Browse publications by year: 2014

  1. Hajeb P, Sloth JJ, Shakibazadeh S, Mahyudin NA, Afsah-Hejri L
    Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2014 Jul;13(4):457-472.
    PMID: 33412705 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12068
    Toxic elements such as mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, sometimes called heavy metals, can diminish mental and central nervous system function; elicit damage to blood composition as well as the kidneys, lungs, and liver; and reduce energy levels. Food is considered one of the main routes of their entry into the human body. Numerous studies have been performed to examine the effects of common food processing procedures on the levels of toxic elements in food. While some studies have reported negative effects of processing, several have shown that processing practices may have a positive effect on the reduction of toxic elements in foodstuffs. A number of studies have also introduced protocols and suggested chemical agents that reduce the amount of toxic elements in the final food products. In this review, the reported methods employed for the reduction of toxic elements are discussed with particular emphasis on the chemical binding of both the organic and inorganic forms of each element in various foods. The molecular groups and the ligands by which the food products bind with the metals and the types of these reactions are also presented.
    MeSH terms: Arsenic; Cadmium; Central Nervous System; Food; Food Handling; Humans; Kidney; Ligands; Liver; Lung; Mercury; Human Body; Metals, Heavy
  2. CMS Collaboration, Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014 11 12;74(11):3129.
    PMID: 25814874
    A measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text] collected with the CMS detector. A data-driven isolation template method is used to extract the prompt diphoton yield. The measured cross section for two isolated photons, with transverse energy above 40 and 25[Formula: see text] respectively, in the pseudorapidity range [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and with an angular separation [Formula: see text], is [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]. Differential cross sections are measured as a function of the diphoton invariant mass, the diphoton transverse momentum, the azimuthal angle difference between the two photons, and the cosine of the polar angle in the Collins-Soper reference frame of the diphoton system. The results are compared to theoretical predictions at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics.
    MeSH terms: Data Collection; Motion; Plant Extracts; Protons; United States; Photons; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  3. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014 11 26;74(11):3149.
    PMID: 25814876
    A search for heavy, right-handed neutrinos, [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and right-handed [Formula: see text] bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model, has been performed by the CMS experiment. The search was based on a sample of two lepton plus two jet events collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 [Formula: see text]. For models with strict left-right symmetry, and assuming only one [Formula: see text] flavor contributes significantly to the [Formula: see text] decay width, the region in the two-dimensional [Formula: see text] mass plane excluded at a 95 % confidence level extends to approximately [Formula: see text] and covers a large range of neutrino masses below the [Formula: see text] boson mass, depending on the value of [Formula: see text]. This search significantly extends the [Formula: see text] exclusion region beyond previous results.
    MeSH terms: Flavoring Agents; Protons; Taste; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  4. CMS Collaboration, Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014 08 07;74(8):2973.
    PMID: 25814904
    Measurements are reported of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] in final states where one Z boson decays to b-tagged jets. The other gauge boson, either W or Z, is detected through its leptonic decay (either [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text]). The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.9 fb[Formula: see text] collected with the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measured cross sections, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], are consistent with next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics calculations.
    MeSH terms: Aircraft; Food, Formulated; Protons; United States; Text Messaging
  5. CMS Collaboration, Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014 08 20;74(8):3014.
    PMID: 25814909
    The normalised differential top quark-antiquark production cross section is measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7[Formula: see text] at the LHC with the CMS detector. The measurement is performed in both the dilepton and lepton+jets decay channels using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text]. Using a procedure to associate jets to decay products of the top quarks, the differential cross section of the [Formula: see text] production is determined as a function of the additional jet multiplicity in the lepton+jets channel. Furthermore, the fraction of events with no additional jets is measured in the dilepton channel, as a function of the threshold on the jet transverse momentum. The measurements are compared with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics and no significant deviations are observed.
    MeSH terms: Food, Formulated; Motion; Protons; United States; Physical Phenomena; Text Messaging
  6. Mohamad Mohsin MF, Abu Bakar A, Hamdan AR
    Appl Soft Comput, 2014 Nov;24:612-622.
    PMID: 32362801 DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2014.08.030
    In outbreak detection, one of the key issues is the need to deal with the weakness of early outbreak signals because this causes the detection model to have has less capability in terms of robustness when unseen outbreak patterns vary from those in the trained model. As a result, an imbalance between high detection rate and low false alarm rate occurs. To solve this problem, this study proposes a novel outbreak detection model based on danger theory; a bio-inspired method that replicates how the human body fights pathogens. We propose a signal formalization approach based on cumulative sum and a cumulative mature antigen contact value to suit the outbreak characteristic and danger theory. Two outbreak diseases, dengue and SARS, are subjected to a danger theory algorithm; namely the dendritic cell algorithm. To evaluate the model, four measurement metrics are applied: detection rate, specificity, false alarm rate, and accuracy. From the experiment, the proposed model outperforms the other detection approaches and shows a significant improvement for both diseases outbreak detection. The findings reveal that the robustness of the proposed immune model increases when dealing with inconsistent outbreak signals. The model is able to detect new unknown outbreak patterns and can discriminate between outbreak and non-outbreak cases with a consistent high detection rate, high sensitivity, and lower false alarm rate even without a training phase.
  7. New Sci, 2014 Apr 26;222(2966):7.
    PMID: 32287778 DOI: 10.1016/S0262-4079(14)60802-2
    The Philippines and Malaysia have identified their first ever MERS cases, while infections in Saudi Arabia surge, particularly among health workers.
  8. Ismail NA, Jenatabadi HS
    Transp Res Part A Policy Pract, 2014 Sep;67:212-224.
    PMID: 32288368 DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2014.06.010
    The ways in which airline performance depends on the economic situation and internal operation are well established in the literature. One of the contextual factors that may change the nature of these relationships is firm age. As such, the aim of this study is to investigate the moderating influence of firm age on airline performance outcomes. Thirty airline companies from the Asia Pacific region were selected, and relevant data from 2006 to 2011 were collected. It can be deduced that company experience or firm age can help in taking control of the relationship between the constructs; thus, this measurement acts as a moderator in the research model.
    MeSH terms: Asia; Models, Theoretical; Publications
  9. Chen DY, Li T
    J Asian Econ, 2014 Oct;34:66-78.
    PMID: 32288457 DOI: 10.1016/j.asieco.2014.06.002
    This paper investigates the effects of financial crises-based exchange rate, real interest rate, and personal consumption expenditure on stock market indices and balances of current account in four Asian countries/areas, and the U.S. from 1997 to 2010. Results obtained from Sims's first-order DSGE representation suggest that two policy variables - changes in the exchange rate and changes in the real interest rate lagged by one quarter - act as stabilizers for contemporaneous changes in stock indices for Thailand, Malaysia, and the U.S., but as destabilizers for Taiwan and Hong Kong. However, changes in personal consumption expenditure lagged by one quarter only play a destabilizing role in Hong Kong. For contemporaneous changes in the current account balance, all three policy variables become destabilizers for all five countries except the one-quarter lagged change in real interest rate, which acts as a stabilizer in Malaysia.
  10. Kunsook C, Gajaseni N, Paphavasit N
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2014 Aug;25(1):13-27.
    PMID: 25210585
    The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Brachyura; Diet; Female; Gastrointestinal Contents; Gills; Male; Mollusca; Seasons; Swimming; Seafood; Bays
  11. Citation:
    Research Ethics Committee. Guidelines for Ethical Review of Clinical Research or Research Involving Human Subjects. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 2014
    MeSH terms: Research; Guidelines as Topic; Ethics, Research
  12. Sek SC, Chan SG
    Neonate Resuscitation Program, NRP training is given to nurses in batches. Such programs are vital because neonate resuscitation procedure or aid given to new born during delivery, help them begin breathing on their own, which can save many lives. Although such training is given to the nurses, no assessment has been done on the effectiveness of such training with regard to knowledge retention and transfer of training among the trainees. This study is retrospective in nature; it evaluates the level of knowledge and the confidence in carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure among 91 nurses involved such training. Besides that, the study ascertains their preparedness before undergoing the training and the opportunities provided to them to practice the skills learnt from the training at their work place. Factors that influence both their knowledge and skills after the training are also indentified. Study sample consist of 51 nurses from hospitals and 40 nurses from health clinics. Results show that skills acquired from training as measured by their confidence at carrying out the learnt skill deteriorate faster than knowledge. Level of knowledge retained, confidence at carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure and opportunities for practicing the skill are all significantly higher for the nurses at the hospitals compared to their counterparts in the health clinics at the 95 percent level. The recent trainees (2009) scored higher compared to the old trainees (2007 and 2008) with regard to their preparedness or motivation before the training although memory factor could play a part here. Confidence at carrying out the neonate resuscitation procedure at the work place is a measure of the effectiveness of the NRP training because it constitutes transfer of training. Level of knowledge retained and opportunities for practicing skill at work place after the training, together with trainees' preparedness and motivation before the NRP training, all three contribute 35.7% towards trainees' confidence in carrying out the NRP procedure at their work place. Contribution of these three variables is significant at the 95% level or p< 0.05. Findings are consistent with the Model of factors that affect Learning Outcomes and Transfer of Training by Goldstein and Ford (2002).
    MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Clinical Competence; Cross-Sectional Studies; Hospitals; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Malaysia; Nurses; Resuscitation; Retrospective Studies
  13. Mohd Ardzi R, Shariff N, Omar NZ, Ramli N, Md Isa KA
    This study sought to investigate understanding of obesity among registered nurse e-PJJ student semester 9 UiTM in Puncak Alam, in Selangor, Malaysia. A survey research design was used for the study. 100 nurses were randomly selected from 130 nurses in e-PJJ student semester 9. Study of this population was done by systematic sampling. The target groups for this study are matrons, sisters and staff nurses. 100% nurses showed understanding of obesity. Eating habits of the nurses contributed to this obesity. It was recommended among others, that nurses should practice theoretical knowledge base and the need to more opportunities for physical activities at hospital sites was emphasized.
    Keywords: Obesity, Registered Nurses, Knowledge and attitude
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Malaysia; Nurses; Obesity; Students, Nursing; Universities
  14. Leong SW, Chan SG
    Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing student's training. The practice allows nursing students the opportunity to relate theory into practice during nursing care to the patients. The aim of this project was to determine perceptions of clinical placement experience with respect to clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance among nursing students. A total 254 participants undergoing training at Nursing College Kubang Kerian participated in this project. They were selected using the Raosoft sample size calculator. Survey questionnaires were distributed to 80 participants from first year, 88 from second year and 86 participants from third year. The questionnaire consisting of 25 items with 5-point Likert Scale responses was used to measure nursing students' perceptions towards nurses during their clinical placement experience. In addition, demographic factors such as age groups, ethnicity, educational levels and years of training were examined. The items were pilot-tested and the Cronbach Alpha values obtained for clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance consisting of 0.80, 0.80 and 0.83 respectively. The final data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis was used to make comparisons where sub samples were imbalanced. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The results indicate that nursing students perceived their clinical placement positively. Perceptions towards clinical practice were significantly different between nurses based on their residential areas and years of training. The results of this study revealed that there were challenges for the nursing educators, clinical instructors and other health providers in achieving a supportive clinical environment for the nursing students.
    Keywords: Nursing, Clinical Placement, , Clinical Practice, Enhancement or Hindrance in learning
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Education, Nursing; Humans; Malaysia; Students, Nursing
  15. Lai PK, Lim PH
    The evolution of nursing profession and education has taken its pace over the past years. Therefore, with the changes in nursing education over the years, the level of professional socialization among the students has become an area of interest. The objectives of this pilot study were to explore and compare the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (first year and final year) using the measuring tool of NPVS-R as well as to identify the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization among the nursing students. From this pilot study, it was found that there was no significant difference in the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (p = 0.133). With regards to the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization, significant difference was found only for the variable of father's educational level (p = 0 .035).
    Keywords: Professional Socialization, Diploma and Degree Nursing Students, Nursing Education
    MeSH terms: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Education, Nursing; Humans; Malaysia; Students, Nursing
  16. Vincent-Chong VK, Karen-Ng LP, Abdul Rahman ZA, Yang YH, Anwar A, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Head Neck, 2014 Sep;36(9):1268-1278.
    PMID: 31615169 DOI: 10.1002/hed.23448
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of behavioral difference between tongue and cheek squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by verifying the copy number alterations (CNAs).

    METHODS: Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to profile unique deletions and amplifications that are involved with tongue and cheek SCC, respectively. This was followed by pathway analysis relating to CNA genes from both sites.

    RESULTS: The most frequently amplified regions in tongue SCC were 4p16.3, 11q13.4, and 13q34; whereas the most frequently deleted region was 19p12. For cheek SCC, the most frequently amplified region was identified on chromosome 9p24.1-9p23; whereas the most common deleted region was located on chromosome 8p23.1. Further analysis revealed that the most significant unique pathway related to tongue and cheek SCCs was the cytoskeleton remodeling and immune response effect on the macrophage differentiation pathway.

    CONCLUSION: This study has showed the different genetic profiles and biological pathways between tongue and cheek SCCs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 36: 1268-1278, 2014.

  17. Kar Soon T, Al-Azad S, Ransangan J
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Aug;24(8):1034-43.
    PMID: 24759424
    This study determined the effect of light intensity and photoperiod on the dry cell weight and total amount of carotenoids in four isolates of purple non-sulfur bacteria obtained from shaded and exposed microhabitats of a mangrove ecosystem in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. The initial isolation of the bacteria was carried out using synthetic 112 medium under anaerobic conditions (2.5 klx) at 30 ± 2°C. On the basis of colony appearance, cell morphology, gram staining, motility test, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses, all four bacteria were identified as Afifella marina. One of the bacterial isolates, designated as Af. marina strain ME, which was extracted from an exposed mud habitat within the mangrove ecosystem, showed the highest yield in dry cell weight (4.32± 0.03 g/l) as well as total carotenoids (0.783 ± 0.002 mg/g dry cell weight). These values were significantly higher than those for dry cell weight (3.77 ± 0.02g/l ) and total carotenoid content (0.706 ± 0.008 mg/g) produced by the isolates from shaded habitats. Further analysis of the effect of 10 levels of light intensity on the growth characteristics of Af. marina strain ME showed that the optimum production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids was achieved at different light intensities and incubation periods. The bacterium produced the highest dry cell weight of 4.98 g/l at 3 klx in 72 h incubation, but the carotenoid production of 0.783 mg/g was achieved at 2.5 klx in 48 h incubation. Subsequent analysis of the effect of photoperiod on the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids at optimum light intensities (3 and 2.5 klx, respectively) revealed that 18 and 24 h were the optimum photoperiods for the production of dry cell weight and total carotenoids, respectively. The unique growth characteristics of the Af. marina strain ME can be exploited for biotechnology applications.
    MeSH terms: Anaerobiosis; Carotenoids/metabolism*; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry; DNA, Ribosomal/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry; Environmental Microbiology*; Light; Malaysia; Phylogeny; Rhodospirillaceae/classification; Rhodospirillaceae/isolation & purification*; Rhodospirillaceae/metabolism*; Rhodospirillaceae/radiation effects; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Temperature; Cluster Analysis; Sequence Analysis, DNA
  18. Ong KY, Muhd Ramli ER, Che Ismail H
    DOI: 10.1080/17523281.2014.940370
    Cigarette-smoking in schizophrenia and its associations with sexual functioning have been relatively under-examined. The study purpose was to determine the factors associated with sexual dysfunction among schizophrenia men with nicotine dependency and those non-smokers. A retrospective study was conducted in a local hospital in Malaysia over a two-year period from 2011 to 2012. There were 54 schizophrenia men with nicotine dependency and 57 non-smokers. Sexual functioning was assessed using the Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function-15. Logistic regression analysis was employed. All the 111 schizophrenia men had at least one sexual dysfunction domain. For the group with nicotine dependency, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-positive was positively associated with the ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation. However, age of schizophrenia onset was negatively associated with the confidence to attain and keep an erection. For the non-smoker group, married status and duration of schizophrenia were positively associated with the ability to attain erection and overall sex life satisfaction, respectively, while age of schizophrenia onset was negatively associated with the ability to attain erection and erectile sustainability during intercourse. Among the domains, only orgasmic dysfunction was significantly associated with PANSS-positive, i.e. higher PANSS-positive score was a protective factor for orgasmic dysfunction (odds ratio = 0.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.17, 0.80; p =.012). Schizophrenia men may apparently attempt to treat their orgasmic impairment due to effect from antipsychotics through smoking cigarettes. Sexual impairment among the non-smokers may be attributed mostly to relationship issues with their partner. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Ejaculation; Humans; Erectile Dysfunction; Male; Retrospective Studies; Schizophrenia; Smoking
  19. Htwe NN, Ling HC, Zaman FQ, Maziah M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2014 Apr;17(4):472-81.
    PMID: 25911833
    Rice is one of the most important cereal crops with great potential for biotechnology progress. In transformation method, antibiotic resistance genes are routinely used as powerful markers for selecting transformed cells from surrounding non-transformed cells. In this study, the toxicity level of hygromycin was optimized for two selected mutant rice lines, MR219 line 4 and line 9. The mature embryos were isolated and cultured on an MS medium with different hygromycin concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)). Evidently, above 60 mg L(-1) was effective for callus formation and observed completely dead. Further there were tested for specific concentration (0-60). Although, 21.28% calli survived on the medium containing 45 mg L(-1) hygromycin, it seemed suitable for the identification of putative transformants. These findings indicated that a system for rice transformation in a relatively high frequency and the transgenes are stably expressed in the transgenic plants. Green shoots were regenerated from the explant under hygromycin stress. RT-PCR using hptII and gus sequence specific primer and Southern blot analysis were used to confirm the presence of the transgene and to determine the transformation efficiency for their stable integration in regenerated plants. This study demonstrated that the hygromycin resistance can be used as an effective marker for rice transformation.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity; Cinnamates/toxicity; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Genotype; Hygromycin B/analogs & derivatives; Hygromycin B/toxicity; Mutation; Phenotype; Plant Proteins/genetics*; Plant Proteins/metabolism; Oryza/drug effects; Oryza/genetics*; Oryza/growth & development; Oryza/metabolism; Transformation, Genetic*; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/genetics*; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism; Gene Transfer Techniques; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*; Transgenes*; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics; Plants, Genetically Modified/drug effects; Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics*; Plants, Genetically Modified/growth & development; Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism; Tissue Culture Techniques
  20. Iida Y, Poorter L, Sterck F, Kassim AR, Potts MD, Kubo T, et al.
    Ecology, 2014 Feb;95(2):353-63.
    PMID: 24669729
    Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain species coexistence in diverse rain forests.
    MeSH terms: Longevity; Species Specificity; Trees/anatomy & histology*; Trees/growth & development*; Tropical Climate*
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