Browse publications by year: 2010

  1. Bhat R, Rai RV, Karim AA
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2010 Jan;9(1):57-81.
    PMID: 33467806 DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00094.x
      Disease outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated food and feedstuff are a recurring problem worldwide. The major factor contributing to contamination are microorganisms, especially fungi, which produce low-molecular-weight compounds as secondary metabolites, with confirmed toxic properties referred to as mycotoxins. Several mycotoxins reported to date are cosmopolitan in distribution and incur severe health-associated risks (including cancer and neurological disorders). Hence, creating awareness among consumers, as well as developing new methods for detection and inactivation is of great importance for food safety. In this review, the focus is on the occurrence of various types of mycotoxins in food and feed associated with risks to humans and livestock, as well as legislation put forth by various authorities, and on presently practiced detoxification methods. Brief descriptions on recent developments in mycotoxin detection methodology are also inlcuded. This review is meant to be informative not only for health-conscious consumers but also for experts in the field to pave the way for future research to fill the existing gaps in our knowledge with regard to mycotoxins and food safety.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Disease Outbreaks; Fungi; Humans; Mycotoxins; Neoplasms; Nervous System Diseases; Livestock; Food Safety
  2. Asgar MA, Fazilah A, Huda N, Bhat R, Karim AA
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2010 Sep;9(5):513-529.
    PMID: 33467834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00124.x
      The direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products has been increasing over the years because of animal diseases, global shortage of animal protein, strong demand for wholesome and religious (halal) food, and economic reasons. The increasing importance of legume and oilseed proteins in the manufacturing of various functional food products is due to their high-protein contents. However, the greatest obstacle to utilizing these legumes and oilseeds is the presence of antinutrients; but these antinutrients can be successfully removed or inactivated by employing certain processing methods. In contrast, the potential negative impact of the antinutrients is partially balanced by the fact that they may have a health-promoting role. Legumes and oilseeds provide well-balanced amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. Soybean proteins, wheat gluten, cottonseed proteins, and other plant proteins have been used for texturization. Texturized vegetable proteins can extend meat products while providing an economical, functional, and high-protein food ingredient or can be consumed directly as a meat analog. Meat analogs are successful because of their healthy image (cholesterol free), meat-like texture, and low cost. Mycoprotein is fungal in origin and is used as a high-protein, low-fat, health-promoting food ingredient. Mycoprotein has a good taste and texture. Texturized vegetable proteins and a number of mycoprotein products are accepted as halal foods. This article summarizes information regarding the molecular, nutritional, and functional properties of alternative protein sources to meat and presents current knowledge to encourage further research to optimize the beneficial effects of alternative protein sources.
    MeSH terms: Amino Acids; Animals; Animal Diseases; Edible Grain; Cottonseed Oil; Glutens; Fabaceae; Meat; Meat Products; Plant Proteins; Taste; Vegetables; Triticum; Soybean Proteins; Soy Foods; Functional Food
  3. Zhao J, Tien HY, Abdullah S, Zhang Z
    Plast Reconstr Surg, 2010 Dec;126(6):2052-2059.
    PMID: 21124145 DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181f44994
    BACKGROUND: Second toe-to-thumb transfer is a good alternative to using the great toe for reconstruction of the thumb. It achieves excellent function and reduces morbidity to the donor foot. However, cosmesis is often poor. The second toe has three unattractive features, a narrow "neck," a bulbous tip, and a short nail.

    METHODS: The authors describe a modified second toe transfer that addresses cosmesis in six patients. These include (1) harvesting a flap from the adjacent side of the great toe and insetting it into the volar aspect of the second toe to give more bulk, (2) making skin excisions on each side of the tip to reduce the bulbous appearance, and (3) excising the eponychium to produce apparent lengthening of the nail.

    RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 18 months (range, 6 to 36 months). The procedure resulted in good function and improved cosmesis in all six cases. Part of the great toe flap was lost in one case. The mean two-point discrimination in the transferred toes was 10.1 mm, with protective sensation present in the flaps. The range of motion of the transferred toe was 14 to 38 degrees at the metatarsophalangeal joint, 16 to 55 degrees at the proximal interphalangeal joints, and 20 to 36 degrees in the distal interphalangeal joints. All patients except one were happy with the appearance of the transferred toe.

    CONCLUSION: This novel approach will allow patients to take advantage of the lower morbidity to the donor site afforded by second toe-to-thumb transfer and provide the patients with a more aesthetic appearance of the new thumb.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Amputation, Traumatic/surgery*; Dissection/methods; Esthetics*; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Microsurgery/methods*; Postoperative Complications/physiopathology; Sensory Receptor Cells/physiology; Surgical Flaps; Thumb/injuries*; Thumb/innervation; Toes/transplantation*; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Tissue and Organ Harvesting; Young Adult
  4. Labeda DP, Price NP, Tan GYA, Goodfellow M, Klenk HP
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 2010 Jun;60(Pt 6):1444-1449.
    PMID: 19671714 DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.016568-0
    The species Amycolatopsis fastidiosa (ex Celmer et al. 1977) Henssen et al. 1987 was proposed, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic observations, for a strain originally described as 'Pseudonocardia fastidiosa' Celmer et al. 1977 in a US patent. In the course of a phylogenetic study of the taxa with validly published names within the suborder Pseudonocardineae based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, it became apparent that this species was misplaced in the genus Amycolatopsis. After careful evaluation of the phylogeny, morphology, chemotaxonomy and physiology of the type strain, it was concluded that this strain represents a species of the genus Actinokineospora that is unable to produce motile spores. The description of the genus Actinokineospora is therefore emended to accommodate species that do not produce motile spores, and it is proposed that Amycolatopsis fastidiosa be transferred to the genus Actinokineospora as Actinokineospora fastidiosa comb. nov. The type strain is NRRL B-16697(T) =ATCC 31181(T) =DSM 43855(T) =JCM 3276(T) =NBRC 14105(T) =VKM Ac-1419(T).
    MeSH terms: Actinomycetales/classification*; Actinomycetales/genetics; Actinomycetales/physiology; Actinomycetales/ultrastructure; Base Composition; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Molecular Sequence Data; Monosaccharides/metabolism; Terminology as Topic; Phospholipids/metabolism; Phylogeny; Spores, Bacterial/physiology; Vitamin K 2/metabolism
  5. Furuse Y, Suzuki A, Kishi M, Galang HO, Lupisan SP, Olveda RM, et al.
    J Med Virol, 2010 May;82(6):1071-4.
    PMID: 20419824 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.21763
    Several novel viruses have been recently identified in respiratory samples. However, the epidemiology of these viruses in tropical countries remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, new subtypes of human coronavirus (NL63 and HKU1), KI virus, WU virus, and Melaka virus in the Philippines, a tropical country. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from 465 patients with influenza-like illness were collected in 2006 and 2007. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR were performed to detect viruses from culture-negative specimens. Human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, human coronavirus HKU1, KI virus, and WU virus were detected for the first time in the Philippines; Melaka virus was not found.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Middle Aged; Nasopharynx/virology*; Philippines/epidemiology; Polyomavirus/isolation & purification; Reoviridae/isolation & purification; Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology*; Respiratory Tract Infections/virology*; Virus Diseases/epidemiology*; Virus Diseases/virology*; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Coronavirus/isolation & purification; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification; Young Adult; Human bocavirus/isolation & purification
  6. Sun Z
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 01 01;6(1):e4.
    PMID: 21611064 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.1.e4
    With the advent of multislice CT more than a decade ago, multislice CT angiography has demonstrated a huge potential in the less invasive imaging of cardiovascular disease, especially in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT angiography has been significantly augmented with the rapid technical developments ranging from the initial 4-slice, to the current 64-slice and 256 and 320-slice CT scanners. This is mainly demonstrated by the improved spatial and temporal resolution when compared to the earlier type of CT scanners. Traditionally, multislice CT angiography is acquired with retrospective ECG-gating with acquisition of volume data at the expense of increased radiation dose, since data is acquired at the entire cardiac cycle, although not all of them are used for postprocessing or reconstructions. Recently, there is an increasing trend of utilising prospective ECG-gating in cardiac imaging with latest multislice CT scanners (64 or more slices) with significant reduction of radiation dose when compared to retrospective ECG-gating method. However, there is some debate as to the diagnostic value of prospective ECG-gating in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, despite its attractive ability to reduce radiation dose. This article will review the performance of retrospective ECG-gating in the diagnostic value of coronary artery disease, highlight the potential applications of prospective ECG-gating, and explore the future directions of multislice CT angiography in cardiac imaging.
  7. Omu FE, Omu AE
    BMC Nurs, 2010 Mar 18;9:5.
    PMID: 20298604 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-9-5
    BACKGROUND: The unfulfilled desire of millions of infertile couples worldwide to have their own biological children results in emotional distress. This study evaluated the emotional reactions of couples attending a combined infertility clinic in Kuwait and successful clients' perception of nurses.

    METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase was by structured interview using two standardized psychological scales: the 25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist and Modified Fertility Adjustment Scale. Data were collected from 268 couples attending the combined infertility clinic, between October 2002 and September 2007. The second phase was a semi-structured interview of 10 clients who got pregnant following treatment. The interview explored their feelings and perception of the nurses' role. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed.

    RESULTS: The average duration of infertility was 4 years; 65.7% of the women and 76.1% of men suffered from primary infertility. Emotional reactions experienced were: anxiety in women (12.7%) and men (6%), depression in women (5.2%) and men (14.9%) and reduced libido in women (6.7%) and men (29.9%). Also in men, 14.9% experienced premature ejaculation, 5.2% weak ejaculation and 7.9% had impotence although 4.9% were transient. In the semi-structured interviews, the emotions expressed were similar and in addition to anger, feelings of devastation, powerlessness, sense of failure and frustration. In the survey, 12.7% of the men were found to show more anxiety than women (6%). Although all the 10 women interviewed confirmed they were anxious; only 4 of their partners were reported to be sad or anxious. Successful clients' perception of nurses' roles included nurses carrying out basic nursing procedures, communicating, educating about investigative and treatment procedures, providing emotional support by listening, encouraging, reassuring and being empathetic.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study illuminates the emotional reactions of infertile clients. Fertility nurses in Kuwait can provide emotional support through communication. The need for additional and continuous training for nurses employed in fertility settings in Kuwait is paramount.

  8. Seet K, Barghi A, Yartsev S, Van Dyk J
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2010 07 01;6(3):e31.
    PMID: 21611047 DOI: 10.2349/biij.6.3.e31
    PURPOSE: To find the optimal slice thickness (Δτ) setting for patient registration with kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kVCBCT) on the Varian On Board Imager (OBI) system by investigating the relationship of slice thickness to automatic registration accuracy and contrast-to-noise ratio.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Automatic registration was performed on kVCBCT studies of the head and pelvis of a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom. Images were reconstructed with 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at 1.0 mm increments. The phantoms were offset by a known amount, and the suggested shifts were compared to the known shifts by calculating the residual error. A uniform cylindrical phantom with cylindrical inserts of various known CT numbers was scanned with kVCBCT at 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at increments of 0.5 mm. The contrast-to-noise ratios for the inserts were measured at each Δτ.

    RESULTS: For the planning CT slice thickness used in this study, there was no significant difference in residual error below a threshold equal to the planning CT slice thickness. For Δτ > 3.0 mm, residual error increased for both the head and pelvis phantom studies. The contrast-to-noise ratio is proportional to slice thickness until Δτ = 2.5 mm. Beyond this point, the contrast-to-noise ratio was not affected by Δτ.

    CONCLUSION: Automatic registration accuracy is greatest when 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is used. Contrast-to-noise ratio is optimal for the 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 range. Therefore 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is recommended for kVCBCT patient registration where the planning CT is 3.0 mm.

  9. Abdullah MAH, Abdullah AT
    Citation: Abdullah MAH, Abdullah AT. Annual report of National Orthopaedic Registry Malaysia (NORM) Diabetic Foot 2009. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre, Malaysia; 2010
    MeSH terms: Hand; Humans; Malaysia; Registries; Prevalence; Diabetic Foot; Databases as Topic
  10. Abdullah MAH, Abdullah AT
    Abdullah MAH, Abdullah AT. Annual report of National Orthopaedic Registry Malaysia (NORM) Hip Fracture 2009. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur; 2010
    MeSH terms: Hip Fractures; Humans; Malaysia; Registries; Prevalence; Databases as Topic; Fractures, Bone
  11. Suvarna BS
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2010 1 15;7(26):172-6.
    PMID: 20071855
    Individuals respond differently to drugs and sometimes the effects are unpredictable. Differences in DNA that alter the expression or function of proteins targeted by drugs can contribute significantly to the variation in the individuals responses. The use of pharmacogenomics is to identify genetic polymorphisms that predispose patients to adverse drug effects that, although they may occur in only a small subset of the people treated with a new medication, are sufficiently toxic to jeopardise further development of the drug for all patients. Given the potential value of knowing all the possible factors that influence the effects of new agents, it is likely that pharmacogenomics will have an increasingly important role in drug discovery and development. This article briefly reviews concepts that underlie the emerging fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetics of drug metabolism. Although only a few examples will be provided to illustrate concepts and to demonstrate the potential contribution of pharmacogenetics to medical practice, it is now clear that virtually every pathway of drug metabolism will eventually be found to have genetic variation.
    MeSH terms: Humans; Inactivation, Metabolic/genetics; Pharmacogenetics*; Drug Design*; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  12. Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM
    Citation: Ismail M, Haniff J, Wan Bebakar WM. Diabetes Registry Malaysia: report of an audit of diabetes control and management (January-December 2009). Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre, 2010
    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*; Humans; Malaysia; Medical Audit; Registries; Disease Management
  13. Heok KE
    Int Psychiatry, 2010 Apr;7(2):34-36.
    PMID: 31508029
    The report World Population Ageing 1950-2050 (United Nations, 2002) estimated that in 2005 there were 37.3 million elderly people (i.e. aged 65 years or more) in South-East Asia (a region incorporating Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). There are only a few epidemiological studies on mental disorders among elderly people in this region and the published data are mainly from Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. Using Singapore's prevalence rate of 3% for dementia and 5.7% for depression, the numbers of elderly people with dementia in this region would be 1.2 million and with depression 2.12 million (Kua, 1992; Kua & Ko, 1995). However, even in Singapore, we have identified only 10% of all potential cases of dementia and depression - meaning that the large majority of elderly people with mental disorders are not detected, although they may be known, for other reasons, to the health services.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Aging; Asia, Southeastern; Brunei; Myanmar; Cambodia; Dementia; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Humans; Indonesia; Laos; Malaysia; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; United Nations; Vietnam; Prevalence; Epidemiologic Studies
  14. Sorketti EA, Zuraida NZ, Habil MH
    Int Psychiatry, 2010 Jul;7(3):71-74.
    PMID: 31508045
    The importance of traditional healing in low- and middle-income countries cannot be underestimated. It is generally perceived as part of the prevailing belief system and traditional healers are often seen as the primary agents for psychosocial problems in these countries; estimates of their service share range from 45% to 60% (World Health Organization, 1992). The World Health Organization (2000) estimated that 80% of people living in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries depend on traditional medicine for their health needs.
    MeSH terms: Income; Medicine, Traditional; Perception; World Health Organization
  15. Yeap SS, Das Gupta E, Gun SC
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2010;13:121.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2010.01502.x
    BACKGROUND: In Malaysia, patients have a choice of attending a public (fully subsidised bygovernment) hospital (PUBH) or a private (fee-paying) hospital (PRIH) for their healthcare.The aim of this study was to, firstly, provide an overview of the characteristics of MalaysianSLE patients attending rheumatology clinics, and secondly, to ascertain if there were any dif-ferences between patients attending PUBH and PRIH.
    METHODS:A standardised questionnaire was administered to all SLE patients attendingrheumatology clinics in a PRIH in Selangor state and a PUBH in Negeri Sembilan state dur-ing the months of September to December 2009.
    RESULTS:One hundred and thirty patients were included in the study. There were 55(42.3%) patients from PRIH and 75 (57.7%) from PUBH. 93.8% were female. 61.5% wereChinese, 29.2% Malay and 7.7% Indians. The majority of patients completed secondaryschooling (46.9%) with significantly less PUBH patients going onto higher education(P = 0.001). 53.8% were in fulltime employment with 37.7% housewives/unemployed.There were significantly more unemployed patients in PUBH (45.3%) versus PRIH (27.2%)(P = 0.05). 33.8% of patients were single, 60.8% married and 3.8% divorced. Average ageat SLE diagnosis was 29.8510.17 years. At diagnosis, the most common presenting symp-tom was related to the mucocutaneous system 70.8%, followed by joints 55.3%, haemato-logical 46.9% and renal 23.1%. Significantly more patients had renal involvement atdiagnosis in PUBH (33.3%) versus PRIH (9.1%) (P = 0.001). At the time of survey, therewere 12 (9.2%) patients in remission. Of those still symptomatic, 48.5% related to themucocutaneous system, 32.3% joints, 27.7% haematological, 22.3% renal, with significantlymore current renal disease in PUBH (30.7%) versus PRIH (10.9%) (P = 0.008). The mostfrequently prescribed drug was prednisolone in 83.1% of patients, followed by hydroxychlo-roquine 68.5% and azathioprine 23.1%. Only 64.8% of patients on prednisolone were onbone protective agents. More patients in PRIH were on prednisolone (90.9%) versus PUBH(77.3%) (P = 0.04), but more patients were on activated vitamin D in PUBH (72%) versusPRIH (29.1%) (P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION:The demographics and clinical characteristics of SLE patients attending PUBHand PRIH are significantly different. This has important implications when considering edu-cational and treatment strategies
    MeSH terms: Hospitals, Public; Humans; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Malaysia; Rheumatic Diseases; Hospitals, Private
  16. Citation: The second annual report of the National Eye Database 2008. Goh PP, Livingstone BI, Hussein E, Ismail M, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2010
    MeSH terms: Eye Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Registries
  17. Citation:
    Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of Breast Cancer, Third Edition. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2019
    Quick reference:
    Training manual:
    Patient information leaflet:

    Older versions: Second Edition (2010); First Edition (2002)
    Keywords: CPG
    MeSH terms: Breast Neoplasms; Humans; Malaysia; Neoplasms; Guidelines as Topic
  18. Section 1: Pre-pregnancy Section 2: Antenatal Care Section 3: Intrapartum Care Section 4: Postpartum Care Section 5: Neonatal Care
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Obstetrics; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Guideline; Preconception Care; Postpartum Period
  19. MeSH terms: Adult; Child; Endocrinology; Humans; Malaysia; Growth Hormone; Guideline
  20. MeSH terms: Humans; Malaysia; Pain; Palliative Care; Guidelines as Topic
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