Browse publications by year: 2014

  1. Citation: National Antibiotic Guideline, Second Edition. Petaling Jaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2014

    Older version: National Antibiotic Guideline. Petaling Jaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2008
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Infection; Malaysia; Guidelines as Topic
  2. Marciano BE, Huang CY, Joshi G, Rezaei N, Carvalho BC, Allwood Z, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2014 Apr;133(4):1134-41.
    PMID: 24679470 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.02.028
    BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome characterized by profound T-cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in patients with SCID. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percentage of patients with SCID are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected.

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in patients with SCID.

    METHODS: An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcomes regarding BCG vaccination in patients given a diagnosis of SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: Data on 349 BCG-vaccinated patients with SCID from 28 centers in 17 countries were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients had BCG-associated complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000- and 400-fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (P = .006) and death caused by BCG-associated complications (P < .0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T-cell numbers of 250/μL or less at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4 times higher; P = .001) than among those with T-cell numbers of greater than 250/μL. BCG-associated complications were reported in 2 of 78 patients who received antimycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic, and no deaths caused by BCG-associated complications occurred in this group. In contrast, 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with antimycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (P < .0001).

    CONCLUSIONS: BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in patients with SCID, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient antituberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications.

    MeSH terms: BCG Vaccine/adverse effects*; BCG Vaccine/immunology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Retrospective Studies; Risk; Vaccination/adverse effects; Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence; Comorbidity; Prevalence; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/diagnosis; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/epidemiology*; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/therapy; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  3. Inflammatory Arthritis and Biologic Therapy – Malaysian Consensus. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Society of Rheumatology; 2014
    MeSH terms: Arthritis; Biological Products; Humans; Malaysia
  4. MeSH terms: Malaysia; Referral and Consultation; Guideline
  5. MeSH terms: Adolescent; Autistic Disorder; Child; Humans; Malaysia; Guideline
  6. ISBN: 978-967-13054-0-9
    MeSH terms: Adult; Humans; Immunization; Malaysia; Vaccination; Guideline
  7. MeSH terms: Cardiology; Coronary Disease; Humans; Malaysia; Myocardial Infarction; Guideline
  8. ISBN: 978-983-3433-95-7
    MeSH terms: Adult; Infection; Malaysia; HIV Infections; Guideline; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  9. MeSH terms: Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency; Humans; Infant; Jaundice, Neonatal; Malaysia; Guideline
  10. MeSH terms: Humans; Malaria; Malaysia; Guidelines as Topic
  11. Naveen K, Jyothsna P, Nayak SB, Mohandas RK, Swamy RS, Deepthinath R, et al.
    Ethiop J Health Sci, 2014 Jan;24(1):93-6.
    PMID: 24591805
    BACKGROUND: Axillary artery is known to show different variations mostly in its branching pattern. Similarly, the origin of profunda brachii is often encountered with abnormality. Therefore, when the vascular variations in the upper limb persist, mostly it is confined to its branching pattern followed by its variant origin. But, among all the reported variations of profunda brachii, its variant origin from the 3rd part of the axillary artery with common trunk for the branches of axillary artery is unique.

    CASE DETAILS: We report here an anomalous origin of profunda brachii as continuation of an arterial trunk arising from 3rd part of the axillary artery. This common trunk at its commencement passed between 2 roots of median nerve and gave branches of 3rd part of axillary artery before it continued as profunda brachii artery. The further course and branching pattern of profunda brachii were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Since the axillary artery is next choice of artery for arterial cannulation in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, prior knowledge of existence of such variation in its branching pattern helps in avoiding possible diagnostic or interventional therapeutic errors.

    MeSH terms: Arm/blood supply*; Axillary Artery/abnormalities*; Brachial Artery/abnormalities*; Cadaver; Dissection; Humans; Male; Middle Aged
  12. Nor Azizah Yacob, Anuar Ishak
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:491-496.
    The steady, two-dimensional laminar flow of a power-law fluid over a permeable shrinking sheet of constant surface temperature is investigated. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta- Fehlberg method with shooting technique. The results are presented graphically and the effects of the power-law index n, suction parameter fw and Prandtl number Pr were discussed. It was found that stronger suction is necessary for the solution to exist for a pseudoplastic fluid (n<1) compared to a dilatant fluid (n>1).
    MeSH terms: Models, Theoretical; Suction; Temperature; Hydrodynamics
  13. Singh G, Makinde OD
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:483-489.
    The paper is aimed at studying fluid flow heat transfer in the axisymmetric boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid, along the axial direction of a vertical stationary isothermal cylinder in presence of uniform free stream with momentum slip. The equations governing the flow i.e. continuity, momentum and energy equation are transformed into non-similar boundary layer equations and are solved numerically employing asymptotic series method with Shanks transformation. The numerical scheme involves the Runge-Kutta fourth order scheme along with the shooting technique. The flow is analyzed for both assisting and opposing buoyancy and the effect of different parameters on fluid velocity, temperature distribution, heat transfer and shear stress parameters is presented graphically.
    MeSH terms: Clothing; Hot Temperature; Motion; Paper; Temperature; Physical Phenomena
  14. Haryati Yaacob, Mohd Rosli Hainin, Ahmad Safuan, Chag FL
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:467-474.
    Quality of bond between layers of asphaltic concrete course is a key element to ensure the performance of a modern asphalt pavement. A proper interlayer bond ensures the structural integrity of the pavement and prevents possible distresses from occurring within the designed service life. In Malaysia, delamination is a common distress related to insufficient degree of adhesion though slippage failure can be occasionally encountered. Generally, bond development is closely related to the design factors and construction factors. This paper however focused on the construction factors only, hoping to provide some useful information which might be overlooked by the contractors during construction but is of extreme important especially in enhancing the bond development in the asphalt layers. The construction factors in particular interest discussed in this paper include curing time of asphalt emulsion, surface condition of a pavement and technology and quality of workmanship and construction. It is important to note that both design factors and construction factors are inter-related in optimizing the degree of adhesion. Thus, all factors need to be carefully identified and fulfilled in order to maximize the bond strength between pavement surfacing layers for a better quality and longer service life of pavement in Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Emulsions; Hydrocarbons; Malaysia; Paper; Life
  15. Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Raihan Othman, Faridah Yusof, Mohd Firdaus Abdul Wahab
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:459-465.
    A hybrid biofuel cell, a zinc-air cell employing laccase as the oxygen reduction catalyst is investigated. A simple cell design is employed; a membraneless single chamber and a freely suspended laccase in the buffer electrolyte. The cell is characterised based on its open-circuit voltage, power density profile and galvanostatic discharge at 0.5 mA. The activity of laccase as an oxidoreductase is substantiated from the cell discharge profiles. The use of air electrode in the cell design enhanced the energy output by 14%. The zinc-air biofuel cell registered an open-circuit voltage of 1.2 V and is capable to deliver a maximum power density of 1.1 mWcm-2 at 0.4 V. Despite its simple design features, the power output is comparable to that of biocatalytic cell utilising a much more complex system design.
    MeSH terms: Bioelectric Energy Sources; Catalysis; Electrodes; Electrolytes; Oxygen; Zinc; Laccase; Biocatalysis; Biofuels
  16. Mohd Afandi P. Mohammed
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:451-457.
    This paper investigates the application of visco-hyperelastic model to soft rubberlike material, that is gluten. Gluten is a major protein in wheat flour dough (a mixture of flour and water) which exists as long network fibers and undergo large deformation under uniaxial tension and compression. The visco-hyperelastic model is represented by a combination of the viscoelastic Prony series and the hyperelastic extended tube model. Calibration of the visco-hyperelastic model to gluten tests result suggests that gluten can be modelled as a finite viscoelastic material.
    MeSH terms: Calibration; Flour; Glutens; Pressure; Water; Triticum; Physical Phenomena
  17. Manikan V, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Othman Omar, Abdul Jalil Abdul Kader, Aidil Abdul Hamid
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:443-449.
    Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 is an oleaginous fungus whose lipid accumulation profile is significantly influenced by metal ion concentrations in growth medium. Mg2+, Fe3+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ were found to be the important elements affecting lipid accumulation in this fungus. This study employs a statistical method (Response Surface Methodology – RSM) to study the combined effects of Mg2+, Fe3+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ on lipid accumulation of C. baineri 2A1. Cultivation was carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL nitrogen limited medium at 30oC and 250 rpm agitation for 120 h. A thirty-run central composite design experiment was employed to identify and optimize the significant factors. In addition to Mg2+ and Fe3+ which were shown to have significant effects on lipid accumulation, the interactions between Mg2+ and Cu2+, as well as the effect of Cu2+ in quadratic terms were also found to have significant effect on the process (p<0.05). The highest amount of lipid obtained in this study was 39% g/g biomass with optimal levels of Mg2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+ at 5.00, 0.017 and 0.0005 g/L, respectively, while Mn2+ was omitted. A 32% increment in lipid yield was recorded, where the lipid content increased to 38%, compared to initial yield of 29% g/g biomass prior to optimization. In conclusion, Mg2+ and Fe3+ have significant positive effect on the lipid accumulation of this fungus, whereas Mn2+ and Cu2+ exert negative effects in combination.
  18. Lee KM, Abdul Halim Abdullah, Mohd Zobir Hussein, Zulkarnain Zainal
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:437-441.
    ZnO/γ-Fe2O3 catalysts were fabricated via a simple precipitation route using zinc acetate and iron acetate as the precursors and ammonia as the precipitant. The resulted nanocatalysts were subjected to heat treatment at 450°C for 2 h. The characteristics of the nanocomposite were investigated by various characterization techniques. The synthesized nanocomposite has an average particle size of 13 nm and a surface area of 17 m2/g. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/γ- Fe2O3 nanocomposite was evaluated by photodegrading 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under UV irradiation. The results showed that ZnO/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photoactivity compared to pure ZnO with almost 20% increment within 4 h of reaction time. The result indicated the applicability of ZnO/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite to be used as photocatalyst in removing organic pollutants in wastewater.
  19. Mehmood OU, Norzie Mustapha, Sharidan Shafie, Hayat T
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1109-1118.
    This research looks at the effects of partial slip on heat and mass transfer of peristaltic transport. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of viscous fluid in a porous asymmetric channel has been considered. The exact solutions for the stream function, longitudinal pressure gradient, longitudinal velocity, shear stress, temperature and concentration fields are derived by adopting long wavelength and small Reynolds number approximations. The results showed that peristaltic pumping and trapping are reduced with increasing velocity slip parameter. Furthermore, temperature increases with increasing thermal slip parameter. Moreover, the concentration profile decreases with increasing porosity parameter, Schmidt number and concentration slip parameter. Comparisons with published results are found to be in good agreement.
    MeSH terms: Hot Temperature; Peristalsis; Pressure; Stress, Mechanical; Temperature; Porosity; Rivers; Physical Phenomena
  20. Pandey P
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1105-1108.
    In this paper, we present a new method for solving nonlinear general two point boundary value problems. A method based on finite differences and rational function approximation and we call this method as rational approximation method. A rational approximation method is applied to construct the numerical solution for two point boundary value problems. The novel method is tested on three model problems. Thus the numerical results obtained for these model problems show the performance and efficiency of the developed method.
    MeSH terms: Learning; Paper; Problem Solving
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