Browse publications by year: 2011

  1. Siotia J, Gupta SK, Acharya SR, Saraswathi V
    Int J Comput Dent, 2011;14(4):321-34.
    PMID: 22324223
    Radiographic examination is essential in diagnosis and treatment planning in endodontics. Conventional radiographs depict structures in two dimensions only. The ability to assess the area of interest in three dimensions is advantageous. Computed tomography is an imaging technique which produces three-dimensional images of an object by taking a series of two-dimensional sectional X-ray images. DentaScan is a computed tomography software program that allows the mandible and maxilla to be imaged in three planes: axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional. As computed tomography is used in endodontics, DentaScan can play a wider role in endodontic diagnosis. It provides valuable information in the assessment of the morphology of the root canal, diagnosis of root fractures, internal and external resorptions, pre-operative assessment of anatomic structures etc. The aim of this article is to explore the clinical usefulness of computed tomography and DentaScan in endodontic diagnosis, through a series of four cases of different endodontic problems.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Dental Pulp Cavity/abnormalities; Dental Pulp Cavity/injuries; Diagnosis, Differential; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods; Incisor/abnormalities; Male; Middle Aged; Molar/injuries; Patient Care Planning; Root Canal Therapy*; Software*; Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods*; Tooth Root/injuries; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods*; Young Adult
  2. Yau YH, Chandrasegaran D, Badarudin A
    Build Environ, 2011 May;46(5):1125-1132.
    PMID: 32288016 DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.11.013
    Hospital and healthcare facilities have diverse indoor environment due to the different comfort and health needs of its occupants. Currently, most ventilation studies revolve around specialised areas such as operating rooms and isolation rooms. This paper focuses on the ventilation of multiple-bed hospital wards in the tropical climate, taking into account the design, indoor conditions and engineering controls. General ward layouts are described briefly. The required indoor conditions such as temperature, humidity, air movements and indoor air quality in the ward spaces are summarized based on the current guidelines and practices. Also, recent studies and engineering practices in the hospital indoor environment are elaborated. Usage of computational fluid dynamics tools for the ventilation studies is discussed as well. As identified during the review, there is an apparent knowledge gap for ventilation studies in the tropics compared with temperate climates, as fact studies have only been published for hospital wards in countries with a temperate climate. Therefore, it is highlighted that specific tropical studies along with novel engineering controls are required in addressing the ventilation requirements for the tropics.
  3. Hampson F, Sinclair M, Smith S
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2011 01 01;7(1):e8.
    PMID: 21655117 DOI: 10.2349/biij.7.1.e8
    The role of surgery in the morbidly obese is becoming more prominent. There are a variety of surgical approaches which can be used and radiology plays a crucial role in post operative follow up, particularly in the management of complications. Many general radiologists remain unfamiliar with both the normal and abnormal appearances after bariatric surgery and this pictorial review aims to bridge this gap.
  4. Nor Rashid N, Yusof R, Watson RJ
    J Gen Virol, 2011 Nov;92(Pt 11):2620-2627.
    PMID: 21813705 DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.035352-0
    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) with tropism for mucosal epithelia are the major aetiological factors in cervical cancer. Most cancers are associated with so-called high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, and constitutive expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins is critical for malignant transformation in infected keratinocytes. E6 and E7 bind to and inactivate the cellular tumour suppressors p53 and Rb, respectively, thus delaying differentiation and inducing proliferation in suprabasal keratinocytes to enable HPV replication. One member of the Rb family, p130, appears to be a particularly important target for E7 in promoting S-phase entry. Recent evidence indicates that p130 regulates cell-cycle progression as part of a large protein complex termed DREAM. The composition of DREAM is cell cycle-regulated, associating with E2F4 and p130 in G0/G1 and with the B-myb transcription factor in S/G2. In this study, we addressed whether p130-DREAM is disrupted in HPV16-transformed cervical cancer cells and whether this is a critical function for E6/E7. We found that p130-DREAM was greatly diminished in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cells (CaSki and SiHa) compared with control cell lines; however, when E6/E7 expression was targeted by specific small hairpin RNAs, p130-DREAM was reformed and the cell cycle was arrested. We further demonstrated that the profound G1 arrest in E7-depleted CaSki cells was dependent on p130-DREAM reformation by also targeting the expression of the DREAM component Lin-54 and p130. The results show that continued HPV16 E6/E7 expression is necessary in cervical cancer cells to prevent cell-cycle arrest by a repressive p130-DREAM complex.
    MeSH terms: Cell Cycle*; Epithelial Cells/physiology; Epithelial Cells/virology; Humans; Oncogene Proteins, Viral/metabolism*; Repressor Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors; Repressor Proteins/metabolism*; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation; Crk-Associated Substrate Protein/antagonists & inhibitors; Crk-Associated Substrate Protein/metabolism*; Papillomavirus E7 Proteins/metabolism*; Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors; Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins/metabolism*; Human papillomavirus 16/pathogenicity*; Host-Pathogen Interactions*; Protein Multimerization
  5. Citation:
    Guidelines on health research involving minors. Kuala Lumpur: National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2011 [MREC DOC.01-2010]
    MeSH terms: Child; Humans; Informed Consent; Malaysia; Research; Guidelines as Topic; Ethics, Research; Minors; Informed Consent By Minors
  6. Mukhtar F, Oei TPS
    DOI: 10.2174/157340011797183201
    Transforming western technology to Eastern populations, including Malaysia, presents important implications in understanding the development, maintenance, and treatment of depression. The present paper aims to review the literature on the prevalence of depression studies in Malaysia. PsycINFO, Medline databases, local journals, and 13 published articles, were included in the current review. Findings were presented in three categories i.e., 'prevalence of depression in primary care', 'general community', and 'among clinical population'. Major limitations of previous studies were noted, and thus, problems associated with the implementation and future direction of clinical and research on depression in Malaysia, was provided. In short, the contribution of empirical research on the prevalence of depression has remained inconsistent and fragmented and it is therefore, a time to venture modification. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.
    MeSH terms: Depressive Disorder; Humans; Malaysia; Prevalence; Depression, Postpartum
  7. Abdul Rahman AA, Al Sadat N, Low WY
    Journal of Men's Health, 2011;8:S50-S53.
    DOI: 10.1016/S1875-6867(11)60021-3
    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) among men who frequented public primary care clinics in an urban district in Malaysia.
    Methods: A total of 1331 men aged 40-76 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Information on demographic information, medical history and lifestyle factors were obtained through self administered questionnaire. ED was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5).
    Results: The participants' age ranged from 40-79 years with a mean of 54.7 (±8.3) years. The prevalence of ED was 69.5%. In terms of severity, 33.1% had mild, 26.6% moderate and 9.8% severe ED. The participants with increased age had reportedly higher prevalence of ED. The prevalence of ED increased from 49.7% of men in their 40s to 66.5%, 92.8% and 93.9% of men in their 50s, 60s and 70s respectively. The prevalence of moderate and severe ED also increased with age. The prevalence of severe ED was only 2.1% of men in their 40s and rose to 22.4% of men aged more than 60 years. The prevalence of ED among those with diabetics or heart disease was the highest (89.2%) followed by hypertensives (80.4%) and hypercholesterolaemia (78.9%). Men in their 50s (OR = 2.0) and 60s (OR = 13.5) had higher odds in ED.
    Conclusions: This study found that ED was common among men aged 40 years and above at the primary care setting. The prevalence and severity of ED increased with age. © 2011 WPMH GmbH.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Erectile Dysfunction; Malaysia; Male; Men; Prevalence; Men's Health
  8. Ab Rahman AA, Al-Sadat N, Low WY
    Journal of Men's Health, 2011;8 Suppl 1:S94-S96.
    DOI: 10.1016/S1875-6867(11)60033-X
    Background: To examine the self-reported erectile problem and help-seeking behaviour among men.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1331 men aged 40 years and above who attended public primary care clinics in an urban district in Malaysia. Questions were asked regarding presence of erectile problem, help-seeking behaviour and treatment sought.
    Results: The mean age was 54.7 (±8.3), ranging from 40 to 79 years. Among the subjects, 69.5% (n = 925) had erectile dysfunction (ED); however, only 54.8% reported having difficulty with erection. The subjects with severe ED had higher proportion of self-reported ED (90.8%) than moderate (75.7%) and mild ED (27.4%). More than two-third of the subjects (67.2%) have spoken to someone about their difficulty; of these, 54.1% spoke to their spouse or partner, 6.3% to friends and 5.3% to family members. Only 32.4% had initiated the discussion with their doctor, whereas only 10.5% reported that their doctor had raised the issue. Among the men who did not seek any help, reasons were: ED normal part of aging (37.9%), due to health condition (32.2%), ED was caused by medication (9.4%) and they were embarrassed (7.3%). Only 4.4% had sought treatment. More than one third participants (35%) had used Sildenafil while most had used other traditional medicines such as Tongkat Ali, massage and Chinese herbs.
    Conclusions: Self-reported erectile problem among men is common. However, ED is not a health condition that patients would commonly discuss with their doctors despite the fact that they are already seeing doctors for various other medical reasons. © 2011 WPMH GmbH.
    MeSH terms: Complementary Therapies; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Erectile Dysfunction; Malaysia; Male; Men; Primary Health Care; Men's Health
  9. Tan WP, Fong ZV, Tong SF, Low WY, Tan HM
    Journal of Men's Health, 2011;8:S81-S83.
    DOI: 10.1016/S1875-6867(11)60029-8
    Background: Men's major concern (MMC) is a common quality of life issue affecting the aging male population. This paper examines the association between MMC and cardiometabolic diseases in Malaysian men in an urban setting.
    Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in an urban area involving 1046 men, aged over 40 years and above, who were randomly selected using the electoral roll in Selangor Malaysia. Participants were assessed by trained doctors using structured questionnaire which included medical history, IIEF-5 to assess men's erectile dysfunction and IPSS score to assess prostatic symptoms. Clinical assessments including blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference were performed. In addition, biochemical assessments for fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were done.
    Results: The response rate was 62.8%. The mean age of the participants was 55.8±8.4 (range: 41-93) years. Around two fifth of the participants (39.8%) had no MMC, 28.4% were diagnosed with 1 MMC, 9.9% with 2MMCs and 1.2% with 3MMCs. Increasing number of MMCs were significantly associated with increasing rate of cardiometabolic diseases (No MMC = 26.2%, 1 MMC = 43.4%, 2 MMCs = 63.5% and 3 MMCs = 69.2%) (P < 0.01) and metabolic syndrome based on Asian criteria (No MMC = 21.5%, 1 MMC = 39.0%, 2 MMCs = 49.1%, 3 MMCs = 62.5%) (P < 0.01). Participants with one or more MMC significantly showed a higher proportion of undiagnosed diabetes as well as reported diabetes (No MMC = 1.7%, 1 or more MMCs = 3.6%) when compared to participants without MMC (P ≤ 0.01).
    Conclusions: Men's Major Concerns (e.g., ED, LUTS and TD) were associated with cardiometabolic diseases and collectively, they could be used as an important portal to men's health. © 2011 WPMH GmbH.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Blood Pressure; Body Height; Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Erectile Dysfunction; Malaysia; Urban Population; Waist Circumference
  10. Sharifuddin N, Abdul Aziz AF, Sheikh Hamzah M, Abdul Rashid R, Zainuddin Z, Wan Puteh SE, et al.
    Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common amongst hypertensive men. Hypertensive patients often attribute it to antihypertensive drugs, although conflicting evidence linking ED with antihypertensive medication exists. The objectives were to determine the prevalence and severity of ED, the type of treatment sought, and the risk factors for ED among hypertensive men.
    Method: A cross-sectional survey conducted over six months from June to November 2008 at University Kebangsaan, Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria included hypertensive men above 30 years old, with essential hypertension for at least three months. We excluded diabetics, a history of pelvic surgery and known psychiatric illnesses. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) assessment was used with a standardised checklist. We analysed data using SPSS, to assess the prevalence and association of ED with selected variables.
    Results: Of the 200 participants screened, 35.5% perceived that they had ED. However, prevalence increased to 69% after screening using an IIEF-5 questionnaire. Forty-eight per cent were reported to have moderate-to severe ED. ED was significantly associated with age (p-value = 0.0001). No significant associations were found between ED and the duration of the hypertension (p-value = 0.505), hypertension control (p-value > 0.05), smoking status (p-value = 0.858) or number of antihypertensive medication taken (p-value > 0.05). Among perceived and proven ED patients, traditional medicines were mainly used for treatment (18.3% and 17.2% respectively).
    Conclusion: ED is a problem among hypertensive patients. It was associated with age but not with hypertension duration, control, number of antihypertensive drugs or smoking. Physicians should enquire about ED symptoms in hypertensive patients, as most of them resorted to self-treatment with traditional medicines. © SAAFP.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Ambulatory Care Facilities; Antihypertensive Agents; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals, University; Humans; Hypertension; Erectile Dysfunction; Malaysia; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital; Self Care; Smoking; Prevalence
  11. Tey LS, Ferreira L, Wallace A
    Accid Anal Prev, 2011 Nov;43(6):2134-2141.
    PMID: 21819844 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2011.06.003
    Railway level crossings are amongst the most complex of road safety control systems, due to the conflicts between road vehicles and rail infrastructure, trains and train operations. Driver behaviour at railway crossings is the major collision factor. The main objective of the present paper was to evaluate the existing conventional warning devices in relation to driver behaviour. The common conventional warning devices in Australia are a stop sign (passive), flashing lights and a half boom-barrier with flashing lights (active). The data were collected using two approaches, namely: field video recordings at selected sites and a driving simulator in a laboratory. This paper describes and compares the driver response results from both the field survey and the driving simulator. The conclusion drawn is that different types of warning systems resulted in varying driver responses at crossings. The results showed that on average driver responses to passive crossings were poor when compared to active ones. The field results were consistent with the simulator results for the existing conventional warning devices and hence they may be used to calibrate the simulator for further evaluation of alternative warning systems.
    MeSH terms: Accident Prevention; Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Female; Humans; Human Engineering; Male; Middle Aged; Protective Devices*; Railroads*; Social Control, Formal; Video Recording; Young Adult
  12. Dollah R, Yaacob A, Ismail AH, Che Hussin CM
    Objective: The assay for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody is a recent test of interest due to low diagnostic specificity of rheumatoid factor in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of anti-CCP antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria as a gold standard.
    Design: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2008 on 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 153 patients with arthritis or arthralgia but not fulfilling ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis.
    Materials and Methods: Serum from each subject was tested for anti-CCP antibodies and IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sensitivity and specificity of the tests were evaluated using the ACR criteria as the gold standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 software. The association between the two categorical variables were tested using chi-square test. The differences between the two groups were tested using independent t-test. Results: The sensitivity of anti-CCP antibodies was 71% with 94.8% of specificity. For rheumatoid factor the sensitivity was 85% and the specificity was 74.5%. Positive predictive value for anti-CCP antibodies was 89.9% whereas for rheumatoid factor it was 68.5%. The sensitivity of ACR criteria with inclusion of anti- CCP antibodies was 100% and specificity of 94.8% (95%CI: 91.3%, 98.2%).
    Conclusion: Anti-CCP antibody has a higher diagnostic accuracy compared to the RF. Anti-CCP antibody is a useful laboratory marker to support the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and to differentiate patients with rheumatoid arthritis from rheumatoid arthritis-like symptoms. Therefore, it is suggested that anti-CCP antibodies should be included as another laboratory supportive criterium besides RF test in ACR criteria in the diagnosis of RA.
    Study site: family medicine clinic, rheumatology clinic and immunology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals, University; Humans; Malaysia; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital; Peptides, Cyclic; Predictive Value of Tests; Sensitivity and Specificity
  13. Citation: The third report of the National Eye Database 2009. Goh PP, Salowi MA, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2011
    MeSH terms: Eye Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Registries
  14. Citation: Practical Guide to Diabetes Management in Ramadan. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2015

    Keywords: CPG
    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Endocrinology; Humans; Insulin; Malaysia; Guidelines as Topic
  15. Citation: Clinical Practice Guidelines: Screening of diabetic retinopathy. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2011

    Quick Reference: http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=489
    Training Module: http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=470

    Older version: Clinical Practice Guideline on diabetic retinopathy. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 1997. ISBN: 983-9417-07-X
    http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=229
    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetic Retinopathy; Humans; Malaysia; Mass Screening; Guidelines as Topic
  16. MeSH terms: Angina, Unstable; Cardiology; Coronary Disease; Humans; Malaysia; Myocardial Infarction; Guideline
  17. ISBN: 978-983-3433-95-7
    Citation: Guidelines for the Management of Adult HIV Infection With Antiretroviral Therapy. Third Edition. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2011

    Old version:
    Second Edition (2001, revised 2004)
    Keywords: CPG
    MeSH terms: Adult; Humans; Infection; Malaysia; HIV Infections; Guidelines as Topic
  18. MeSH terms: Child; Diarrhea; Humans; Malaysia; Guideline
  19. Jaafar S, Mohd Noh K, Suhaili MR, Kiyu A, Ong F, Wong M
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(Special Issue):1-8.
    Public health nursingis a specialized nursing combining both nursing and public health principles with the primary focus of improving the health of the whole community rather than just an individual. Its documented history started in the 1800s and has evolved from home visiting to the varied settings that public health nurses find themselves working in as members of public health teams in clinics, schools, workplaces and government health departments.Public health nursing has been a critical component of the country’s health care system, uplifting of the health status of Malaysians and playing a dominant role in the fight against communicable diseases, and is set to face the challenges of the 21st century with public health nurses practising to the full capacity of their training in a restructured Malaysian health system – 1Care for 1Malaysia. The health sector reform allows for optimisation of scarce health care resources to deliver expansion of quality services based on needs, appropriateness, equity &allocative efficiency. The proposed model will be better than the current system, preserving the strengths of the current system but able to respond to increasing population health needs and expectations. There will be increased autonomy for healthcare providers with incentives in place for greater performance. Some of the implications of reform include allowing public- private integration, a slimmer Ministry of Health with a stronger governance role, enhancing the gatekeeping role of the primary care providers and the autonomous management of the public healthcare providers. In this restructured health system, the roles of the public health nurses are no less important than in the current one. In fact, with the increasing emphasis placed on prevention and primary care as the hub of community care with nurses as part of the primary care team delivering continuous comprehensive person-centered care,public health nurses in the future will be able to meet the challenge of refocusing on the true mission of public health: to look at the health problems of a community as a whole and work with the community in alleviating those problems by applying the nursing process to improve health, not just as providers of personal care only.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Nursing Care; Primary Health Care; Public Health
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