Browse publications by year: 2010

  1. Citation: The second annual report of the National Eye Database 2008. Goh PP, Livingstone BI, Hussein E, Ismail M, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2010
    MeSH terms: Eye Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Registries
  2. MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms; Humans; Malaysia; Neoplasms; Guidelines as Topic
  3. Section 1: Pre-pregnancy Section 2: Antenatal Care Section 3: Intrapartum Care Section 4: Postpartum Care Section 5: Neonatal Care
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Obstetrics; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Guideline; Preconception Care; Postpartum Period
  4. MeSH terms: Adult; Child; Endocrinology; Humans; Malaysia; Growth Hormone; Guideline
  5. MeSH terms: Humans; Malaysia; Pain; Palliative Care; Guidelines as Topic
  6. MeSH terms: Adult; Dengue; Humans; Infection; Malaysia; Guideline
  7. MeSH terms: Cardiology; Coronary Disease; Humans; Malaysia; Myocardial Infarction; Guidelines as Topic; Angina, Stable
  8. Huckvale C, Car J, Akiyama M, Jaafar S, Khoja T, Bin Khalid A, et al.
    Qual Saf Health Care, 2010 Aug;19 Suppl 2:i25-33.
    PMID: 20693213 DOI: 10.1136/qshc.2009.038497
    BACKGROUND: Research on patient care has identified substantial variations in the quality and safety of healthcare and the considerable risks of iatrogenic harm as significant issues. These failings contribute to the high rates of potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality and to the rising levels of healthcare expenditure seen in many health systems. There have been substantial developments in information technology in recent decades and there is now real potential to apply these technological developments to improve the provision of healthcare universally. Of particular international interest is the use of eHealth applications. There is, however, a large gap between the theoretical and empirically demonstrated benefits of eHealth applications. While these applications typically have the technical capability to help professionals in the delivery of healthcare, inadequate attention to the socio-technical dimensions of their use can result in new avoidable risks to patients.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Given the current lack of evidence on quality and safety improvements and on the cost-benefits associated with the introduction of eHealth applications, there should be a focus on implementing more mature technologies; it is also important that eHealth applications should be evaluated against a comprehensive and rigorous set of measures, ideally at all stages of their application life cycle.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Developing Countries; Humans; Medical Informatics/standards*; Medication Errors/prevention & control; Quality Assurance, Health Care*; Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems; Telemedicine/economics; Telemedicine/standards; Patient-Centered Care/standards; Evidence-Based Medicine; Health Care Sector*; Patient Safety*
  9. Citation: Garispanduan pengendalian dan pengurusan rekod perubatan pesakit bagi hospital-hospital dan institusi perubatan. Putrajaya: Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia; 2010

    Translation:
    Guideline on the handling and management of medical records for hospitals and medical institutions. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2010
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Health Facilities; Hospitals; Malaysia; Medical Records; Guidelines as Topic
  10. Anwar A, Liew J, Othman M, Latif M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:169-174.
    Biomass burning is one of the main sources of air pollution in South East Asia, predominantly during the dry period between June and October each year. Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia, have been identified as the regions connected to biomass burning due to their involvement in agricultural activities. In Sumatra, the Province of Riau has always been found to have had the highest number of hotspots during haze episodes. This study aims to determine the concentration of five major pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) in Riau, Indonesia, for 2006 and 2007. It will also correlate the level of air pollutants to the number of hotspots recorded, using the hotspot information system introduced by the Malaysian Centre for Remote Sensing (MACRES). Overall, the concentration of air pollutants recorded was found to increase with the number of hotspots. Nevertheless, only the concentration of PM10 during a haze episode is significantly different when compared to its concentration in non-haze conditions. In fact, in August 2006, when the highest number of hotspots was recorded the concentration of PM10 was found to increase by more than 20% from its normal concentration. The dispersion pattern, as simulated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), showed that the distribution of PM10 was greatly influenced by the wind direction. Furthermore, the particles had the capacity to reach the Peninsular Malaysia within 42 hours of emission from the point sources as a consequence of the South West monsoon.
    MeSH terms: Agriculture; Air Pollutants; Air Pollution; Indonesia; Malaysia; Sulfur Dioxide; Wind; Biomass; Particulate Matter; Remote Sensing Technology
  11. Then SM, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Musalmah Mazlan, Gapor Mat Top
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Tocopherols and tocotrienols have been shown in previous studies to protect neurons from oxidative injuries, especially from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) induced oxidative stress. In this study, we compared two vitamin E isomers, γ-tocotrienol (GTT) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in their neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary rat cortical neurons and human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Cytotoxicity screening of H2O2, GTT and ATF was done to determine the IC50 levels. To screen for neuroprotective effects, cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cell cultures were pre-incubated with GTT or ATF, respectively at different concentrations for 1 hour before concurrent treatment of H2O2 at IC50. Results of these treatments were compared to cells treated with H2O2 only and control cells. Cytotoxicology screening showed that IC50 of H2O2 for cortical neuron is at 50 μM while SH-SY5Y have higher IC50 of 100 μM. GTT is cytotoxic to cortical neurons at ≥50 μM and SH-SY5Y at ≥100 μM while ATF did not show any toxicity within the range of concentration tested (1-750 μM). Results from neuroprotection screening showed that GTT and ATF were able to protect both cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y from H2O2-induced oxidative stress at concetration of ≤10 μM. Cellular uptake of GTT is higher in both cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y as compared to ATF when both cortical neuron and SH-SY5Y were incubated with 10 μM GTT or ATF, respectively for 24 hour. Although primary rat cortical neurons and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y were different culture system, the effects of GTT and ATF are similar in both H2O2 –induced culture which strongly suggest that both GTT and ATF act as free radical scavenger to exert their neuroprotective effects.
  12. Zaleha K, Farahiyah Ilyana Jamaludin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Copepods play a major role as food link for larger animals and it is also important as a live food source for the aquaculture industry. There are only few reports on the influence of temperature and salinity towards the growth and development of tropical copepods. In this study, the effect of temperature (5 and 25°C) and salinity (5, 10, 25 and 30 psu) on population growth and density of a marine harpacticoid, Pararobertsonia sp. in a laboratory condition is investigated. The species was first obtained from seagrass samples from Merchang estuary, Terengganu, which receives seawater from the South China Sea. It has been cultured in the laboratory condition through generations. The findings show that there is a significant difference (P<0.05) detected between the salinity treatment and it shows that difference in salinities give different effects on the population number of the harpacticoids cultured in the same temperature (25 ± 1°C). On the other hand, harpacticoids reared in cold temperature (5 ± 1°C) did not survive the condition. Harpacticoids reared in 25 psu salinity show the highest population density (mean of 3.7 ind./ml), but the most stable population growth is shown in 35 psu treatment as shown by its high value of maximum specific growth rate (K). From this experiment, it can be concluded that 35 psu and temperature of 25 ± 1°C is the optimum condition for the maximum production of a tropical Pararobertsonia sp. in the laboratory condition.
  13. Wan Aida W, Uma D, Ho C
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was performed in the present study to optimize the extraction parameters for assessing maximum yield of total phenolic content (TPC) from henna (Lawsonia inermis) leaves. The range of the independent variables, namely acetone concentration (20-90%, v/v), extraction time (10-90 minutes) and extraction temperature (25-45°C) were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at five levels were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. The optimum conditions for extraction of TPC were found to be at acetone concentration 48.07%, extraction time 73.78 minutes and extraction temperature 39.57°C. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of TPC was 7203.74 mg GAE/100g DW, which was in close agreement with predicted values, thus indicating the suitability of the models developed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.
  14. Samat S, Evans C
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    The present work considers the volume-depth relationship for several container shapes such as cylinders, spheres and cones. The evaluation of the volume corresponding to a given depth is easily carried out on a spreadsheet. A computer program is described for carrying out the inverse process, that is, to output values of depth corresponding to selected volumes, hence producing a depth-gauge. The calculation can take into account the shape of the container and how the divisions (numbered and un-numbered) should be distributed on the scale. If the scale is graduated as a fraction of the total volume and displayed at an arbitrary size on the monitor screen, then “universal” results are obtained, for example for any sphere, or any cylinder, etc., independent of its actual dimensions. In addition, if the volume is specified in litres (or gallons, or any other units) and the length of the depth-scale is specified, then a gauge can be produced that will suit that particular container. It can be displayed on the screen only as a scale drawing, but exact dimensions can be output as a file, which will allow the full-size gauge to be drawn, either using drawing-office equipment or an automatic drawing machine.
  15. Zalina Laili, Muhamad Samudi Yasir, Muhamat Omar, Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim, Philip E
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    This study examines the influence of humic acids (HA) on adsorption of radium (Ra) ions onto coir pith (CP) in aqueous solution. The adsorption behaviours of Ra ions onto CP under the influence of HA in aqueous solution were investigated in the series of batch mode adsorption experiments. The effects of various experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial concentration of Ra ions have been studied. The results revealed that the presence of HA in aqueous solution enhanced the adsorption of Ra ions onto CP. The adsorption results showed that the percentage of Ra adsorbed was increased with an increase in the pH or alkalinity of aqueous solutions. Time dependence of the batch studies showed that a contact time of one day was sufficient to reach equilibrium. The result also showed that there was no significant difference on the effect of adsorbent dose on adsorption of radium onto CP. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by Freundlich equation.
    MeSH terms: Adsorption; Humic Substances; Ions; Lignin; Radium; Water
  16. Abdullah H, Halim S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Polycrystalline samples of (Pr1-xNdx)0.67Ba0.33MnO3 with x = 0.0, 0.167, 0.33, 0.5, 0.67, 0.833, and 1.0 have been prepared using the solid state reaction. The samples were calcined at 900oC for 12 hours, pelletized and sintered at 1300oC for 24 hours. The structures were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. XRD patterns showed orthorhombic distorted perovskite structures. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the disorder of the structure in all substitutions. This influenced the value of the magnetoresistance (MR). The MR effects are measured using the four point probe technique with a magnetic field of B ≤ 1T at temperatures of 90, 100, 150, 200, 250, 270 and 300 K. Overall, the MR increased as the temperature decreased. All doping concentrations gave a small variation range (~10% to ~56%). The highest MR value of 56.5 % is observed at 100 K for a sample with x = 1.0. The influence of disorder on the magnetoresistance in (Pr1-xNdx)0.67Ba0.33MnO3 manganites at low temperatures was also discussed in this paper.
  17. Mohd Zuhri Mohamed Yusoff, Mohd Sapuan Salit, Napsiah Ismail, Riza Wirawan
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    This paper presents the study of mechanical properties of short random oil palm fibre reinforced epoxy (OPF/epoxy) composites. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) was selected as the fibre and epoxy as the matrix. Composite plate with four different volume fractions of oil palm fibre was fabricated, (5 vol%, 10 vol%, 15 vol% and 20 vol%). The fabrication was made by hand-lay up techniques. The tensile and flexural properties showed a decreasing trend as the fibre loading was increased. The highest tensile properties was obtained for the composite with fibre loading of 5 vol% and there were no significant effect for addition of more than 5 vol% to the flexural properties. Interaction between fibre and matrix was observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph.
    MeSH terms: Bone Plates; Dietary Fiber; Epoxy Resins; Fruit; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Laxatives
  18. Awitdrus, Taer E, Mohamad Deraman, Ibrahim Abu Talib, Ramli Omar, Mohd. Hafizuddin Jumali, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Carbon pellets (CP) were prepared from the green pellets (GP) containing mixtures of pre-carbonized oil palm empty fruit bunches (SACG) and Green Petroleum Cokes (GPC), with the weight percentages (x) of SACG in the samples at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%. Carbonization process to produce the CP was conducted up to 900oC using a multi steps heating profile. The interlayer spacing (d200 and d100), stack height (Lc), stack width (La,) and effective dimension L of the turbostratic crystallites (microsrystallite) in the CPs were estimated from X-ray diffraction data; d200, d100, La, L increased and Lc decreased with increasing weight percentage of SACG. The total surface area of active material of the CP (Atot) with thickness, t, estimated from Lc was found to follow the equation, Atot = [4.8086 – 0.0083x]1010 t, indicating a significant influence of the SACG content in the mixture of the green body.
  19. Ahmad S, Muhamad N, Muchtar A, Sahari J, Jamaludin K, Ibrahim M, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Kertas ini membentangkan hasil kajian terhadap sifat mekanikal dan fizikal titanium berbusa yang disinter pada suhu yang berbeza. Untuk kajian ini penghasilan titanium berbusa adalah menggunakan kaedah buburan dan menggunakan dua jenis titanium iaitu titanium tulen dan titanium aloi (Ti6Al4V). Buburan titanium disediakan dengan mencampurkan serbuk titanium, polietilena glikol (PEG), metilselulosa dan air. Setelah buburan titanium disediakan, busa poliuretana (PU) direndamkan di dalam buburan tadi dan kemudiannya dikeringkan di dalam ketuhar. Langkah terakhir adalah proses pensinteran yang dilakukan di dalam relau vakum. Suhu pensinteran adalah 1200oC, 1250oC dan 1300°C. Selepas sampel titanium berbusa diperolehi, ujian kekuatan mampatan dilakukan ke atasnya. Saiz liang dan sangga diukur dengan menggunakan mikroskop elektron imbasan (SEM). Saiz liang yang didapati adalah antara 388 μm hingga 1.07 mm dan saiz sangga adalah antara 59.4 μm to 227 μm. Nilai kekuatan tertinggi didapati untuk sampel yang telah disinter pada suhu 1250oC iaitu 14.85 MPa bagi titanium aloi. Hasil ujian ketumpatan pula adalah berbeza dengan ujian kekuatan mampatan iaitu titanium tulen memberikan ketumpatan yang paling tinggi iaitu 1.25 g/cm3 pada suhu 1300oC diikuti dengan peratusan keliangan sebanyak 65.05% untuk sampel yang sama. Secara keseluruhannya, suhu pensinteran 1250oC didapati paling sesuai untuk kedua-dua titanium tulen dan asli.
  20. Mohamad Nasir Othman, Md. Pauzi Abdullah, Yang Farina Abd. Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:333-336.
    Aluminium in drinking water comes from natural sources and the alum used as coagulant in the water treatment process. Exposure to aluminium has been implicated in dialysis dementia, Parkinson and Alzheimer’s disease. Drinking water containing aluminium was considered to be one of the main sources of Al intake into human body. For this reason, the removal of aluminium from drinking water is vital to our health. In this study, removal of aluminium was carried out by using a chelating resin. To achieve the purpose, two chelating resin iontosorb oxin (IO) and polyhydroxamic acid (PHA) were used. The effects of concentration, pH, stirring time and resin amount was investigated. The concentration range varied between 10 and 500 ppb, pH range was between 2 and 12, stirring time between 5 and 60 minutes, and resin amount between 100 and 1500 mg. The optimum conditions of these resins were determined in a batch system. The results obtained showed that the optimum condition to remove aluminium for polyhydroxamic acid and iontosorb was pH 5-8 and pH 4-9; concentration range between 50-500 ppb, and 150-500 ppb, resin amount 200 mg and the stirring time was 20 minutes, respectively.
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