Browse publications by year: 2011

  1. Alkarkhi AFM, Ramli SB, Yong YS, Easa AM
    Food Chem, 2011 Nov 15;129(2):312-318.
    PMID: 30634232 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.060
    Banana pulp and peel flour prepared from green and ripe Cavendish banana were assessed for physicochemical properties such as pH, total soluble solids (TSS), water holding capacity (WHC) and oil holding capacity (OHC) at 40, 60 and 80°C, colour values L∗, a∗ and b∗, back extrusion force (BEF) and viscosity. Data obtained were analysed by MANOVA, discriminant analysis and cluster analysis. All statistical analyses showed that physicochemical properties of flour prepared from pulp and peel, and green and ripe banana were different from each other. TSS, WHC40, WHC60 and BEF can be used to discriminate between peel and pulp flour, whilst TSS and viscosity can be used to discriminate between flour prepared from green and ripe banana.
  2. Rohman A, Che Man YB
    Food Chem, 2011 Nov 15;129(2):583-588.
    PMID: 30634271 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.070
    Currently, the authentication of virgin coconut oil (VCO) has become very important due to the possible adulteration of VCO with cheaper plant oils such as corn (CO) and sunflower (SFO) oils. Methods involving Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques (partial least square (PLS) and discriminant analysis (DA)) were developed for quantification and classification of CO and SFO in VCO. MIR spectra of oil samples were recorded at frequency regions of 4000-650cm-1 on horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) attachment of FTIR. DA can successfully classify VCO and that adulterated with CO and SFO using 10 principal components. Furthermore, PLS model correlates the actual and FTIR estimated values of oil adulterants (CO and SFO) with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.999.
    MeSH terms: Callosities; Zea mays; Fourier Analysis; Helianthus; Plant Oils; Spectrophotometry, Infrared; Discriminant Analysis; Least-Squares Analysis; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  3. Subbarao SK
    J Parasit Dis, 2011 Oct;35(2):87-93.
    PMID: 23024487
    The identification of a large focus of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo and subsequent reports from several countries in South-east Asia has led its recognition as the fifth human malaria parasite. The natural preferred hosts of this species still continue to be macaque monkeys that live in broad-leaf rain forests. This review describes the distribution of macaque monkeys, the Anopheles species belonging to the Leucosphyrus Group that have been incriminated as vectors, morphological and clinical features of this parasite, and the transmission cycles that have been identified for this parasite. As the North-eastern states of India share their borders with P. knowlesi malaria endemic countries and because travelers from countries in South-east Asia visit India and vice versa, risks of this parasite entering India and its spread are also discussed.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anopheles; Haplorhini; Asia, Southeastern; Borneo; Humans; India; Macaca; Malaria; Parasites; Plasmodium knowlesi; Rainforest
  4. Philipp AA, Wissenbach DK, Weber AA, Zapp J, Maurer HH
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2011 Mar;399(8):2747-53.
    PMID: 21249338 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-4660-9
    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MS(n). In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds were detected. To elucidate whether the MG and SG diastereomer speciociliatine (SC) and its metabolites represent further compounds, the phase I and II metabolites of SC were identified first in rat urine after the administration of the pure alkaloid. Then, the identified rat metabolites were screened for in the urine of Kratom users using the above-mentioned LC-MS(n) procedure. Considering the mass spectra and retention times, it could be confirmed that SC and its metabolites are so far the unidentified isomers in human urine. In conclusion, SC and its metabolites can be used as further markers for Kratom use, especially by consumption of raw material or products that contain a high amount of fruits of the Malaysian plant M. speciosa.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Chromatography, Liquid/methods*; Humans; Plant Extracts/metabolism; Plant Extracts/urine*; Plant Extracts/chemistry; Mass Spectrometry/methods*; Stereoisomerism; Substance Abuse Detection/methods*; Mitragyna/chemistry*; Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/metabolism; Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/urine*; Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids/chemistry; Rats
  5. Mahmood S, Sabih Z, Sabih D
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2011 Apr;7(2):e10.
    PMID: 22287984 DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.2.e10
    Breast lymphoma is an uncommon neoplasm affecting the breast and is extremely rare in males. While gynaecomastia is common and in most cases benign, it can sometimes result from significant pathology and the physician should keep in mind the possible diseases that can lead to gynaecomastia. This paper reports a case of lymphoma presenting as unilateral gynaecomastia. The paper discusses the differential diagnosis and emphasises the points that should raise the suspicion of pathology.Mammography, high resolution ultrasound and biopsy findings are discussed and literature survey is presented.
    MeSH terms: Biopsy; Breast; Breast Neoplasms; Diagnosis, Differential; Gynecomastia; Humans; Lymphoma; Male; Mammography; Surveys and Questionnaires; Ultrasonography
  6. Tan P L
    ISBN: 978-967-5832-27-7
    Many witness momentous events in their lives, but few participate, much less leave their mark. Dr M K Rajakumar, on the contrary, left an indelible mark at every phase of his eventful life.
    MeSH terms: Humans
  7. Viprakasit V, Ibrahim H, Ha SY, Ho PJ, Li CK, Chan LL, et al.
    Int. J. Hematol., 2011 Mar;93(3):319-328.
    PMID: 21374076 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-011-0789-8
    Although thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region, clinical data on efficacy and safety profiles of deferasirox in patients from this region are rather limited. Recently, data from the multicentre Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study in 1744 patients with different anaemias has provided an opportunity to analyse 1115 thalassaemia patients, of whom 444 patients were from five countries in the Asia-Pacific region (AP) for whom thalassaemia management and choice of iron chelators were similar. Compared to the rest of the world (ROW), baseline clinical data showed that the AP group appeared to be more loaded with iron (3745.0 vs. 2822.0 ng/ml) and had a higher proportion on deferoxamine monotherapy prior to the study (82.9 vs. 58.9%). Using a starting deferasirox dose based on transfusional iron intake and tailoring it to individual patient response, clinical efficacy based on serum ferritin reduction in AP and ROW thalassaemia patients was similar. Interestingly, the AP group developed a higher incidence of drug-related skin rash compared to ROW (18.0 vs. 7.2%), which may indicate different pharmacogenetic backgrounds in the two populations. Our analysis confirms that, with appropriate adjustment of dose, deferasirox can be clinically effective across different regions, with manageable side effects.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Asia, Southeastern; Benzoates/administration & dosage*; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Ferritins/blood; Humans; Iron Chelating Agents/administration & dosage*; Male; Thalassemia/blood; Thalassemia/drug therapy*; Triazoles/administration & dosage*
  8. Heng LL, Caguioa P, Chin NS, Chiou TJ, Lee JW, Miyakawa Y, et al.
    Int. J. Hematol., 2011 Aug;94(2):142-149.
    PMID: 21766185 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-011-0894-8
    Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) from the Asia-Pacific region often exhibit characteristics distinct from those of patients from the West. Moreover, as the region itself is heterogeneous, the ITP landscape among individual Asia-Pacific countries can be diverse. The recently released international consensus report on ITP places new emphasis on ITP, but does not address the unique ITP landscape in the Asia-Pacific region, which is home to 60% of the world's population. In an attempt to characterize how the ITP landscape differs between the West and the Asia-Pacific region, an expert panel with representatives from Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia was convened. Important differences were identified between the guidance provided in the international consensus report and experience in the Asia-Pacific region, namely diagnostic practices, incidence and approach to ITP secondary to H. pylori infection, systemic lupus erythematosus-related ITP, the use of bone marrow examination, initial treatment strategies, and the role of splenectomy, rituximab, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Asia/ethnology; Asia/epidemiology; Ethnic Groups; Far East/ethnology; Far East/epidemiology; Humans; Practice Guidelines as Topic
  9. Farzaneh F, Esmaeilnia H, Barouti E, Salehpour S, Khodakarami N, Alizadeh K, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):468-73.
    PMID: 22390103
    This study aimed to determine knowledge and attitude of women to HPV and its association with cervical cancer and prevention methods. In a cross-sectional study, 500 women, aged between 20 and 50 presenting to local health centers in Tehran, were asked about demographic factors and questioned about cervical cancer, HPV, and prevention methods. Responses were tabulated and summarized. Although knowledge of HPV, its relation to cervical cancer and prevention methods among Iranian women is not enough, their attitude towards education in this regards is extremely high. The results reflect the need of advertising and educational programs for public about HPV prevention methods, to reduce the prevalence of this infection and its severe consequences.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Iran/epidemiology; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*; Middle Aged; Surveys and Questionnaires; Prevalence; Focus Groups; Papillomavirus Infections*; Papillomavirus Vaccines*
  10. Sulaiman W, Husin NM, Baba MS
    Oman Med J, 2011 Nov;26(6):e026.
    PMID: 28861180 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2011.119
    A 33-year old Malay woman with undiagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other comorbids presented with acute glomerularnephritis, hypertensive emergency and later acute confusional state. Cranial MRI revealed features consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).
  11. Rao M, Ashwini LS, Somayaji SN, Mishra S, Guru A, Rao A
    Oman Med J, 2011 Nov;26(6):e027.
    PMID: 28861181 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2011.120
    Variation in the origin of long flexor tendons in the anterior compartment of forearm is common. During routine cadaveric dissection at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), we observed a separate muscle belly and tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the fifth digit in the right upper limb of a 60 year-old male cadaver. The anomalous muscle belly originated from the common flexor tendon from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and continued as a thin tendon at the middle of the forearm to get inserted into the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. This can be considered as a case of split flexor digitorum superficialis. Such muscle variations and knowledge of their frequency, appearance, and location can be helpful for surgeons.
  12. Campos-Arceiz A, Steele MA, Carlo TA, Xiong W
    Integr Zool, 2011 Jun;6(2):71-73.
    PMID: 21645272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-4877.2011.00241.x
    MeSH terms: Animals; Diet*; Feeding Behavior; Fruit*; Seed Dispersal*
  13. Seung OP, Sulaiman W
    Oman Med J, 2011 Sep;26(5):e022.
    PMID: 28845225 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2011.96
    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology, characterized by arthritis, fever, evanescent rash and other systemic presentations. This report described a 45-year-old male who presented with sore throat, fever, arthritis, evanescent rash, raised liver enzymes and hyperferritinemia. He was diagnosed to have AOSD based on Yamuguchi criteria after the exclusion of other potential diagnoses. The patient partially responded to combined celecoxib and prednisolone. He was also prescribed methotrexate and his symptoms improved.
  14. Manns M, Zeuzem S, Sood A, Lurie Y, Cornberg M, Klinker H, et al.
    J. Hepatol., 2011 Sep;55(3):554-563.
    PMID: 21237227 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.12.024
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is increasing interest in identifying patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 infection in whom it is possible to lower the burden of therapy while retaining high levels of efficacy.

    METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3 infection were randomized to receive peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) for 24weeks (group A); peginterferon alfa-2b (1.0μg/kg/wk) for 24weeks (group B); or peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) for 16weeks (group C), each in combination with weight-based ribavirin (800-1200mg/d). The study population comprised two cohorts: the Hep-Net cohort enrolled in Germany and an International cohort enrolled at study sites throughout Europe and Asia. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR).

    RESULTS: The study included 682 patients; 80.2% had genotype 3 infection. In the intent-to-treat population, SVR rates were 66.5%, 64.3%, and 56.6% in groups A, B, and C, and were similar in Asian and white patients. Treatment differences (A vs. B and A vs. C) failed to reach the predefined margin for noninferiority of -10%; and thus groups B and C failed to show noninferiority relative to group A. Among patients with undetectable HCV RNA at week 4, SVR rates were 75.3%, 75.9%, and 72.4%, respectively. Relapse rates were 17.8%, 16.3%, and 29.3%, respectively. Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were highest in group A and lowest in group C, and adverse events leading to discontinuation were similar across treatment arms.

    CONCLUSIONS: For patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3 infection, 24weeks of peginterferon alfa-2b (1.5μg/kg/wk) plus weight-based ribavirin remains a standard-of-care therapy; however, treatment for 16weeks may be considered for patients with undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 of the treatment.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Body Weight; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Genotype; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage*; Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects; Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use; Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage; Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects; Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use; Recurrence; Ribavirin/administration & dosage*; Ribavirin/adverse effects; Ribavirin/therapeutic use; RNA, Viral/blood; Time Factors; Hepacivirus/genetics*; Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage*; Interferon-alpha/adverse effects; Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use; Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy*; Hepatitis C, Chronic/ethnology; Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology*; Intention to Treat Analysis
  15. Thomas S, Beh L, Nordin RB
    J Public Health Afr, 2011 Sep 05;2(2):e23.
    PMID: 28299064 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e23
    Since 1957, there has been major reorganization of health care services in Malaysia. This article assesses the changes and challenges in health care delivery in Malaysia and how the management in health care processes has evolved over the years including equitable health care and health care financing. The health care service in Malaysia is changing towards wellness service as opposed to illness service. The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services, may need to manage and mobilize better health care services by providing better health care financing mechanisms. It is recommended that partnership between public and private sectors with the extension of traditional medicine complementing western medicine in medical therapy continues in the delivery of health care.
    MeSH terms: Delivery of Health Care; Health Services; Malaysia; Medicine, Traditional; Private Sector; Healthcare Financing
  16. Jung JH, Arkoncel FR, Lee JW, Md Yusoff NA, Hong CH, Hong SJ, et al.
    J Robot Surg, 2011 Jun;5(2):149-51.
    PMID: 27637544 DOI: 10.1007/s11701-011-0250-2
    We report the technique and outcomes of immediate robot-assisted ureteral reimplantation due to unexpected ureteral injury during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). A 61-year-old male was diagnosed with locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma (T3bN0M0). Multiple positive margins at the bladder neck were noted on frozen section during RALP, and re-excision of the bladder neck was done. Unfortunately, the distal third of right ureter was transected. We immediately performed robot-assisted ureteroneocystostomy with double J stent insertion. No complications developed during the follow-up period.
  17. Tsapaki V, Faruque Ghulam M, Lim ST, Ngo Minh H, Nwe N, Sharma A, et al.
    Heart Asia, 2011;3(1):16-24.
    PMID: 27325974 DOI: 10.1136/ha.2009.001180
    Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries.
  18. Ab. Karim, M.S., Nasouddin, S.S., Othman, M., Mohd Adzahan, N., Hussin, S.R., Khozirah, S.
    Melicope ptelefolia (MP) is one of the alternative herbal resources which have a great potential to be marketed worldwide. Because of its exploratory nature, this study used qualitative research methodology, which is natural and highly interpretive in order to gain consumer insights. This preliminary qualitative study used an in-depth personal interview approach for data collection. Informants for this study were 30 regular consumers of MP, aged from 18 years old and above. From the findings, it is reported that MP had a slightly bitter taste, crunchy young leaves, pungent, and lemon-lime aroma. In terms of its physical characteristics, it is said that MP has trifoliate, green, thick, broad leaves and has small white and greenish flowers. Respondents have varying levels of awareness and knowledge regarding MP but most of them believed that medicinal products can be produced from this herb. Respondents also stressed the importance of scientific research to properly develop MP into medicinal products and turn it into alternative treatment that has commercial values in the market.
    MeSH terms: Humans; Oxides; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste; Calcium Compounds; Rutaceae; Flowers; Qualitative Research
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