Radiographic examination is essential in diagnosis and treatment planning in endodontics. Conventional radiographs depict structures in two dimensions only. The ability to assess the area of interest in three dimensions is advantageous. Computed tomography is an imaging technique which produces three-dimensional images of an object by taking a series of two-dimensional sectional X-ray images. DentaScan is a computed tomography software program that allows the mandible and maxilla to be imaged in three planes: axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional. As computed tomography is used in endodontics, DentaScan can play a wider role in endodontic diagnosis. It provides valuable information in the assessment of the morphology of the root canal, diagnosis of root fractures, internal and external resorptions, pre-operative assessment of anatomic structures etc. The aim of this article is to explore the clinical usefulness of computed tomography and DentaScan in endodontic diagnosis, through a series of four cases of different endodontic problems.
Hospital and healthcare facilities have diverse indoor environment due to the different comfort and health needs of its occupants. Currently, most ventilation studies revolve around specialised areas such as operating rooms and isolation rooms. This paper focuses on the ventilation of multiple-bed hospital wards in the tropical climate, taking into account the design, indoor conditions and engineering controls. General ward layouts are described briefly. The required indoor conditions such as temperature, humidity, air movements and indoor air quality in the ward spaces are summarized based on the current guidelines and practices. Also, recent studies and engineering practices in the hospital indoor environment are elaborated. Usage of computational fluid dynamics tools for the ventilation studies is discussed as well. As identified during the review, there is an apparent knowledge gap for ventilation studies in the tropics compared with temperate climates, as fact studies have only been published for hospital wards in countries with a temperate climate. Therefore, it is highlighted that specific tropical studies along with novel engineering controls are required in addressing the ventilation requirements for the tropics.
The role of surgery in the morbidly obese is becoming more prominent. There are a variety of surgical approaches which can be used and radiology plays a crucial role in post operative follow up, particularly in the management of complications. Many general radiologists remain unfamiliar with both the normal and abnormal appearances after bariatric surgery and this pictorial review aims to bridge this gap.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with tropism for mucosal epithelia are the major aetiological factors in cervical cancer. Most cancers are associated with so-called high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, and constitutive expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins is critical for malignant transformation in infected keratinocytes. E6 and E7 bind to and inactivate the cellular tumour suppressors p53 and Rb, respectively, thus delaying differentiation and inducing proliferation in suprabasal keratinocytes to enable HPV replication. One member of the Rb family, p130, appears to be a particularly important target for E7 in promoting S-phase entry. Recent evidence indicates that p130 regulates cell-cycle progression as part of a large protein complex termed DREAM. The composition of DREAM is cell cycle-regulated, associating with E2F4 and p130 in G0/G1 and with the B-myb transcription factor in S/G2. In this study, we addressed whether p130-DREAM is disrupted in HPV16-transformed cervical cancer cells and whether this is a critical function for E6/E7. We found that p130-DREAM was greatly diminished in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cells (CaSki and SiHa) compared with control cell lines; however, when E6/E7 expression was targeted by specific small hairpin RNAs, p130-DREAM was reformed and the cell cycle was arrested. We further demonstrated that the profound G1 arrest in E7-depleted CaSki cells was dependent on p130-DREAM reformation by also targeting the expression of the DREAM component Lin-54 and p130. The results show that continued HPV16 E6/E7 expression is necessary in cervical cancer cells to prevent cell-cycle arrest by a repressive p130-DREAM complex.
Railway level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety control systems, due to the conflicts between road vehicles and rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. Driver behaviour at railway crossings is the major collision factor. The main objective of the present paper was to evaluate the existing conventional warning devices in relation to driver behaviour. The common conventional warning devices in Australia are a stop sign (passive), flashing lights and a half boom-barrier with flashing lights (active). The data were collected using two approaches, namely: field video recordings at selected sites and a driving simulator in a laboratory. This paper describes and compares the driver response results from both the field survey and the driving simulator. The conclusion drawn is that different types of warning systems resulted in varying driver responses at crossings. The results showed that on average driver responses to passive crossings were poor when compared to active ones. The field results were consistent with the simulator results for the existing conventional warning devices and hence they may be used to calibrate the simulator for further evaluation of alternative warning systems.
MeSH terms: Accident Prevention; Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Female; Humans; Human Engineering; Male; Middle Aged; Protective Devices*; Railroads*; Social Control, Formal; Video Recording; Young Adult
Objective: The assay for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody is a recent test of interest due to low diagnostic specificity of rheumatoid factor in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria as a gold standard.
Design: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2008 on 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 153 patients with arthritis or arthralgia but not fulfilling ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis.
Materials and Methods: Serum from each subject was tested for anti-CCP antibodies and IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity and specificity of the tests were evaluated using the ACR criteria as the gold standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 software. The association between the two categorical variables were tested using chi-square test. The differences between the two groups were tested using independent t-test. Results: The sensitivity of anti-CCP antibodies was 71% with 94.8% of specificity. For rheumatoid factor the sensitivity was 85% and the specificity was 74.5%. Positive predictive value for anti-CCP antibodies was 89.9% whereas for rheumatoid factor it was 68.5%. The sensitivity of ACR criteria with inclusion of anti- CCP antibodies was 100% and specificity of 94.8% (95%CI: 91.3%, 98.2%).
Conclusion: Anti-CCP antibody has a higher diagnostic accuracy compared to the RF. Anti-CCP antibody is a useful laboratory marker to support the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and to differentiate patients with rheumatoid arthritis from rheumatoid arthritis-like symptoms. Therefore, it is suggested that anti-CCP antibodies should be included as another laboratory supportive criterium besides RF test in ACR criteria in the diagnosis of RA.
Study site: family medicine clinic, rheumatology clinic and immunology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals, University; Humans; Malaysia; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital; Peptides, Cyclic; Predictive Value of Tests; Sensitivity and Specificity
Public health nursingis a specialized nursing combining both nursing and public health principles with the primary focus of improving the health of the whole community rather than just an individual. Its documented history started in the 1800s and has evolved from home visiting to the varied settings that public health nurses find themselves working in as members of public health teams in clinics, schools, workplaces and government health departments.Public health nursing has been a critical component of the country’s health care system, uplifting of the health status of Malaysians and playing a dominant role in the fight against communicable diseases, and is set to face the challenges of the 21st century with public health nurses practising to the full capacity of their training in a restructured Malaysian health system – 1Care for 1Malaysia. The health sector reform allows for optimisation of scarce health care resources to deliver expansion of quality services based on needs, appropriateness, equity &allocative efficiency. The proposed model will be better than the current system, preserving the strengths of the current system but able to respond to increasing population health needs and expectations. There will be increased autonomy for healthcare providers with incentives in place for greater performance. Some of the implications of reform include allowing public- private integration, a slimmer Ministry of Health with a stronger governance role, enhancing the gatekeeping role of the primary care providers and the autonomous management of the public healthcare providers. In this restructured health system, the roles of the public health nurses are no less important than in the current one. In fact, with the increasing emphasis placed on prevention and primary care as the hub of community care with nurses as part of the primary care team delivering continuous comprehensive person-centered care,public health nurses in the future will be able to meet the challenge of refocusing on the true mission of public health: to look at the health problems of a community as a whole and work with the community in alleviating those problems by applying the nursing process to improve health, not just as providers of personal care only.
MeSH terms: Malaysia; Nursing Care; Primary Health Care; Public Health