Browse publications by year: 2014

  1. Ng CW, Md Hairi NN, Ng CJ, Kamarulzaman A
    Socioeconomic development in Malaysia, over the past few decades, has led to the improvement and expansion of the public healthcare system. This system has provided universal access to a low-priced package of comprehensive health care leading Malaysia to claim to have achieved universal health coverage (UHC). However, the Malaysian health landscape is changing rapidly. Provision of private care has grown especially in large urban towns, mainly in response to public demand. Thus far, private care has been predominantly bought and utilised by the rich but because of differentials in quality of care between the public and private sector, unabated expansion of the private health sector has the potential to adversely affect universal access to care. This effect may be accentuated in the coming years by demographic changes in the country specifically by the ageing of the population. This paper is intended to highlight challenges to UHC in Malaysia in the face of the changing health landscape in the country and to offer some suggestions as to how these challenges can be met.
    MeSH terms: Delivery of Health Care; Malaysia; Primary Health Care; Universal Coverage
  2. Dechosilpa C, Mulpruek P, Woratanarat P, Thiabratana P
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Nov;8(3):30-2.
    PMID: 26401233 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1411.007
    Idiopathic Chondrolysis of the Hip (ICH) is a rare condition, occurring mostly in black female adolescence. It is characterized by the rapidly progressive destruction of articular cartilage in the hip joint resulting in premature degeneration and subsequent joint arthrosis. We report three cases of ICH: a 13-year old boy presented with left knee pain, an 11-year old girl with right hip pain and a 12-year old girl with right thigh pain. All of them had the same characteristic radiographic findings. The initial treatment was started conservatively. Surgical treatment was performed in one patient in order to confirm diagnosis and correct deformity.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; Cartilage Diseases; Cartilage, Articular; Child; Female; Hip; Hip Joint; Humans; Male; Osteoarthritis; Pain; Thigh
  3. Zulperi D, Sijam K
    Plant Dis., 2014 Feb;98(2):275.
    PMID: 30708756 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-13-0321-PDN
    During March 2011 to June 2012, 50 banana plants of cultivar Musa × paradisiaca 'Horn' with Moko disease symptoms were randomly sampled in 12 different locations of 5 outbreak states in Peninsular Malaysia comprising Kedah, Selangor, Pahang, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor, with disease incidence exceeding 90% in some severely affected plantations. The disease symptoms observed in the infected plants included yellowing and wilting of the oldest leaves, which became necrotic, and eventually led to their dieback or collapse. The pulp of banana fruits also became discolored and exuded bacterial ooze. Vascular tissues in pseudostems were discolored. Fragments from symptomatic plant samples were excised and cultured on Kelman's-tetrazolium salt (TZC) medium. Twenty positive samples produced fluidal colonies that were either entirely white or white with pink centers after incubation for 24 to 48 h at 28°C on Kelman's-TZC medium and appeared as gram-negative rods after Gram staining. They were also positive for potassium hydroxide (KOH), Kovacs oxidase, and catalase tests, but negative for utilization of disaccharides and hexose alcohols, which are characteristics of biovar 1 Ralstonia solanacearum. For the pathogenicity test, 30 μl of 108 CFU/ml bacterial suspension of three selected virulent strains were injected into banana (Musa × paradisiaca 'Horn') leaves explants grown in plastic pots of 1,440 cm3 volume in a greenhouse, with temperature range from 26 to 35°C. Leaves that were infiltrated with sterile distilled water served as a negative control. Inoculations with all isolates were performed in three replications, as well as the uninoculated control leaves explants. The inoculated plants produced the same symptoms as observed on naturally diseased samples, whereas control plants remained asymptomatic. Strain cultures were re-isolated and possessed the morphological and biochemical characteristics as previously described. PCR amplification using race 2 R. solanacearum primers ISRso19-F (5'-TGGGAGAGGATGGCGGCTTT-3') and ISRso19-R (5'-TGACCCGCCTTTCGGTGTTT-3') (3) produced a 1,900-bp product from DNA of all bacterial strains. BLAST searches resulted that the sequences were 95 to 98% identical to published R. solanacearum strain race 2 insertion sequence ISRso19 (GenBank Accession No. AF450275). These genes were later deposited in GenBank (KC812051, KC812052, and KC812053). Phylotype-specific multiplex PCR (Pmx-PCR) and Musa-specific multiplex PCR (Mmx-PCR) were performed to identify the phylotype and sequevar of all isolates (4). Pmx-PCR showed that all isolates belonged to phylotype II, whereas Mmx-PCR showed that they belonged to phylotype II sequevar 4 displaying 351-bp amplicon. Although there were previously extensive studies on R. solanacearum associated with bacterial wilt disease of banana crops in Malaysia, none related to Moko disease has been reported (1,2). The result has a great importance to better understand and document R. solanacearum race 2 biovar 1, since banana has been identified as the second most important commercial fruit crop with a high economic value in Malaysia. References: (1) R. Khakvar et al. Plant Pathol. J. 7:162, 2008. (2) R. Khakvar et al. Am. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 3:490, 2008. (3) Y. A. Lee and C. N. Khor. Plant Pathol. Bull. 12:57, 2003. (4) P. Prior et al. Pages 405-414 in: Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, 2005.
  4. Ma WJ, Yang X, Wang XR, Zeng YS, Liao MD, Chen CJ, et al.
    Plant Dis., 2014 Jul;98(7):991.
    PMID: 30708879 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0609-PDN
    Hylocereus undatus widely grows in southern China. Some varieties are planted for their fruits, known as dragon fruits or Pitaya, while some varieties for their flowers known as Bawanghua. Fresh or dried flowers of Bawanghua are used as routine Chinese medicinal food. Since 2008, a serious anthracnose disease has led to great losses on Bawanghua flower production farms in the Baiyun district of Guangzhou city in China. Anthracnose symptoms on young stems of Bawanghua are reddish-brown, sunken lesions with pink masses of spores in the center. The lesions expand rapidly in the field or in storage, and may coalesce in the warm and wet environment in spring and summer in Guangzhou. Fewer flowers develop on infected stems than on healthy ones. The fungus overwinters in infected debris in the soil. The disease caused a loss of up to 50% on Bawanghua. Putative pathogenic fungi with whitish-orange colonies were isolated from a small piece of tissue (3 × 3 mm) cut from a lesion margin and cultured on potato dextrose agar in a growth chamber at 25°C, 80% RH. Dark colonies with acervuli bearing pinkish conidial masses formed 14 days later. Single celled conidia were 11 to 18 × 4 to 6 μm. Based on these morphological characteristics, the fungi were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc (2). To confirm this, DNA was extracted from isolate BWH1 and multilocus analyses were completed with DNA sequence data generated from partial ITS region of nrDNA, actin (ACT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) nucleotide sequences by PCR, with C. gloeosporioides specific primers as ITS4 (5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3') / CgInt (5'-GGCCTCCCGCCTCCGGGCGG-3'), GS-F (5'-ATGGCCGAGTACATCTGG-3') / GS-R (5'-GAACCGTCGAAGTTCCAC-3') and actin-R (5'-ATGTGCAAGGCCGGTTTCGC-3') / actin-F (5'-TACGAGTCCTTCTGGCCCAT-3'). The sequence alignment results indicated that the obtained partial ITS sequence of 468 bp (GenBank Accession No. KF051997), actin sequence of 282 bp (KF712382), and GS sequence of 1,021 bp (KF719176) are 99%, 96%, and 95% identical to JQ676185.1 for partial ITS, FJ907430 for ACT, and FJ972589 for GS of C. gloeosporioides previously deposited, respectively. For testing its pathogenicity, 20 μl of conidia suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) using sterile distilled water (SDW) was inoculated into artificial wounds on six healthy young stems of Bawanghua using sterile fine-syringe needle. Meanwhile, 20 μl of SDW was inoculated on six healthy stems as a control. The inoculated stems were kept at 25°C, about 90% relative humidity. Three independent experiments were carried out. Reddish-brown lesions formed after 10 days, on 100% stems (18 in total) inoculated by C. gloeosporioides, while no lesion formed on any control. The pathogen was successfully re-isolated from the inoculated stem lesions on Bawanghua. Thus, Koch's postulates were fulfilled. Colletotrichum anthracnose has been reported on Pitaya in Japan (3), Malaysia (1) and in Brazil (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides on young stems of Bawanghua (H. undatus) in China. References: (1) M. Masyahit et al. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 6:902, 2009. (2) B. C. Sutton. Page 402 in: Colletotrichum Biology, Pathology and Control. J. A. Bailey and M. J. Jeger, eds. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. (3) S. Taba et al. Jpn. J. Phytopathol. 72:25, 2006. (4) L. M. Takahashi et al. Australas. Plant Dis. Notes 3:96, 2008.
  5. Li BX, Shi T, Liu XB, Lin CH, Huang GX
    Plant Dis., 2014 Jul;98(7):1008.
    PMID: 30708897 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-01-14-0004-PDN
    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important crop in tropical regions of China. In October 2013, a new stem rot disease was found on cv. Yunyan77-4 at a rubber tree plantation in Hekou, Yunnan Province. There were about 100 plants, and diseased rubber trees accounted for 30% or less. Initially, brown-punctuate secretion appeared on the stem, which was 5 to 6 cm above the ground. Eventually, the secretion became black and no latex produced from the rubber tree bark. After removing the secretion, the diseased bark was brown putrescence, but the circumambient bark was normal. Upon peeling the surface bark, the inner bark and xylem had brown rot and was musty. The junction between health and disease was undulate. On the two most serious plants, parts of leaves on the crown were yellow, and the root near the diseased stem was dry and puce. The pathogen was isolated and designated HbFO01; the pathogenicity was established by following Koch's postulates. The pathogen was cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA) plate at 28°C for 4 days. Ten plants of rubber tree cv. Yunyan77-4 were selected from a disease-free plantation in Haikou, Hainan Province, and the stem diameter was about 7 cm. The bark of five plants was peeled, and one mycelium disk with a diameter of 1 cm was inserted into the cut and covered again with the bark. The other five plants were treated with agar disks as controls. The inoculation site was kept moist for 2 days, and then the mycelium and agar disk were removed. On eighth day, symptoms similar to the original stem lesions were observed on stems of inoculated plants, while only scars formed on stems of control plants. The pathogen was re-isolated from the lesions of inoculated plants. On PDA plates, the pathogen colony was circular and white with tidy edges and rich aerial hyphae. Microscopic examination showed microconidia and chlamydospores were produced abundantly on PDA medium. The falciform macroconidia were only produced on lesions and were slightly curved, with a curved apical cell and foot shaped to pointed basal cell, usually 3-septate, 16.2 to 24.2 × 3.2 to 4.0 μm. Microconidia were produced in false heads, oval, 0-septate, 6.2 to 8.2 × 3.3 to 3.8 μm, and the phialide was cylindrical. Chlamydospores were oval, 6.4 to 7.2 × 3.1 to 3.8 μm, alone produced in hypha. Morphological characteristics of the specimen were similar to the descriptions for Fusarium oxysporum (2). Genomic DNA of this isolate was extracted with a CTAB protocol (4) from mycelium and used as a template for amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA with primer pair ITS1/ITS4 (1). The full length of this sequence is 503 nt (GenBank Accession No. KJ009335), which exactly matched several sequences (e.g., JF807394.1, JX897002.1, and HQ451888.1) of F. oxysporum. Williams and Liu had listed F. oxysporum as the economically important pathogen of Hevea in Asia (3), while this is, to our knowledge, the first report of stem rot caused by F. oxysporum on rubber tree in China. References: (1) D. E. L. Cooke et al. Fungal Genet. Biol. 30:17, 2000. (2) J. F. Leslie and B. A. Summerell. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual, 2006. (3) T. H. Williams and P. S. W. Liu. A host list of plant diseases in Sabah, Malaysia, 1976. (4) J. R. Xu et al. Genetics 143:175, 1996.
  6. Wu JB, Zhang CL, Mao PP, Qian YS, Wang HZ
    Plant Dis., 2014 Jul;98(7):996.
    PMID: 30708927 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-09-13-1006-PDN
    Dendrobium (Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl.) is a perennial herb in the Orchidaceae family. It has been used as traditional medicinal plant in China, Malaysia, Laos, and Thailand (2). Fungal disease is one of the most important factors affecting the development of Dendrobium production. During summer 2012, chocolate brown spots were observed on leaves of 2-year-old Dendrobium seedlings in a greenhouse in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, situated at 30.26°N and 120.19°E. Approximately 80% of the plants in each greenhouse were symptomatic. Diseased leaves exhibited irregular, chocolate brown, and necrotic lesions with a chlorotic halo, reaching 0.8 to 3.2 cm in diameter. Affected leaves began to senesce and withered in autumn, and all leaves of diseased plants fell off in the following spring. Symptomatic leaf tissues were cut into small pieces (4 to 5 mm long), surface-sterilized (immersed in 75% ethanol for 30 s, and then 1% sodium hypochlorite for 60 s), rinsed three times in sterilized distilled water, and then cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with 30 mg/liter of kanamycin sulfate (dissolved in ddH2O). Petri plates were incubated in darkness at 25 ± 0.5°C, and a grey mycelium with a white border developed after 4 days. Fast-growing white mycelia were isolated from symptomatic leaf samples, and the mycelia became gray-brown with the onset of sporulation after 5 days. Conidia were unicellular, black, elliptical, and 11.4 to 14.3 μm (average 13.1 μm) in diameter. Based on these morphological and pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were tentatively identified as Nigrospora oryzae (1). Genomic DNA was extracted from a representative isolate F12-F, and a ~600-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced using the primers ITS1 and ITS4 (4). BLAST analysis showed that F12-F ITS sequence (Accession No. KF516962) had 99% similarity with the ITS sequence of an N. oryzae isolate (JQ863242.1). Healthy Dendrobium seedlings (4 months old) were used in pathogenicity tests under greenhouse conditions. Leaves were inoculated with mycelial plugs (5 mm in diameter) from a 5-day-old culture of strain F12-F, and sterile PDA plugs served as controls. Seedlings were covered with plastic bags for 5 days and maintained at 25 ± 0.5°C and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. Eight seedlings were used in each experiment, which was repeated three times. After 5 days, typical chocolate brown spots and black lesions were observed on inoculated leaves, whereas no symptoms developed on controls, which fulfilled Koch's postulates. This shows that N. oryzae can cause leaf spot of D. candidum. N. oryzae is a known pathogen for several hosts but has not been previously reported on any species of Dendrobium in China (3). To our knowledge, on the basis of literature, this is the first report of leaf spot of D. candidum caused by N. oryzae in China. References: (1) H. J. Hudson. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 46:355, 1963. (2) Q. Jin et al. PLoS One. 8(4):e62352, 2013. (3) P. Sharma et al. J. Phytopathol. 161:439, 2013. (4) T. J. White et al. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.
  7. Afolabi O, Milan B, Amoussa R, Koebnik R, Poulin L, Szurek B, et al.
    Plant Dis., 2014 Oct;98(10):1426.
    PMID: 30703943 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0504-PDN
    On May 9, 2013, symptoms reminiscent of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola were observed on rice plants at the panicle emergence stage at Musenyi, Gihanga, and Rugombo fields in Burundi. Affected leaves showed water-soaked translucent lesions and yellow-brown to black streaks, sometimes with visible exudates on leaf surfaces. Symptomatic leaves were ground in sterile water and the suspensions obtained were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay diagnostic for X. oryzae pathovars (3). Three DNA fragments (331, 691, and 945 bp) corresponding to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola were observed after agarose gel electrophoresis. Single bacterial colonies were then isolated from surface-sterilized, infected leaves after grinding in sterile water and plating of 10-fold dilutions of the cell suspension on semi-selective PSA medium (4). After incubation at 28°C for 5 days, each of four independent cultures yielded single yellow, mucoid Xanthomonas-like colonies (named Bur_1, Bur_2, Bur_6, and Bur_7) that resembled the positive control strain MAI10 (1). These strains originated from Musenyi (Bur_1), Gihanga (Bur_2), and Rugumbo (Bur_6 and Bur_7). Multiplex PCR assays on the four putative X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains yielded the three diagnostic DNA fragments mentioned above. All strains were further analyzed by sequence analysis of portions of the gyrB gene using the universal primers gyrB1-F and gyrB1-R for PCR amplification (5). The 762-bp DNA fragment was identical to gyrB sequences from the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains BLS256 (Philippines), ICMP 12013 (China), LMG 797 and NCPPB 2921 (both Malaysia), and from the African strain MAI3 (Mali) (2). The partial nucleotide sequence of the gyrB gene of Bur_1 was submitted to GenBank (Accession No. KJ801400). Pathogenicity tests were performed on greenhouse-grown 4-week-old rice plants of the cvs. Nipponbare, Azucena, IRBB 1, IRBB 2, IRBB 3, IRBB 7, FKR 14, PNA64F4-56, TCS 10, Gigante, and Adny 11. Bacterial cultures were grown overnight in PSA medium and re-suspended in sterile water (1 × 108 CFU/ml). Plants were inoculated with bacterial suspensions either by spraying or by leaf infiltration (1). For spray inoculation, four plants per accession and strain were used while three leaves per plant and four plants per accession and strain were inoculated by tissue infiltration. After 15 days of incubation in a BSL-3 containment facility (27 ± 1°C with a 12-h photoperiod), the spray-inoculated plants showed water-soaked lesions with yellow exudates identical to those seen in the field. For syringe-infiltrated leaves, the same symptoms were observed at the infiltrated leaf area. Re-isolation of bacteria from symptomatic leaves yielded colonies with the typical Xanthomonas morphology that were confirmed by multiplex PCR to be X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. Bur_1 has been deposited in the Collection Française de Bactéries Phytopathogènes as strain CFBP 8170 ( http://www.angers-nantes.inra.fr/cfbp/ ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola causing bacterial leaf streak on rice in Burundi. Further surveys will help to assess its importance in the country. References: (1) C. Gonzalez et al., Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 20:534, 2007. (2) A. Hajri et al. Mol. Plant Pathol. 13:288, 2012. (3) J. M. Lang et al. Plant Dis. 94:311, 2010. (4) L. Poulin et al. Plant Dis. 98:1423, 2014. (5) J. M. Young et al. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 31:366, 2008.
  8. Hakimi H, Kawai S, Kawazu S
    Trop Parasitol, 2014 Jan;4(1):20-4.
    PMID: 24754022 DOI: 10.4103/2229-5070.129154
    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease with global concern. Plasmodium knowlesi recently has emerged from its natural simian host as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, it has been added as the fifth human Plasmodium specie which is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Recent developments of new molecular tools enhanced our understanding about the key features of this malaria parasite. Here, we review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used for epidemiology of P. knowlesi and finally lead to an efficient control of malaria.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Asia, Southeastern; Borneo; Humans; Malaria; Parasites; Parasitic Diseases; Plasmodium knowlesi
  9. Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, et al.
    Ecol Evol, 2014 Dec;4(24):4701-35.
    PMID: 25558364 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1303
    Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - http://www.predicts.org.uk). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.
    MeSH terms: Amphibians; Animals; Birds; Mammals; Reptiles; Ecosystem; Biodiversity
  10. Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo
    MyJurnal
    This paper proposes a new multidimensional graphical model to monitoring the GDP
    growth rates in real prices behavior and the GDP formation accumulation from any
    country in the short and long run through the uses of “the Multi-Dimensional Radar
    Mapping Model (MDRM- Model).” Hence, the MDRM-Model is based on the plotting of
    different coordinates that represents a large number of GDP growth rates in real prices
    on the top of a large number of perimeters. Each perimeter represents different periods
    of time in our analysis. In our case, we are using the Multi-Dimensional Radar Mapping
    coordinate system (MDRM-Coordinate System) to build the MDRM-Model respectively.
    Moreover, the MDRM-Model can facilitate the visualization of different GDP growth rates
    in real prices simultaneously in different periods of time (years) or spaces (countries) that
    follows a logical order into the same graphical space. The MDRM-Model was applied on
    the economies of People’s Republic of China (PRC) and U.S. to analyze the process of
    GDP formation accumulation in the last past forty years in both economies.
  11. Alharazy SM, Kong N, Saidin R, Gafor AH, Maskon O, Mohd M, et al.
    Angiology, 2014 Mar;65(3):225-6.
    PMID: 23564021 DOI: 10.1177/0003319713483544
    MeSH terms: Acute-Phase Proteins; Contrast Media/adverse effects*; Female; Humans; Kidney Diseases/chemically induced*; Male; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood*; Biomarkers/blood*; Coronary Angiography/adverse effects*; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications*; Lipocalins/blood*; Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced*; Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control*; Lipocalin-2
  12. Kuldas S, Satyen L, Ismail HN, Hashim S
    Psychol Belg, 2014 Aug 08;54(4):350-373.
    PMID: 30479408 DOI: 10.5334/pb.aw
    The capacity limitation of working memory is a widely recognised determinant of human learning. A cognitive load exceeding the capacity hampers learning. Cognitive load can be controlled by tailoring an instructional design to levels of learner prior knowledge. However, such as design does not necessarily motivate to use the available capacity for better learning. The present review examines literatures on the effects of instructional design, motivation, emotional state, and expertise level on cognitive load and cognitive effort, which ultimately affect working memory performance and learning. This examination suggests further studies on the effects of motivation and negative emotional states on the use of working memory. Prospective findings would help better explain and predict individual differences in the use of working memory for cognitive learning and task performance.
    MeSH terms: Cognition; Emotions; Humans; Individuality; Learning; Memory, Short-Term; Motivation; Prospective Studies; Task Performance and Analysis; Knowledge
  13. Al-Jadi AM, Kanyan Enchang F, Mohd Yusoff K
    Turk J Med Sci, 2014;44(5):733-40.
    PMID: 25539538
    BACKGROUND/AIM: To examine, for the first time, the effect of a selected Malaysian honey and its major components on the proliferation of cultured fibroblasts.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Honey and some of its components, which include the sugars, the proteins, the hydrogen peroxide produced, and the phenolics, were exposed to cultured fibroblasts. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess cell viability and proliferation.

    RESULTS: The stimulatory effect of honey on fibroblast proliferation was observed to be time- and dose-dependent. The continuous production of hydrogen peroxide by the honey-glucose oxidase system also acts to stimulate cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The presence of phenolics with antioxidant properties, on the other hand, renders protection to the cells against the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide. However, the presence of a growth factor-like substance in honey could not be ascertained.

    CONCLUSION: For the first time, honey and its major components were shown to exert stimulatory effects on cultured fibroblasts. Honey is therefore potentially useful in medicinal practices.

    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Antioxidants; Cells, Cultured; Colorimetry; Fibroblasts*; Cell Proliferation; Hydroxybenzoates
  14. Tan SA, Goya L, Ramanathan S, Sulaiman SF, Alam M, Navaratnam V
    Food Res. Int., 2014 Oct;64:387-395.
    PMID: 30011665 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.06.040
    Extract from papaya leaves, a waste material from fruit farms in Malaysia was previously reported to possess remarkable antioxidative activities. In this study, papaya leaf extract was separated into fractions of different polarities [petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (NB) and water (W) fractions]. The aim of this research was to determine the most active fraction in terms of its chemopreventive effects towards oxidative stress and the chemical constituents involved. The cytoprotective nature of the papaya fractions was observed against t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress on HepG2 liver cell line. ROS assay indicated that only PE and EA effectively reduced the increment of radical due to the pro-oxidant, t-BOOH. Nevertheless, PE was a stronger ROS scavenger by demonstrating ROS reducing activity in a dose-dependent manner to the basal level. This fraction was also found to inhibit cell death caused by t-BOOH toxicity, attenuating lactate dehydrogenase enzyme leakage by more than 90% (p<0.05). In addition, gene expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes (hmox-1 and nqo-1) and their transcription factor (nrf-2) were shown to be upregulated upon PE treatment during a time-course study. A GC-MS fingerprint of the active fraction was subsequently obtained with standardization using the marker compound; α-tocopherol, a well known antioxidant. However, this pure compound was not as effective as its corresponding PE concentrations in ROS reduction. Hence, PE of papaya leaf extract was a strong antioxidant and cytoprotectant with tremendous potential to be harnessed into the next therapeutic remedy against oxidative stress of the liver.
  15. Ng SP, Lai OM, Abas F, Lim HK, Tan CP
    Food Res. Int., 2014 Oct;64:919-930.
    PMID: 30011735 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.08.045
    The rheological properties, microstructure, textural properties, colour and droplet size distribution of mayonnaise-like emulsion models prepared using 10-30wt.% of palm olein-based diacylglycerol (POL-DAG) oil were compared with those of the control (100wt.% VCO) model. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the particle size distribution of the oil droplets, the textural properties, and the rheological properties of the various emulsion models. The rheological analysis included the determination of the flow curves, yield stress, thixotropy, apparent viscosity, and viscoelastic parameters. The concentrated oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion with 30wt.% POL-DAG substitution exhibited high thixotropy. The POL-DAG content had a substantial effect on the rheological properties of yield stress, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). The pseudoplastic behaviour of the emulsions was demonstrated. The size of the particles in the 30% POL-DAG-substituted emulsion was dramatically increased after one day and 30days of storage. All of the emulsion samples with POL-DAG substituted for VCO showed a relatively non-uniform bimodal droplet size distribution after one day of storage. In general, substitution of 10-20wt.% POL-DAG oil is appropriate for preparing O/W emulsions that had flow curves and textural properties similar to those of the control sample.
  16. Thanigasalam T, Reddy SC, Chinna K
    International Eye Science, 2014;14:1367-1372.
    DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.1672-5123.2014.08.01
    AIM: To study the prevalence of complications of cataract surgery and any association between the occurrence of complications and experience of surgeon, type of surgery, type of anaesthesia and visual outcome.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent cataract surgery over a period of two years in a district hospital in Malaysia. The demographic details of patients, type of surgery done, as well as type of anaesthesia used and experience of the surgeon were noted. The types of intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. The final best corrected visual outcome was recorded.
    RESULTS: Complications occurred in 11.1% of the total 1007 patients operated. Posterior capsule rupture (3.6%) was the most common complication. The experience of the surgeon and the type of anaesthesia used did not affect complications during surgery. Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) and phacoemulsification converted to extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) were significantly associated with more complications (P<0.001). The visual outcome was significantly poor in patients with complications (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The occurrence of complications during cataract surgery significantly affected the visual outcome. The type of surgery done was associated by the occurrence of complications. However, the experience of the surgeon and the type of anaesthesia used did not affect the occurrence of complications. We recommend that particular attention be given to ICCE and phacoemulsification converted to ECCE to minimise the complications and thereby reducing the chances of poor vision postoperatively.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Aged; Cataract Extraction*; China/ethnology; Female; Hospitals, District; Humans; India/ethnology; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Retrospective Studies; Prevalence; Phacoemulsification*
  17. Mohd-Dom TN, Wan-Puteh SE, Muhd-Nur A, Ayob R, Abdul-Manaf MR, Abdul-Muttalib K, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:117-123.
    PMID: 29702916 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.012
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the national public sector specialist periodontal program in the management of periodontal disease.
    METHODS: This was a multicenter, time motion, prospective, economic evaluation study involving a total of 165 patients with periodontitis recruited from five selected specialist periodontal clinics. Treatment costs were measured in 2012 Malaysian ringgit (MYR) and estimated from the societal perspective using step-down and activity-based costing methods, and substantiated by clinical pathways. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done to compare the specialist periodontal program with a hypothetical scenario in which patients attend biannual dental visits only for regular dental check-up and scaling. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as the difference in cost per gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and clinical attachment levels (CALs). One-way scenario-based sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the uncertainty of inputs.
    RESULTS: The average cost for managing patients with periodontitis was MYR 376 per outpatient visit and MYR 2820 per annum. Clinically, a gain of an average of 0.3 mm of CAL was attained at post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). Patients gained an average of 3.8 QALY post-treatment (paired t test, P < .001). For cost-effectiveness analysis, the specialist periodontal program was more cost-effective than the hypothesized biannual dental visits, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of MYR 451 and MYR 5713 per additional QALY and millimeter CAL gained, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: It is very cost-effective for the public sector to provide specialist periodontal treatment for patients with periodontitis according to the World Health Organization criteria and when compared with conventional biannual dental treatment.
    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Dental Clinics; Gingival Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Outpatients; Periodontal Diseases; Periodontitis; Prospective Studies; Health Care Costs; Public Sector; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Critical Pathways; Uncertainty
  18. Aljunid S, Maimaiti N, Ahmed Z, Muhammad Nur A, Md Isa Z, Azmi S, et al.
    Value Health Reg Issues, 2014 May;3:146-155.
    PMID: 29702920 DOI: 10.1016/j.vhri.2014.04.008
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of introducing pneumococcal polysaccharide and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. This study compared introducing PHiD-CV (10 valent vaccine) with current no vaccination, as well as against the alternative 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).

    METHODS: A lifetime Markov cohort model was adapted using national estimates of disease burden, outcomes of pneumococcal disease, and treatment costs of disease manifestations including pneumonia, acute otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis for a hypothetical birth cohort of 550,000 infants. Clinical information was obtained by review of medical records from four public hospitals in Malaysia from the year 2008 to 2009. Inpatient cost from the four study hospitals was obtained from a diagnostic-related group-based costing system. Outpatient cost was estimated using clinical pathways developed by an expert panel. The perspective assessed was that of the Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The estimated disease incidence was 1.2, 3.7, 70, and 6.9 per 100,000 population for meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and acute otitis media, respectively. The Markov model predicted medical costs of Malaysian ringgit (RM) 4.86 billion (US $1.51 billion) in the absence of vaccination. Vaccination with PHiD-CV would be highly cost-effective against no vaccination at RM30,290 (US $7,407) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. On comparing PHiD-CV with PCV13, it was found that PHiD-CV dominates PCV13, with 179 quality-adjusted life-years gained while saving RM35 million (US $10.87 million).

    CONCLUSIONS: It is cost-effective to incorporate pneumococcal vaccination in the National Immunization Programme of Malaysia. Our model suggests that PHiD-CV would be more cost saving than PCV13 from the perspective of the Ministry of Health of Malaysia.

    MeSH terms: Cost-Benefit Analysis; Diagnosis-Related Groups; Haemophilus influenzae; Hospitals, Public; Humans; Immunization; Infant; Inpatients; Malaysia; Medical Records; Meningitis; Otitis Media; Outpatients; Pneumococcal Infections; Pneumonia; Polysaccharides; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Vaccination; Cohort Studies; Incidence; Bacteremia; Cost Savings; Cost of Illness; Vaccines, Conjugate; Sepsis; Critical Pathways; Pneumococcal Vaccines
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