR analysis was conducted with the CL514F/CL514R primer pair, which amplifies a sequence from the rplJ and rplL ribosomal protein genes of "Ca. L. solanacearum". The resulting 669-bp products were 100% identical to a sequence reported from tomato in Mexico (FJ498807). This sequence was submitted to NCBI (GU169328). ZC, a disease causing losses to the potato industry, is associated with a 'Candidatus Liberibacter' species (1-3) and was reported in Central America and Mexico in the 1990s, in Texas in 2000, and more recently in other states in the United States (4). In 2008, a "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" was detected on Capsicum annuum, S. betaceum, and Physalis peruviana in New Zealand (3). Several studies have shown that the potato psyllid, B. cockerelli, is a potential vector for this pathogen (2,4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of "Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum" in field tomatoes showing ZC-like foliar disease symptoms in the United States. References: (1). J. A. Abad et al. Plant Dis. 93:108, 2009 (2) A. K. Hansen et al. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:5862, 2008. (3) L. W. Liefting et al. Plant Dis. 93:208, 2009. (4) G. A. Secor et al. Plant Dis. 93:574, 2009.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Capsicum; Central America; Citrus; DNA; Hemiptera; Malaysia; Mexico; New Zealand; Solanum tuberosum; Rhizobiaceae; Ribosomal Proteins; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S; San Francisco; Texas; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Alignment; Equidae; Plant Leaves; Plant Stems; Lycopersicon esculentum; Databases, Nucleic Acid; Physalis
  9. Damayanti TA, Alabi OJ, Rauf A, Naidu RA
    Plant Dis., 2010 Apr;94(4):478.
    PMID: 30754487 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0478B
    Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) is extensively cultivated in Indonesia for consumption as a green vegetable. During the 2008 season, a severe outbreak of a virus-like disease occurred in yardlong beans grown in farmers' fields in Bogor, Bekasi, Subang, Indramayu, and Cirebon of West Java, Tanggerang of Banten, and Pekalongan and Muntilan of Central Java. Leaves of infected plants showed severe mosaic to bright yellow mosaic and vein-clearing symptoms, and pods were deformed and also showed mosaic symptoms on the surface. In cv. 777, vein-clearing was observed, resulting in a netting pattern on symptomatic leaves followed by death of the plants as the season advanced. Disease incidence in the Bogor region was approximately 80%, resulting in 100% yield loss. Symptomatic leaf samples from five representative plants tested positive in antigen-coated plate-ELISA with potyvirus group-specific antibodies (AS-573/1; DSMZ, German Resource Center for Biological Material, Braunschweig, Germany) and antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; AS-0929). To confirm these results, viral nucleic acids eluted from FTA classic cards (FTA Classic Card, Whatman International Ltd., Maidstone, UK) were subjected to reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using potyvirus degenerate primers (CIFor: 5'-GGIVVIGTIGGIWSIGGIAARTCIAC-3' and CIRev: 5'-ACICCRTTYTCDATDATRTTIGTIGC-3') (3) and degenerate primers (CMV-1F: 5'-ACCGCGGGTCTTATTATGGT-3' and CMV-1R: 5' ACGGATTCAAACTGGGAGCA-3') specific for CMV subgroup I (1). A single DNA product of approximately 683 base pairs (bp) with the potyvirus-specific primers and a 382-bp fragment with the CMV-specific primers were amplified from ELISA-positive samples. These results indicated the presence of a potyvirus and CMV as mixed infections in all five samples. The amplified fragments specific to potyvirus (four samples) and CMV (three samples) were cloned separately into pCR2.1 (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA). Two independent clones per amplicon were sequenced from both orientations. Pairwise comparison of these sequences showed 93 to 100% identity among the cloned amplicons produced using the potyvirus-specific primers (GenBank Accessions Nos. FJ653916, FJ653917, FJ653918, FJ653919, FJ653920, FJ653921, FJ653922, FJ653923, FJ653924, FJ653925, and FJ653926) and 92 to 97% with a corresponding nucleotide sequence of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) from Taiwan (No. AY575773) and 88 to 90% with BCMV sequences from China (No. AJ312438) and the United States (No. AY863025). The sequence analysis indicated that BCMV isolates from yardlong bean are more closely related to an isolate from Taiwan than with isolates from China and the United States. The CMV isolates (GenBank No. FJ687054) each were 100% identical and 96% identical with corresponding sequences of CMV subgroup I isolates from Thailand (No. AJ810264) and Malaysia (No. DQ195082). Both BCMV and CMV have been documented in soybean, mungbean, and peanut in East Java of Indonesia (2). Previously, BCMV, but not CMV, was documented on yardlong beans in Guam (4). To our knowledge, this study represents the first confirmed report of CMV in yardlong bean in Indonesia and is further evidence that BCMV is becoming established in Indonesia. References: (1) J. Aramburu et al. J. Phytopathol. 155:513, 2007. (2) S. K. Green et al. Plant Dis. 72:994, 1988. (3) C. Ha et al. Arch. Virol. 153:25, 2008. (4) G. C. Wall et al. Micronesica 29:101, 1996.
    MeSH terms: Farmers; China; Disease Outbreaks; DNA; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Germany; Guam; Indonesia; Fabaceae; Malaysia; Nucleic Acids; Arachis; Seasons; Soybeans; Taiwan; Thailand; United States; Vegetables; Incidence; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Analysis; Cucumovirus; Potyvirus; DNA Primers; Base Pairing; Databases, Nucleic Acid; Reverse Transcription; Coinfection; Vigna
  10. Ko Y, Liu CW, Chen SS, Chen CY, Yao KS, Maruthasalam S, et al.
    Plant Dis., 2010 Apr;94(4):481.
    PMID: 30754488 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0481B
    During March 2007, a fruit rot disease was observed in several loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunberg) Lindley) fields located in Taichung, Nantou, and Miaoli counties. Loquat is a valuable fruit crop grown predominantly in central Taiwan, and hence, even a minor yield loss by this new disease is economically significant. Symptoms on fruits initially appeared as small lesions (<1 mm) that later developed into light-to-dark brown, circular, larger (7 mm), sunken lesions, indicating invasion of a pathogen into the fruit. Pieces of rotted fruit tissue (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were immersed for 1 min in 3% commercial bleach, followed by 70% ethanol, cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated under constant fluorescent light (185 ± 35 μE·m-2·s-1) at 24°C for 2 days. Three single conidial isolates (AS1 to AS3) were selected and used in morphological and pathogenicity studies. All three isolates were identified as an Alternaria sp. (1-3) and formed abundant, dark brown mycelium when cultured on PDA with light at 24°C. Conidiophores were 60 to 89 × 3 to 5 μm, densely fasciculate, cylindrical, simple or branched, and had distinct conidial scars. Conidia were 12 to 74 × 6 to 14 μm, golden brown, straight or curved, obclavate with beaks measuring half the length of the conidium, and observed in chains of 10 or more spores with four to seven transverse septa and several longitudinal septa. Pathogenicity tests were conducted twice by inoculating eight surface-sterilized wounded or unwounded fruits with each of the three isolates in each experiment. Two cuts (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were made on each fruit 3 cm apart with a sterile scalpel, and a 300-μl spore suspension (2 × 105 conidia per ml) was placed on each wound. Similarly, a 300-μl spore suspension was placed on unwounded fruits and air dried for 5 min. Control fruits were similarly treated with sterile water. Inoculated fruits were enclosed in a plastic bag and kept at 24 ± 1°C. Symptoms of soft rot were observed on 60% (unwounded) and 100% (wounded) of inoculated fruits 5 days after inoculation, while control fruits did not develop disease symptoms. Reisolation from the symptomatic fruits consistently yielded an Alternaria sp. This fungus previously has been reported as the causal agent of fruit rot or black spot of papaya, mango, kiwifruit, pear, and carambola from Australia, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and the United States (1-3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of loquat caused by an Alternaria sp. in Taiwan. To manage this disease, growers may resort to fungicidal sprays followed by bagging of fruits to reduce pre- and postharvest losses. References: (1) A. L. Jones and H. S. Aldwinckle. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1990. (2) R. C. Ploetz. Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2003. (3) R. C. Ploetz et al. Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994.
  11. Low A, Bansal V
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 01 01;6(1):e9.
    PMID: 21611068 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.1.e9
    Many papers have been written on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles but very few included pictures of the process, and none of them used video to show the whole process of synthesis. This paper records the process of synthesis of gold nanoparticles using video clips. Every process from cleaning of glassware, an important step in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, to the dialysis process is shown. It also includes the preparation of aqua regia and the actual synthesis of gold nanoparticles. In some papers, the dialysis process was omitted, but in this paper, it is included to complete the whole process as it is being used for purification.
    MeSH terms: Dialysis; Gold; Hydrochloric Acid; Paper; Surgical Instruments; Nitric Acid; Metal Nanoparticles
  12. Al-Khaliel AS
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010 Aug;21(1):55-70.
    PMID: 24575190
    Mycorrhiza, a mutualistic association between fungi and higher plants, has been documented extensively, but much less is known about the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their effects on the growth of peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.). Therefore, the mycorrhizal status of Glomus spp. was investigated in the following diverse substrate soil conditions: non-autoclaved soil, autoclaved soil and autoclaved soil plus soil microbiota. The results indicated that both the arbuscular mycorrhizae, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, and Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske were infective to peanut, but displayed a differential impact on peanut growth depending on the microbial biomass content of the substrate soils. G. mosseae proved to be the most effective at improving peanut growth.
    MeSH terms: Arachis; Soil; Symbiosis; Biomass; Embryophyta; Mycorrhizae; Glomeromycota; Microbiota
  13. Chan C K
    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 129/10 (July 2010)
    Republished in: An Uncommon Hero. p308-320
    Dr M K Rajakumar fought the good fight on many fronts. In the 1970s, with domestic left-wing politics on the ebb, Dr Rajakumar shifted his energies to another arena of human endeavor he was passionate about, health and medical care for the needful. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Dr Rajakumar worked tirelessly to advance primary care medicine and to raise the standard of its practice in Malaysia and in the region. This article explores his writings on primary care within the context of an emerging population health perspective. KEYWORDS: MK Rajakumar, primary care, population health, biomedical sciences, politics
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Primary Health Care
  14. Ji H, Om AD, Yoshimatsu T, Umino T, Nakagawa H, Sakamoto S
    Fish Physiol. Biochem., 2010 Sep;36(3):749-755.
    PMID: 19685218 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-009-9349-z
    To assess the effect of dietary ascorbate on lipid metabolism, 1-year black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) were reared on a casein-based purified diet and an ascorbate fortified diet (1,100 mg of L: -ascorbyl-2- monophosphate-Mg/kg diet). The fortified ascorbate was effectively incorporated into the fish body and elevated muscle carnitine content. Fortifications of dietary ascorbate depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Starvation after feeding experiment activated carnitine palmitoyltransferase as a lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas in both control and vitamin C(VC) groups, while the lipolysis activity was significantly higher in VC group. These results confirmed that dietary ascorbate depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis, i.e., influenced the lipid metabolism of black sea bream.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Ascorbic Acid/analogs & derivatives*; Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology; Body Weights and Measures; Carnitine/analysis; Food, Fortified; Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase/analysis; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase/analysis; Lipolysis/drug effects*; Proteins/analysis; Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry; Sea Bream/physiology*; Hepatopancreas/chemistry; Lipogenesis/drug effects*; Lipid Metabolism/drug effects*
  15. Brun L, Ngu LH, Keng WT, Ch'ng GS, Choy YS, Hwu WL, et al.
    PMID: 20505134 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e620ae
    Neurology. 2010 Jul 6;75(1):64-71
    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current treatment; clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings; and clinical follow-up of patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.
    METHOD: Clinical and biochemical data of 78 patients with AADC deficiency were tabulated in a database of pediatric neurotransmitter disorders (JAKE). A total of 46 patients have been previously reported; 32 patients are described for the first time.
    RESULTS: In 96% of AADC-deficient patients, symptoms (hypotonia 95%, oculogyric crises 86%, and developmental retardation 63%) became clinically evident during infancy or childhood. Laboratory diagnosis is based on typical CSF markers (low homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacidic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolglycole, and elevated 3-O-methyl-l-dopa, l-dopa, and 5-hydroxytryptophan), absent plasma AADC activity, or elevated urinary vanillactic acid. A total of 24 mutations in the DDC gene were detected in 49 patients (8 reported for the first time: p.L38P, p.Y79C, p.A110Q, p.G123R, p.I42fs, c.876G>A, p.R412W, p.I433fs) with IVS6+ 4A>T being the most common one (allele frequency 45%).
    CONCLUSION: Based on clinical symptoms, CSF neurotransmitters profile is highly indicative for the diagnosis of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Treatment options are limited, in many cases not beneficial, and prognosis is uncertain. Only 15 patients with a relatively mild form clearly improved on a combined therapy with pyridoxine (B6)/pyridoxal phosphate, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors.
  16. Linkie M, Guillera-Arroita G, Smith J, Rayan DM
    Integr Zool, 2010 Dec;5(4):342-350.
    PMID: 21392352 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00215.x
    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*; Photography; Population Dynamics; Tigers/physiology*; Endangered Species
  17. Lee JY, Saat M, Chou C, Hashiguchi N, Wijayanto T, Wakabayashi H, et al.
    J. Therm. Biol., 2010 Feb;35(2):70-76.
    PMID: 28799915 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2009.11.002
    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in cutaneous thermal sensation thresholds and the inter-threshold sensory zone between tropical (Malaysians) and temperate natives (Japanese). The results showed that (1) Malaysian males perceived warmth on the forehead at a higher skin temperature (Tsk) than Japanese males (p<0.05), whereas cool sensations on the hand and foot were perceived at a lower Tsk in Malaysians (p<0.05); (2) Overall, the sensitivity to detect warmth was greater in Japanese than in Malaysian males; (3) The most thermally sensitive body region of Japanese was the forehead for both warming and cooling, while the regional thermal sensitivity of Malaysians had a smaller differential than that of Japanese; (4) The ethnic difference in the inter-threshold sensory zone was particularly noticeable on the forehead (1.9±1.2C for Japanese, 3.2±1.6°C for Malaysians, p<0.05). In conclusion, tropical natives had a tendency to perceive warmth at a higher Tsk and slower at an identical speed of warming, and had a wider range of the inter-threshold sensory zone than temperate natives.
  18. Syed-Mohamad SM, Ali SH, Mat-Husin MN
    Health Inf Manag, 2010 Mar;39(1):30-35.
    PMID: 28683624 DOI: 10.1177/183335831003900105
    This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
    MeSH terms: Computers; Confidentiality; Data Collection; Humans; Malaysia; Research; Software; Internet; Workflow; Electronic Health Records
  19. Ozohu-Suleiman Y
    J Public Health Afr, 2010 Sep 01;1(1):e2.
    PMID: 28299036 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e2
    This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
    MeSH terms: Communication; Humans; Mass Media; Local Government; Nigeria; Poliomyelitis; Surveys and Questionnaires; Friends
External Links