Many papers have been written on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles but very few included pictures of the process, and none of them used video to show the whole process of synthesis. This paper records the process of synthesis of gold nanoparticles using video clips. Every process from cleaning of glassware, an important step in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, to the dialysis process is shown. It also includes the preparation of aqua regia and the actual synthesis of gold nanoparticles. In some papers, the dialysis process was omitted, but in this paper, it is included to complete the whole process as it is being used for purification.
Mycorrhiza, a mutualistic association between fungi and higher plants, has been documented extensively, but much less is known about the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their effects on the growth of peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.). Therefore, the mycorrhizal status of Glomus spp. was investigated in the following diverse substrate soil conditions: non-autoclaved soil, autoclaved soil and autoclaved soil plus soil microbiota. The results indicated that both the arbuscular mycorrhizae, Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, and Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd. & Trappe emend. Walker & Koske were infective to peanut, but displayed a differential impact on peanut growth depending on the microbial biomass content of the substrate soils. G. mosseae proved to be the most effective at improving peanut growth.
CenPRIS Working Paper No. 129/10 (July 2010)
Republished in: An Uncommon Hero. p308-320
Dr M K Rajakumar fought the good fight on many fronts. In the 1970s, with domestic left-wing politics on the ebb, Dr Rajakumar shifted his energies to another arena of human endeavor he was passionate about, health and medical care for the needful. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Dr Rajakumar worked tirelessly to advance primary care medicine and to raise the standard of its practice in Malaysia and in the region. This article explores his writings on primary care within the context of an emerging population health perspective. KEYWORDS: MK Rajakumar, primary care, population health, biomedical sciences, politics
To assess the effect of dietary ascorbate on lipid metabolism, 1-year black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) were reared on a casein-based purified diet and an ascorbate fortified diet (1,100 mg of L: -ascorbyl-2- monophosphate-Mg/kg diet). The fortified ascorbate was effectively incorporated into the fish body and elevated muscle carnitine content. Fortifications of dietary ascorbate depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Starvation after feeding experiment activated carnitine palmitoyltransferase as a lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas in both control and vitamin C(VC) groups, while the lipolysis activity was significantly higher in VC group. These results confirmed that dietary ascorbate depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis, i.e., influenced the lipid metabolism of black sea bream.
Neurology. 2010 Jul 6;75(1):64-71
OBJECTIVE: To describe the current treatment; clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings; and clinical follow-up of patients with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.
METHOD: Clinical and biochemical data of 78 patients with AADC deficiency were tabulated in a database of pediatric neurotransmitter disorders (JAKE). A total of 46 patients have been previously reported; 32 patients are described for the first time.
RESULTS: In 96% of AADC-deficient patients, symptoms (hypotonia 95%, oculogyric crises 86%, and developmental retardation 63%) became clinically evident during infancy or childhood. Laboratory diagnosis is based on typical CSF markers (low homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacidic acid, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolglycole, and elevated 3-O-methyl-l-dopa, l-dopa, and 5-hydroxytryptophan), absent plasma AADC activity, or elevated urinary vanillactic acid. A total of 24 mutations in the DDC gene were detected in 49 patients (8 reported for the first time: p.L38P, p.Y79C, p.A110Q, p.G123R, p.I42fs, c.876G>A, p.R412W, p.I433fs) with IVS6+ 4A>T being the most common one (allele frequency 45%).
CONCLUSION: Based on clinical symptoms, CSF neurotransmitters profile is highly indicative for the diagnosis of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Treatment options are limited, in many cases not beneficial, and prognosis is uncertain. Only 15 patients with a relatively mild form clearly improved on a combined therapy with pyridoxine (B6)/pyridoxal phosphate, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors.
With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention.
MeSH terms: Animals; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods*; Photography; Population Dynamics; Tigers/physiology*; Endangered Species
The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in cutaneous thermal sensation thresholds and the inter-threshold sensory zone between tropical (Malaysians) and temperate natives (Japanese). The results showed that (1) Malaysian males perceived warmth on the forehead at a higher skin temperature (Tsk) than Japanese males (p<0.05), whereas cool sensations on the hand and foot were perceived at a lower Tsk in Malaysians (p<0.05); (2) Overall, the sensitivity to detect warmth was greater in Japanese than in Malaysian males; (3) The most thermally sensitive body region of Japanese was the forehead for both warming and cooling, while the regional thermal sensitivity of Malaysians had a smaller differential than that of Japanese; (4) The ethnic difference in the inter-threshold sensory zone was particularly noticeable on the forehead (1.9±1.2C for Japanese, 3.2±1.6°C for Malaysians, p<0.05). In conclusion, tropical natives had a tendency to perceive warmth at a higher Tsk and slower at an identical speed of warming, and had a wider range of the inter-threshold sensory zone than temperate natives.
This paper describes the method used to develop the One Stop Crisis Centre (OSCC) Portal, an open-source web-based electronic patient record system (EPR) for the One Stop Crisis Center, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia. Features and functionalities of the system are presented to demonstrate the workflow. Use of the OSCC Portal improved data integration and data communication and contributed to improvements in care management. With implementation of the OSCC portal, improved coordination between disciplines and standardisation of data in HUSM were noticed. It is expected that this will in turn result in improved data confidentiality and data integrity. The collected data will also be useful for quality assessment and research. Other low-resource centers with limited computer hardware and access to open-source software could benefit from this endeavour.
MeSH terms: Computers; Confidentiality; Data Collection; Humans; Malaysia; Research; Software; Internet; Workflow; Electronic Health Records
This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
MeSH terms: Communication; Humans; Mass Media; Local Government; Nigeria; Poliomyelitis; Surveys and Questionnaires; Friends
Migration of health workers 'Brain drain' is defined as the movement of health personnel in search of a better standard of living and life quality, higher salaries, access to advanced technology and more stable political conditions in different places worldwide. The debate about migration of health workers from the developing to the developed world has remained pertinent for decades now. Regardless of the push and pull factors, migration of health care workers from developing countries to developed ones, have done more harm than good on the health care deliveries in the developing countries. This article reviews the literature on the effects of cross-border migration of health care professionals.
MeSH terms: Brain; Delivery of Health Care; Developing Countries; Emigration and Immigration; Health Personnel; Humans; Quality of Life; Salaries and Fringe Benefits
Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.
MeSH terms: Chronic Disease; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Morbidity; Population Dynamics; Saudi Arabia; Social Class; Prevalence; Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Dyspnea is a common and distressing symptom experienced by 19%-51% of patients with advanced cancer. Higher incidences are reported in patients approaching end of life. While the prevalence of dyspnea has been reported to be as frequent as pain in people with lung cancer, less attention has been paid to the distress associated with dyspnea. This review of the literature was undertaken to investigate how dyspnea has been assessed and whether breathlessness in people with lung cancer is distressing. Using a predetermined search strategy and inclusion criteria, 31 primary studies were identified and included in this review. Different outcome measures were used to assess the experience of dyspnea, with domains including intensity, distress, quality of life, qualitative sensation, and prevalence. Overall, the studies report a high prevalence of dyspnea in lung cancer patients, with subjects experiencing a moderate level of dyspnea intensity and interference with activities of daily living. Distress associated with breathing appears to be variable, with some studies reporting dyspnea to be the most distressing sensation, and others reporting lower levels of distress. However, taking into account the prevalence, intensity, and distress of dyspnea, the general consensus appears to be that the experience of dyspnea in people with lung cancer is common, with varying degrees of intensity, but involves considerable unpleasantness. Thus, if dyspnea and pain are both distressing sensations for people with lung cancer, this has potential implications for both clinical and academic areas with regards to both management strategies and further research.
Synthetic membranes used in Franz diffusion cells for topical formulation quality assessment should provide least resistance to drug diffusion. In this study, the diffusion rates of ibuprofen across thirteen membranes were determined using Franz diffusion cells. Correlation of the membrane thickness, pore size and MWCO with drug fluxes was also made. The drug diffusion results showed that the porous membranes were categorized into high-flux (8-18 mg/cm²/h) and low-flux (0.1-3 mg/cm²/h) membranes. The drug fluxes did not show strong correlations (r² < 0.99) with membrane parameters. Synthetic membranes can give variable drug fluxes, thus investigators should be careful in choosing membrane for formulation quality assessment.
The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or the sick euthyroid syndrome refers to abnormal changes in circulating thyroid hormones due to systemic illnesses. Thyroid hormones are pivotal in the regulation of normal cardiac functions. However, the effects of the NTIS on the heart in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are still unclear.
Cardiovascular diseases, the main causes of hospitalisations and death globally, have put an enormous economic burden on the healthcare system. Several risk factors are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events. At the heart of efficient prevention of cardiovascular disease is the concept of risk assessment. This paper aims to review the available cardiovascular risk-assessment tools and its applicability in predicting cardiovascular risk among Asian populations.
The aim of this study is to determine the total phenolic content and primary antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of four aromatic plants’ leaves namely knotweed (Polygonum minus), curry (Murraya koenigii), kaffir lime (Citrus hysrix) and fragrant screwpine (Pandanus odurus). Total phenolic content (TPC) assay using Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to assess the presence and level of phenolic compounds in each sample. The present study showed that both methanolic and ethanolic extracts of P. minus had the highest TPC and followed by M. koenigii, C. hystrix and P. odorus. Primary antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging activities of both methanolic and ethanolic extracts was then measured by 2, 2, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The lowest EC50 values based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity were shown by P. minus extracts as compared to the other samples. For both ethanolic and methanolic extracts, the correlations between TPC and EC50 based on the DPPH. radical scavenging activity assay were negative and weak. Relatively, the present results suggest that of the four aromaticplants, P. minus and M. koenigii have shown potential as sources of natural antioxidants.
A simple analytical method for the determination of propionic acid and propionates in bakery products using a simple sample preparation procedure is described. The method involves the conversion of propionates to the non-ionized molecular form by adding glacial acetic acid, which is at the same time efficiently extracted into dichloromethane. After vortexing for 1 min, the extract was directly injected into a capillary gas chromatographic column with flame ionization detector. The method was applied for the determination of propionates in 112 commercial bakery samples. The levels of propionic acid plus propionates in bread, cake/ rolls, burger/hot dog buns and pita breads ranged from 197-1273, 98-1846, 546-1932 and 479-1680 µg mL -1 , respectively. No propionate was detected in any of the 36 biscuit samples analyzed.
A study was carried out to optimize the deacidification process for noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) extract using packed column of calcium carbonate. The experiments were based on a 3-level factorial design to study the optimum process of deacidification for M. citrifolia extract. The M. citrifolia extract was treated with CaCO3 packed in different column diameter (20, 25 and 30 mm), height of calcium carbonate (0, 0.5 and 1 cm) and feed rate (10, 30 and 50 ml/min). Physico-chemical characteristics which include pH, titratable acidity, turbidity, total polyphenol content and total soluble solids were measured. Results showed that only pH, titratable acidity and turbidity could be well represented using statistical models. For pH, only the effect of height of CaCO3 was found to be significant. While for titratable acidity and turbidity, effects of diameter column and height of CaCO3 were significant. The optimum conditions for the deacidification of M. citrifolia extract was by using a column diameter of 30 mm, CaCO3 height of 1 cm, and a feed rate of 50 ml/min.