Browse publications by year: 2014

  1. Al-Jadi AM, Kanyan Enchang F, Mohd Yusoff K
    Turk J Med Sci, 2014;44(5):733-40.
    PMID: 25539538
    BACKGROUND/AIM: To examine, for the first time, the effect of a selected Malaysian honey and its major components on the proliferation of cultured fibroblasts.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Honey and some of its components, which include the sugars, the proteins, the hydrogen peroxide produced, and the phenolics, were exposed to cultured fibroblasts. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess cell viability and proliferation.

    RESULTS: The stimulatory effect of honey on fibroblast proliferation was observed to be time- and dose-dependent. The continuous production of hydrogen peroxide by the honey-glucose oxidase system also acts to stimulate cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The presence of phenolics with antioxidant properties, on the other hand, renders protection to the cells against the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide. However, the presence of a growth factor-like substance in honey could not be ascertained.

    CONCLUSION: For the first time, honey and its major components were shown to exert stimulatory effects on cultured fibroblasts. Honey is therefore potentially useful in medicinal practices.

    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Antioxidants; Cells, Cultured; Colorimetry; Fibroblasts*; Cell Proliferation; Hydroxybenzoates
  2. Wells JR, Ham JE
    Atmos Environ (1994), 2014 Dec;99:519-526.
    PMID: 30100808 DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.015
    A new method for derivatizing carbonyl compounds is presented. The conversion of a series of dicarbonyls to oximes in aqueous solution and from gas-phase sampling was achieved using O-tert-butyl-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). Some advantages of using this derivatization agent include: aqueous reactions, lower molecular weight oximes, and shortened oxime-formation reaction time. Additionally, the TBOX derivatization technique was used to investigate the carbonyl reaction products from limonene ozonolysis. With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, four carbonyl compounds were detected: 7-hydroxy-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal; 3-Isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH), 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) and one carbonyl of unknown structure. Using cyclohexane as a hydroxyl (OH•) radical scavenger, the relative yields (peak area) of the unknown carbonyl, IPOH, and 3A6O were reduced indicating the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The relative yield of the hydroxy-dicarbonyl based on the chromatogram was unchanged suggesting it is only made by the limonene + O3 reaction. The detection of 3A6O using TBOX highlights the advantages of a smaller molecular weight derivatization agent for the detection of multi-carbonyl compounds. The use of TBOX derivatization if combined with other derivatization agents may address a recurring need to simply and accurately detect multi-functional oxygenated species in air.
  3. Tan SA, Goya L, Ramanathan S, Sulaiman SF, Alam M, Navaratnam V
    Food Res. Int., 2014 Oct;64:387-395.
    PMID: 30011665 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.040
    Extract from papaya leaves, a waste material from fruit farms in Malaysia was previously reported to possess remarkable antioxidative activities. In this study, papaya leaf extract was separated into fractions of different polarities [petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB) and water (W) fractions]. The aim of this research was to determine the most active fraction in terms of its chemopreventive effects towards oxidative stress and the chemical constituents involved. The cytoprotective nature of the papaya fractions was observed against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress on HepG2 liver cell line. ROS assay indicated that only PE and EA effectively reduced the increment of radical due to the pro-oxidant, t-BOOH. Nevertheless, PE was a stronger ROS scavenger by demonstrating ROS reducing activity in a dose-dependent manner to the basal level. This fraction was also found to inhibit cell death caused by t-BOOH toxicity, attenuating lactate dehydrogenase enzyme leakage by more than 90% (p<0.05). In addition, gene expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes (hmox-1 and nqo-1) and their transcription factor (nrf-2) were shown to be upregulated upon PE treatment during a time-course study. A GC-MS fingerprint of the active fraction was subsequently obtained with standardization using the marker compound; α-tocopherol, a well known antioxidant. However, this pure compound was not as effective as its corresponding PE concentrations in ROS reduction. Hence, PE of papaya leaf extract was a strong antioxidant and cytoprotectant with tremendous potential to be harnessed into the next therapeutic remedy against oxidative stress of the liver.
  4. Ng SP, Lai OM, Abas F, Lim HK, Tan CP
    Food Res. Int., 2014 Oct;64:919-930.
    PMID: 30011735 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.08.045
    The rheological properties, microstructure, textural properties, colour and droplet size distribution of mayonnaise-like emulsion models prepared using 10-30wt.% of palm olein-based diacylglycerol (POL-DAG) oil were compared with those of the control (100wt.% VCO) model. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the particle size distribution of the oil droplets, the textural properties, and the rheological properties of the various emulsion models. The rheological analysis included the determination of the flow curves, yield stress, thixotropy, apparent viscosity, and viscoelastic parameters. The concentrated oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion with 30wt.% POL-DAG substitution exhibited high thixotropy. The POL-DAG content had a substantial effect on the rheological properties of yield stress, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). The pseudoplastic behaviour of the emulsions was demonstrated. The size of the particles in the 30% POL-DAG-substituted emulsion was dramatically increased after one day and 30days of storage. All of the emulsion samples with POL-DAG substituted for VCO showed a relatively non-uniform bimodal droplet size distribution after one day of storage. In general, substitution of 10-20wt.% POL-DAG oil is appropriate for preparing O/W emulsions that had flow curves and textural properties similar to those of the control sample.
  5. Thanigasalam T, Reddy SC, Chinna K
    International Eye Science, 2014;14:1367-1372.
    DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.1672-5123.2014.08.01
    AIM: To study the prevalence of complications of cataract surgery and any association between the occurrence of complications and experience of surgeon, type of surgery, type of anaesthesia and visual outcome.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent cataract surgery over a period of two years in a district hospital in Malaysia. The demographic details of patients, type of surgery done, as well as type of anaesthesia used and experience of the surgeon were noted. The types of intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. The final best corrected visual outcome was recorded.
    RESULTS: Complications occurred in 11.1% of the total 1007 patients operated. Posterior capsule rupture (3.6%) was the most common complication. The experience of the surgeon and the type of anaesthesia used did not affect complications during surgery. Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and phacoemulsification converted to extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) were significantly associated with more complications (P<0.001). The visual outcome was significantly poor in patients with complications (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The occurrence of complications during cataract surgery significantly affected the visual outcome. The type of surgery done was associated by the occurrence of complications. However, the experience of the surgeon and the type of anaesthesia used did not affect the occurrence of complications. We recommend that particular attention be given to ICCE and phacoemulsification converted to ECCE to minimise the complications and thereby reducing the chances of poor vision postoperatively.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Cataract Extraction*; China/ethnology; Female; Hospitals, District; Humans; India/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Retrospective Studies; Prevalence; Phacoemulsification*
  6. Mohd-Dom TN, Wan-Puteh SE, Muhd-Nur A, Ayob R, Abdul-Manaf MR, Abdul-Muttalib K, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:117-123.
    PMID: 29702916 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.012
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the national public sector specialist periodontal program in the management of periodontal disease.

    METHODS: This was a multicenter, time motion, prospective, economic evaluation study involving a total of 165 patients with periodontitis recruited from five selected specialist periodontal clinics. Treatment costs were measured in 2012 Malaysian ringgit (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using step-down and activity-based costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done to compare the specialist periodontal program with a hypothetical scenario in which patients attend biannual dental visits only for regular dental check-up and scaling. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as the difference in cost per gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and clinical attachment levels (CALs). One-way scenario-based sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the uncertainty of inputs.

    RESULTS: The average cost for managing patients with periodontitis was MYR 376 per outpatient visit and MYR 2820 per annum. Clinically, a gain of an average of 0.3 mm of CAL was attained at post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). Patients gained an average of 3.8 QALY post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). For cost-effectiveness analysis, the specialist periodontal program was more cost-effective than the hypothesized biannual dental visits, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of MYR 451 and MYR 5713 per additional QALY and millimeter CAL gained, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is very cost-effective for the public sector to provide specialist periodontal treatment for patients with periodontitis according to the World Health Organization criteria and when compared with conventional biannual dental treatment.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Gingival Diseases; Humans; Outpatients; Periodontal Diseases; Periodontitis; Prospective Studies; Health Care Costs; Public Sector; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Critical Pathways; Uncertainty
  7. Aljunid S, Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Muhammad Nur A, Md Isa Z, Azmi S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:146-155.
    PMID: 29702920 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.008
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

    METHODS: A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group-based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).

    CONCLUSIONS: It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Diagnosis-Related Groups; Haemophilus influenzae; Hospitals, Public; Humans; Immunization; Infant; Inpatients; Malaysia; Medical Records; Meningitis; Otitis Media; Outpatients; Pneumococcal Infections; Pneumonia; Polysaccharides; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Vaccination; Cohort Studies; Incidence; Bacteremia; Cost Savings; Cost of Illness; Vaccines, Conjugate; Sepsis; Critical Pathways; Pneumococcal Vaccines
  8. Blebil AQ, S Sulaiman SA, A Hassali M, Dujaili JA, Zin AM
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:19-23.
    PMID: 29702926 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2013.09.001
    OBJECTIVES: Assessment of nicotine withdrawal symptoms is an essential part of tobacco dependence treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Malay translated version of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS).

    METHODS: The original scale was translated into Malay following the standard guidelines proposed for translation studies. The reliability and validity of the Malay version scale were evaluated on the basis of data collected from 133 participants. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess the reliability. To validate the psychometric properties of the scale, factor analysis and construct validity were used. This study was conducted at the Quit Smoking Clinic at Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The translated scale has excellent reliability, with total Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. The test-retest reliability for the scale presented an excellent reliability and stability of the translated scale with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r = 0.876; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the exhaled carbon monoxide level, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence total score, and number of cigarettes smoked per day and the MNWS total score (r = 0.72, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively; P < 0.001). A principal-components analysis with orthogonal rotation yielded a unidimensional model that includes all the items of the MNWS.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Malay version of the MNWS is a reliable and valid measure of withdrawal symptoms as well as the smoking urge, and it is applicable to clinical practice and research study.

    MeSH terms: Carbon Monoxide; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Hospitals, General; Malaysia; Minnesota; Nicotine; Psychometrics; Rotation; Smoke; Smoking; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome; Tobacco Use Disorder; Translating; Translations; Reproducibility of Results; Tobacco Products
  9. Dilokthornsakul P, Chaiyakunapruk N, Jeanpeerapong N, Lee TA
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:222-228.
    PMID: 29702931 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.013
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether there are differences in propensity score (PS) and treatment effects estimated using conventional and calendar time-specific PS (CTS-PS) approaches.

    METHODS: A retrospective database analysis at a university-affiliated hospital in Thailand was used. Diabetic patients receiving glucose-lowering medications from July 2008 to June 2011 were included. Patients were categorized into those exposed and not exposed to thiazolidinediones (TZDs). PSs were estimated by using conventional PS and CTS-PS. In the CTS-PS, PS was separately estimated for three specific calendar time periods. Patients were matched 1:1 using caliper matching. The outcomes were cardiovascular and all-cause hospitalizations. The TZD and non-TZD groups were compared with Cox proportional hazard models.

    RESULTS: A total of 2165 patients were included. The average conventional PS was 0.198 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.195-0.202), while the average PS in the CTS-PS approach was 0.212 (0.206-0.218), 0.180 (0.173-0.188), and 0.205 (0.197-0.213) for July 2008 to June 2009, July 2009 to June 2010, and July 2010 to June 2011, respectively. The average difference in PS was 0.012 (P < 0.001), -0.009 (P ≤ 0.002), and 0.000 (P = 0.950) in the three calendar time periods. The adjusted hazard ratios of the conventional PS-matched cohort were 0.97 (95% CI 0.39-2.45) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.78-1.20) for CVD-related and all-cause hospitalizations, while the adjusted hazard ratios of the CTS-PS-matched cohort were 1.11 (95% CI 0.43-2.88) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.91-1.39), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: CTS-PS is different from PS estimated by using the conventional approach. CTS-PS should be considered when a pattern of medication use has changed over the study period.

  10. Siti Norashikin MT, Ghosh S, Chatterjee R, Rajikin MH, Chatterjee A
    Reprod. Med. Biol., 2014 Jul;13(3):135-141.
    PMID: 29699157 DOI: 10.1007/s12522-013-0174-9
    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effects of nicotine on the endometrial decidual growth and levels of estrogen and progesterone in pseudopregnant rats.

    Methods: Pseudopregnancy (pc) was induced in cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats by sterile mating. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pc. In another group of pseudopregnant rats, concomitant treatment of nicotine tartrate concurrently with progesterone (2 mg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 9 pc. Control groups received subcutaneous injections of vehicle only. Endometrial decidualization was induced on day 5 pc. On day 10 pc, animals were sacrificed.The degree of decidual growth and circulating levels of estrogen and progesterone were measured.

    Results: The decidual growth in all the first three nicotine-treated groups of animals was significantly reduced, particularly in the animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly elevated in animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Conversely, levels of plasma progesterone were found to be significantly attenuated in the same group of nicotine-treated animals compared to controls. Exogenous replacement of progesterone, however, caused a higher degree of endometrial decidualization compared to the nicotine-treated group but it was slightly less than when compared to control.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, nicotine-induced progesterone deficiency with a corresponding elevation of estrogen may possibly attenuate the degree of endometrial decidualization in pseudopregnant rats.

    MeSH terms: Animals; Decidua; Endometrium; Estrogens; Female; Injections, Subcutaneous; Nicotine; Embryo Implantation; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Pseudopregnancy; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Control Groups; Rats
  11. Shi H, Jiang B, Wei Sim JD, Chum ZZ, Ali NB, Toh MH
    Mil Med, 2014 Oct;179(10):1158-65.
    PMID: 25269135 DOI: 10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00064
    A case-control study among Singapore Armed Forces' newly enlisted Servicemen was conducted to examine factors associated with male obesity. Four hundred and fifty-nine individuals from the Obese Basic Military Training program were selected as "cases" (average age: 19.5, body mass index: 30.4) and another 340 individuals were selected from the Normal Basic Military Training program as "controls" (average age: 19.3, body mass index: 21.4). Information such as family background, socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle practices were captured using facilitator-led questionnaires. Several variables were significantly associated with obesity after adjustments for possible confounders. These include childhood obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06), less than an hour of exercise per day (OR = 2.97), Indian ethnicity (OR = 2.22), specific education backgrounds (especially that of Institute of Technical Education-OR = 2.75), father's employment at nonmanagerial/professional jobs (OR = 1.52), mother's employment at managerial/professional jobs (OR = 2.02), regular smoking (OR = 1.73) and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.26), 6 hours or less of sleep (OR = 3.73), obesity among family members (OR = 1.86 for mother; OR = 2.98 for siblings), parental history of diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.22 for father; OR = 2.70 for mother), and eating at inexpensive local food stalls (OR = 1.82). Our study found that a number of factors, ranging from personal and family backgrounds to lifestyle choices, were significantly associated with obesity among male youths.
    MeSH terms: Alcohol Drinking; Educational Status; Employment; Ethnic Groups; Family; Fathers; Feeding Behavior; Humans; Income; India/ethnology; Life Style; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Military Personnel*; Mothers; Obesity/etiology*; Obesity/genetics; Occupations; Singapore; Sleep/physiology; Smoking; Socioeconomic Factors; Time Factors; Exercise/physiology; Body Mass Index; Case-Control Studies; Diabetes Complications; Young Adult; Pediatric Obesity/complications
  12. Sirkhazi M, Sarriff A, Aziz NA, Almana F, Arafat O, Shorman M
    World J Oncol, 2014 Dec;5(5-6):196-203.
    PMID: 29147403 DOI: 10.14740/wjon850w
    Background: Knowing local spectrum and sensitivity for bacterial isolates causing febrile neutropenia is important as starting an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy is considered a medical emergency in these high-risk patients.

    Methods: A retrospective study of a total of 106 microbiologically febrile episodes in hospitalized adult neutropenic cancer patients, who were admitted from May 2009 to May 2013, at King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, was conducted.

    Results: Among 106 microbiologically documented febrile neutropenic episodes, the majority of malignancies were solid tumors accounting for 53.8% (57/106) and hematological malignancies accounted for 46.23% (49/106). The most common malignancies were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 19.81% (21/106) followed by acute myeloid leukemia 15.09% (16/106), then colorectal cancer 13.21% (14/106), pancreatic cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia accounting for 5.66% (6/106) each, multiple myeloma 4.72% (5/106), gall bladder cancer 3.77% (4/106), and lung cancer 2.83% (3/106). A total of 138 bacterial isolates were identified. The overall prevalence of gram-negative bacteria was 65.94% (91/138) and for gram-positive bacteria was 34.06% (47/138). The most common bacterial isolation sites were blood 33.32% (46 isolates), urine 29.71% (41 isolates), wound 19.55% (27 isolates), body fluids 9.41% (13 isolates) and sputum 7.96% (11 isolates). The most predominant pathogens were Escherichia coli 30.43 (42/138), Klebsiella pneumonia 14.49% (20/138), Staphylococcus aureus 13.04% (18/138), Sptreptococcus spp. 7.25% (10/138), Pseudomonas spp. 7.25% (10/138), Enterococcus spp. 5.80% (8/138), Staphylococcus spp. 4.35% (6/138), Corynebacterium spp. 3.62% (5/138), Enterobacter spp. 3.62% (5/138), Acinobacter spp. 2.90% (4/138), Serratia marcescens 2.17% (3/138), Proteus mirabilis 1.45% (2). Aeromonas hydrophylia, Citrobacter freundii, Providencia stuartii, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Stenotropomonas multipholia contributed to 0.72% with one isolate each. For gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia, the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producers (ESBLs) rates were 38% and 22.22% respectively. For Pseudomonas aerugenosa imipenem-cilastatin resistance rate was 18.84%. For gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rate was 28.62%. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) rate was 1.18%.

    Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent as a cause of infection in adult cancer patients with febrile neutropenia at our institution, with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia with high ESBLs rates being the most common pathogens. Blood stream infections followed by urinary tract infections were the most common sites of infection. The use of initial antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic episodes should be based on local bacterial spectrum and susceptibility/sensitivity patterns to prevent treatment failure with increased morbidity and mortality.

  13. Koh KH, Tan CH, Hii LW, Lee J, Ngu LL, Chai AJ, et al.
    Toxicol Rep, 2014;1:490-495.
    PMID: 28962262 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.06.010
    Paraquat poisoning resulted in multiorgan failure and is associated with high mortality. We audited 83 historical cases of paraquat poisoning in past 2 years treated with conventional decontamination and supportive treatment, followed by enrolling 85 patients over a 2 year period into additional immunosuppression with intravenous (i.v.) methylprednisolone and i.v. cyclophosphamide. Our results showed that age, poor renal function and leucocytosis are the main predictors of fatal outcome. Immunosuppression regime rendered higher survival (6 out of 17 patients (35.3%)) versus historical control (1 out of 18 patients (5.6%)) (p = 0.041) in the cohort with admission eGFR < 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and WBC count > 11,000/μL. In contrast, there was no difference in survival with immunosuppression regime (38 out of 64 patients (59.4%)) compared to historical control (30 out of 52 patients (57.7%)) (p = 0.885) in those with eGFR > 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or WBC < 11,000/μL at presentation. Multivariable logistic regression showed survival probability = exp(logit)/(1 + exp(logit)), in which logit = 13.962 - (0.233 × ln(age (year))) - (1.344 × ln(creatinine (μmol/L))) - (1.602 × ln(rise in creatinine (μmol/day))) - (0.614 × ln(WBC (,000/μL))) + (2.021 × immunosuppression) and immunosuppression = 1 if given and 0 if not. Immunosuppression therapy yielded odds ratio of 0.132 (95% confidential interval: 0.029-0.603, p = 0.009). In conclusion, immunosuppression therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide may counteract immune mediated inflammation after paraquat poisoning and improve survival of patients with admission eGFR < 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and WBC count > 11,000/μL.
  14. Parasuraman S, Raveendran R, Rajesh NG, Nandhakumar S
    Toxicol Rep, 2014;1:596-611.
    PMID: 28962273 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.08.006
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicological effects of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B using sub-chronic toxicity testing in rodents.

    METHOD: Cleistanthins A and B were isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus. Both the compounds were administered orally for 90 days at the concentration of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, and the effects on blood pressure, biochemical parameters and histology were assessed. The dose for sub-chronic toxicology was determined by fixed dose method according to OECD guidelines.

    RESULT: Sub-chronic toxicity study of cleistanthins A and B spanning over 90 days at the dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (once daily, per oral) revealed a significant dose dependant toxic effect in lungs. The compounds did not have any effect on the growth of the rats. The food and water intake of the animals were also not affected by both cleistanthins A and B. Both the compounds did not have any significant effect on liver and renal markers. The histopathological analysis of both cleistanthins A and B showed dose dependent morphological changes in the brain, heart, lung, liver and kidney. When compared to cleistanthin A, cleistanthin B had more toxic effect in Wistar rats. Both the compounds have produced a dose dependent increase of corpora amylacea in brain and induced acute tubular necrosis in kidneys. In addition, cleistanthin B caused spotty necrosis of liver in higher doses.

    CONCLUSION: The present study concludes that both cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B exert severe toxic effects on lungs, brain, liver, heart and kidneys. They do not cause any significant pathological change in the reproductive system; neither do they induce neurodegenerative changes in brain. When compared to cleistanthin A, cleistanthin B is more toxic in rats.

  15. Manaharan T, Chakravarthi S, Radhakrishnan AK, Palanisamy UD
    Toxicol Rep, 2014;1:718-725.
    PMID: 28962285 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.09.006
    In this study, the acute and subchronic toxicity effect of the Syzygium aqueum leaf extract (SA) was evaluated. For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of the SA was given by oral-gavage to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were observed for mortality and toxicity signs for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study the SA was administered orally at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg per day for 28 days to male SD rats. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The parameters measured including food and water intake, body weight, absolute and relative organ weight, blood biochemical tests and histopathology observation. In both the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, SA did not show any visible signs of toxicity. There were also no significant differences between the control and SA treated rats in terms of their food and water intake, body weight, absolute and relative organ weight, biochemical parameters or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs. There were no acute or subchronic toxicity observed and our results indicate that this extract could be devoid of any toxic risk. This is the first in vivo study reported the safety and toxicity of SA.
  16. Aboonabi A, Rahmat A, Othman F
    Toxicol Rep, 2014;1:915-922.
    PMID: 28962304 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.10.022
    Oxidative stress attributes a crucial role in chronic complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective part of pomegranate on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities against streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p), 15 min after the i.p administration of NA. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in plasma glucose level, and the significant decrease in plasma insulin level. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) reduced while the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as gamma-glutamyle transferase (GGT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in diabetic control rats as compared to normal control rats. Oral treatment with pomegranate seed-juice for 21 days demonstrated significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Besides, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological study. These results revealed that pomegranate has potential protective effect against oxidative stress induced diabetic rats.
  17. Ismail R, Lee HY, Mahyudin NA, Abu Bakar F
    J Food Drug Anal, 2014 Dec;22(4):407-412.
    PMID: 28911453 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.026
    In this study, linear relationships between response and concentration were used to estimate the detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL) for five avermectins: emamectin, abamectin, doramectin, moxidectin, and ivermectin. Estimation of DL and QL was based on the standard deviation of residual and y-intercept of the regression line at low concentrations of avermectins, using the dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure. Avermectin extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the regression slope, DL and QL were higher at concentrations of 0.3-0.4 μg/kg and 1 μg/kg, respectively, for all avermectin compounds. Linearity assessment was performed by linear regression, which incorporated a regression model, outlier rejection, and evaluation of the assumption with a significant test. For all avermectins, there is a significant correlation between response and concentration in the range 1-15 μg/kg, and the y-intercept passes through origin (zero).
  18. Hossain MI, Faruque MRI, Islam MT, Ullah MH
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Dec 25;8(1):57-71.
    PMID: 28787924 DOI: 10.3390/ma8010057
    A new design and analysis of a wide-band double-negative metamaterial, considering a frequency range of 0.5 to 7 GHz, is presented in this paper. Four different unit cells with varying design parameters are analyzed to evaluate the effects of the unit-cell size on the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial. Moreover, open and interconnected 2 × 2 array structures of unit cells are analyzed. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, based on the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio, is utilized in the majority of this investigation. The experimental portion of the study was performed in a semi-anechoic chamber. Good agreement is observed between the simulated and measured S parameters of the developed unit cell and array. The designed unit cell exhibits negative permittivity and permeability simultaneously at S-band (2.95 GHz to 4.00 GHz) microwave frequencies. In addition, the designed unit cell can also operate as a double-negative medium throughout the C band (4.00 GHz to 4.95 GHz and 5.00 GHz to 5.57 GHz). At a number of other frequencies, it exhibits a single negative value. The two array configurations cause a slight shift in the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial and hence lead to a slight shift of the single- and double-negative frequency ranges of the metamaterial.
  19. Koh KH, Sreekumar M, Ponnambalam SG
    Materials (Basel), 2014 Jun 25;7(7):4963-4981.
    PMID: 28788114 DOI: 10.3390/ma7074963
    This paper investigates the effect of driving voltage on the attachment force of an electroadhesion actuator, as the existing literature on the saturation of the adhesive force at a higher electric field is incomplete. A new type of electroadhesion actuator using normally available materials, such as aluminum foil, PVC tape and a silicone rubber sheet used for keyboard protection, has been developed with a simple layered structure that is capable of developing adhesive force consistently. The developed actuator is subjected to the experiment for the evaluation of various test surfaces; aluminum, brick, ceramic, concrete and glass. The driving high voltage is varied in steps to determine the characteristics of the output holding force. Results show a quadratic relation between F (adhesion force) and V (driving voltage) within the 2 kV range. After this range, the F-V responses consistently show a saturation trend at high electric fields. Next, the concept of the leakage current that can occur in the dielectric material and the corona discharge through air has been introduced. Results show that the voltage level, which corresponds to the beginning of the supply current, matches well with the beginning of the force saturation. With the confirmation of this hypothesis, a working model for electroadhesion actuation is proposed. Based on the experimental results, it is proposed that such a kind of actuator can be driven within a range of optimum high voltage to remain electrically efficient. This practice is recommended for the future design, development and characterization of electroadhesion actuators for robotic applications.
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