Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Abdur Razzaque Mughal, Zakiyah Zain, Nazrina Aziz
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1763-1772.
    In this study, group acceptance sampling plan (GASP) proposed by Aslam et al. (2011) is redesigned where the lifetime of
    test items are following Pareto distribution of 2nd kind. The optimal plan parameters are found by considering various
    pre-determined designed parameters. The plan parameters were obtained using the optimization solution and it also
    concludes that the proposed plan is more efficient than the existing plan as it requires minimum sample size.
    MeSH terms: Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted; Sample Size; Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  2. Ser G, Keskin S, Can Yilmaz M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1755-1761.
    Multiple imputation method is a widely used method in missing data analysis. The method consists of a three-stage
    process including imputation, analyzing and pooling. The number of imputations to be selected in the imputation step
    in the first stage is important. Hence, this study aimed to examine the performance of multiple imputation method at
    different numbers of imputations. Monotone missing data pattern was created in the study by deleting approximately 24%
    of the observations from the continuous result variable with complete data. At the first stage of the multiple imputation
    method, monotone regression imputation at different numbers of imputations (m=3, 5, 10 and 50) was performed. In the
    second stage, parameter estimations and their standard errors were obtained by applying general linear model to each
    of the complete data sets obtained. In the final stage, the obtained results were pooled and the effect of the numbers of
    imputations on parameter estimations and their standard errors were evaluated on the basis of these results. In conclusion,
    efficiency of parameter estimations at the number of imputation m=50 was determined as about 99%. Hence, at the
    determined missing observation rate, increase was determined in efficiency and performance of the multiple imputation
    method as the number of imputations increased.
    MeSH terms: Data Interpretation, Statistical; Models, Statistical; Linear Models
  3. Fudziah Ismail, Kasim Hussain, Norazak Senu
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1747-1754.
    In this article, the general form of Runge-Kutta method for directly solving a special fourth- order ordinary differential
    equations denoted as RKFD method is given. The order conditions up to order seven are derived, based on the order
    conditions, we construct a new explicit four-stage sixth-order RKFD method denoted as RKFD6 method. Zero-stability of
    the method is proven. Comparisons are made using the existing Runge–Kutta methods after the problems are reduced
    to a system of first order ordinary differential equations. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and
    competency of the new method.
  4. Nor Azah Samat, Syafiqah Husna Mohd Imam Ma’arof
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1741-1745.
    Disease frequency is used to measure the situation of the disease with reference to the population size and time period
    which is in a fractional form. The lower part of the fraction, known as denominator is the important part as it was used
    to calculate a rate or ratio. Since the disease frequency is based on a ratio estimator, the results are highly dependent
    upon the value of denominator. Therefore, the main aim of this paper was to propose a new method in calculating the
    denominator for the relative risk equation with the application to chikungunya disease data from Malaysia. The new
    method of calculating the denominator of the relative risk equation includes the use of discrete time-space stochastic
    SIR-SI (susceptible-infective-recovered for human population and susceptible-infective for vector population) disease
    transmission model instead of the total disease counts. The results of the analysis showed that the estimation of expected
    disease counts based on total posterior means can overcome the problem of expected counts estimation based on the total
    number of disease especially when there is no observed disease count in certain regions. The proposed new approach to
    calculate the denominator for the relative risk equation is suitable for the case of rare disease in which it offers a better
    method of expected disease counts estimation.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Disease Susceptibility; Disease Vectors; Humans; Malaysia; Paper; Population Density; Risk; Rare Diseases; Chikungunya Fever
  5. Salmah Husseinsyah, Chun KS, Yeng CM, Azimah Ismail
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1733-1739.
    In this study, the corn stalk (CS) had been utilized as natural filler in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The effect of CS
    loading and coconut oil coupling agent (COCA) on tensile, thermal and water absorption properties of LDPE/CS composites
    were investigated. The increases of CS decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of LDPE/CS composites, but
    increased in Young’s modulus. The incorporation of CS also contributed to high water uptake of LDPE/CS composites.
    However, the presence of CS has increased the crystallinity of composites and LDPE matrix due to nucleating effect. The
    addition of COCA has significantly increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, water resistivity and crystallinity
    of LDPE/CS composites, but slightly reduced in Young’s modulus. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) also evidence
    the presence of COCA improved the adhesion between CS and LDPE matrix.
  6. Chansiriwat W, Tanangteerapong D, Wantala K
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1723-1731.
    The aim of this research was to synthesize zeolite from coal fly ash by hydrothermal method. The effect of aging temperature
    and time on zeolite P1 synthesis (Na-P1) from Mae Moh coal fly ash (MFA) without adding any alumina and silica sources
    were examined during the synthesized process. The central composite design (CCD) was used for experimental design
    to obtain the optimal process parameters of the aging temperature (105-195ºC) and time (12-84 h) where the specific
    surface area was used as a response. The chemical and physical properties of Na-P1 such as specific surface area,
    crystalline phase, compositions and morphology were examined. The response results showed that the specific surface
    area of Na-P1 decreased with an increase of both aging temperature and time, whereas the XRD intensity of Na-P1
    increased with an increase of both aging temperature and time. The composition of SiO2
    in mass ratio of coal fly
    ash was observed, which was suitable to Na-P1 synthesis. The maximum specific surface area of zeolite products was
    found at the designed condition of aging temperature of 105ºC and time of 12 h. Thus, zeolite P1 can be prepared by
    hydrothermal method without adding any alumina and silica sources.
  7. Norfazliana Abdullah, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Ismail lF, Juhana Jaafar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1715-1721.
    This paper reports the preparation of the dual layer ceramic hollow fiber membrane that made of alumina and a mixed
    ion electron conducting (MIEC) material for simultaneous reaction and separation applications. Alumina hollow fiber
    membrane was prepared using the phase inversion process followed by a sintering technique at elevated temperature. The
    alumina hollow fiber membrane was used as membrane support onto which a thin and dense layer of lanthanum strontium
    cobalt ferrite (LSCF) was deposited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the LSCF coating formulations
    used in the deposition of LSCF layer onto alumina substrate membrane. The sintering temperature of thin LSCF layer was
    varied to investigate gas-tightness properties of LSCF membrane. A series of characterizations were conducted for both
    the support and the LSCF membrane. The result showed that the thin layer membranes with thicknesses ranging from 3
    to 20 µm were successfully deposited on the surface of alumina hollow fiber support. The sintering process improved the
    gas-tightness properties but the sintering temperature above 1150o
    C caused defects on the surface of LSCF membrane.
  8. Norwahyu Jusoh, Lau KK, Yeong YF, Azmi M. Shariff
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1707-1714.
    The increasing demands of natural gas pushes energy industries to explore the reservoirs contain high CO2 concentration
    and impurities including heavy hydrocarbons. High efficiency of using membrane technology in CO2
    -natural gas separation
    has extended its potential application to offshore environment. Due to the limited studies related with the separation of
    under offshore conditions, the present work has investigated the separation performance of a commercial membrane
    in removing bulk CO2
    from methane at elevated pressure condition. A wide range of offshore operating conditions
    including pressure from 10 to 50 bar, CO2
    concentration from 25 to 70% and temperature of 30o
    C, 40o
    C and 50o
    C were
    studied. High relative CO2 permeance and relative CO2
    selectivity were observed when the pressure and the CO2
    concentration increased. This work, therefore substantial is to bridge the gap and facilitates the application of membrane
    technology for offshore operating conditions.
    MeSH terms: Carbon Dioxide; Hydrocarbons; Industry; Methane; Pressure; Technology; Temperature; Natural Gas
  9. D. Hambali, Z. Zainuddin, I. Supa’at, Z. Osman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1697-1705.
    The composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as host polymer, lithium tetraflouroborate
    ) as dopant salt, dissoÅlved in the mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as plasticizing
    solvent, with the addition of silica (SiO2
    ) as inorganic filler were prepared by the solution casting technique. The CPE films
    were prepared by varying the concentrations of SiO2
    from 1 to 5 wt. %. The CPE film containing 3 wt. % of SiO2 exhibits
    the highest ionic conductivity of 1.36 × 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature while for temperature dependence studies, the
    plot obtained obeyed Arrhenius rule and the calculated activation energy was 0.11 eV. The ionic conductivity of the CPEs
    was found to depend on the concentration of ion pairs of dopant salt as showed by FTIR spectra. The calculated value of
    lithium ions transport number, tLi+ for the highest conducting CPE film was 0.15. This result indicates that anionic species
    are the main contributor to the total conductivity of the CPE. The CPE film has an electrochemical stability higher than
    the non-filler film.
  10. Shrestha R, Subedi DP, Gurung JP, Wong CS
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1689-1696.
    The development of a non-thermal plasma jet with a capillary configuration working at atmospheric pressure is reported
    in this paper. The plasma jet is powered by a power source with frequency of several kilohertz. The working gas is
    argon. The plasma obtained has been characterized by optical emission spectroscopic measurements and electrical
    measurements of the discharge using voltage and current probes. The electron temperature has been estimated by using
    the modified Boltzmann plot method utilizing the Ar 4p-4s transition. The electron temperatures at various positions
    along the plasma jet length have been obtained and it is found that the electron temperature decreases at position further
    from orifice. The electron density has been estimated from current and voltage measurements using the power balance
    method. The effects of gas flow rate, applied voltage and frequency on the characteristics of the plasma jet have also been
    investigated. The applications of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) developed to modify the surface properties
    of Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) have been tested. Our results showed that the atmospheric
    pressure non-thermal plasma jet can be effectively used to enhance the surface wettability and surface energy of the
    PET and PC. The plasma jet has also been tested for inactivation of prokaryotic cells (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
    aureus). In the case of E. coli, better than 4 log10 reduction can be achieved. The effect of plasma jet on the pH of cell
    culture medium has suggested that the plasma species, particularly the electrons, are solely responsible for the effect
    of inactivation of living cells.
    MeSH terms: Argon; Atmospheric Pressure; Electricity; Electrons; Escherichia coli; Polycarboxylate Cement; Polyethylene Terephthalates; Electric Power Supplies; Pressure; Prokaryotic Cells; Staphylococcus; Temperature; Wettability
  11. Noor Sakinah Khalid, Fatin Izyani Mohd Fazli, Noor Kamalia Abd Hamed, Muhammad Luqman Mohd Napi, Fhong SC, Mohd Khairul Ahmad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1675-1678.
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2
    ) nanorods and nanoparticles had been successfully done by hydrothermal method and spray
    pyrolysis deposition technique, respectively. Form XRD results, crystallite structure for TiO2
    nanorods is rutile phase
    at 2θ degree 27.5° which corresponded to [110] orientation. Whereas, TiO2
    nanoparticles produced anatase phase at
    2θ degree 25.3° which corresponded to [110] plane. The structure of nanorods and nanoparticles were characterized
    using FESEM. The size of nanorods was in the range of 80 to 100 nm. While, the nanoparticles size was ranging from
    25 to 35 nm. The HeLa cells were grown on those TiO2
    and were observed under fluorescence microscope. The cells
    showed healthy sign of growth on TiO2
    nanorods and nanoparticles substrates. Thus, TiO2
    nanorods and nanoparticles
    are biocompatible to HeLa cells.
  12. Noor Kamalia Abd Hamed, Noor Sakinah Khalid, Fatin Izyani Mohd Fazli, Muhammad Luqman Mohd Napi, Nafarizal Nayan, Mohd Khairul Ahmad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1669-1673.
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2
    ) with various morphologies has been successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method
    at 150o
    C for 10 h using titanium butoxide (TBOT) as a precursor, deionized (DI) water and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on
    a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The influences of HCl volume on structural and morphological properties
    of TiO2
    have been studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),
    respectively. The result showed that several morphologies such as microsphere, microrods, nanorods and nanoflowers
    were obtained by varying the volume of hydrochloric acid. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide enhanced with the
    increasing of hydrochloric acid volume.
    MeSH terms: Fluorides; Fluorine; Hydrochloric Acid; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Microspheres; Titanium; Water; X-Ray Diffraction; Tin Compounds; Nanotubes
  13. Chook SW, Chia CH, Hatika Kaco, Sarani Zakaria, Huang NM, Neoh HM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1663-1667.
    Incorporation of silver nanomaterial into polymer matrix can further accomplished their potential usage in real life
    applications. In our previous study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver-graphene oxide nanocomposites (AgGO)
    were prepared via a rapid microwave-assisted method. Hereby, the as-synthesized AgNPs or AgGO was dispersed in a
    chitosan solution. Subsequently, the resultant mixture solution was further coagulated in a coagulation bath containing
    sodium hydroxide via a neutralization process. This resulted in the formation of spherical-shaped chitosan beads.
    The structure of the beads showed that the chitosan beads embedded with AgGO exhibited a more porous structure as
    compared to the plain chitosan beads. Furthermore, the chitosan beads containing AgNPs or AgGO were tested for
    their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial results indicated that
    the silver nanomaterial contained chitosan beads could effectively inhibit the growth of both E. coli and S. aureus as
    compared to the bare chitosan beads. The produced chitosan nanocomposite envisioned that can be potentially employed
    for water disinfection purpose.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Baths; Disinfection; Escherichia coli; Graphite; Microwaves; Oxides; Polymers; Silver; Sodium Hydroxide; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Water; Silver Compounds; Chitosan; Nanocomposites; Metal Nanoparticles
  14. Mohd Norzaidi Mat Nawi, Asrulnizam Abd Manaf, Mohd Rizal Arshad, Othman Sidek
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1655-1661.
    This paper demonstrates the performance experiment and numerical prediction of the copper based hair cell for
    underwater sensing. Generally, the hair cell consists of the single cantilever that attached perpendicular to the substrate
    and integrated with strain gage (Kyowa type: KFG-1N-120-C1-11). The hair cell sensor was simulated using different
    flow rates to study the pressure and the strain distribution acting on the sensor by using computational fluid dynamic
    and finite element analysis approach. High performance sensor can be achieved by increasing the length of the hair cell
    and also using low Young Modulus material. The hair cell has been fabricated for dimension of 8000 μm length, 2000
    μm width and 100 μm thickness, where the copper was chosen due to its mechanical properties. The response time for
    a sensor to respond completely to a change in input is about 50 m/s and the sensitivity in terms of output voltage and
    input flow rate is 0.2 mV/ms-1. Also, the result obtained in the simulation is aligned with the experimental result. The
    experiment for moving object detection proved that this sensor is able to detect the moving object and it is necessary for
    underwater applications, especially for monitoring and surveillance.
  15. Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed Hashim, Sarani Zakaria, Chia CH, Pua FL, Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1649-1653.
    Chemical and thermal properties of pure lignin are depending on the plant origin, extraction method and type of
    lignocellulosic. In this study, lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core were recovered from soda black
    liquor by two steps of acid precipitation with hydrochloric acid and followed by soxhlet with n-hexane. The XRD analysis
    of purified EFB lignin (EAL) and purified kenaf core lignin (KAL) exhibited amorphous properties, similar to the standard
    alkali lignin (SAL). The FTIR and Raman spectra showed that all samples consist of HGS unit. In FTIR, the syringyl unit is
    assigned at (1125 cm-1), (1327 and 1121 cm-1) and (1326and 1117 cm-1) meanwhile the guaicyl unit is assigned at (1263,
    1212 and 1028 cm-1), (1271, 1217 and 1028 cm-1) and (1270, 1211 and 1030 cm-1) for SAL, EAL and KAL, respectively.
    The peak around 1160 cm-1 represents C-O stretching of conjugated ester group present in HGS lignin. As for Raman, the
    HGS unit exists in the range of 1100-1400 cm-1. Among the purified samples, the TGA result showed that KAL has a better
    thermal stability with the residue of 36.49% and higher Tg value which is 152.69°C.
  16. Wu W, Jafri M Abdullah, Faizul H Ghazali
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1641-1648.
    Motor vehicle accidents are the most common cause of injuries involving avulsion of the brachial plexus in humans,
    resulting in debilitating motor dysfunction. Lack of an established animal model to test drug treatments hinders
    the introduction of new pharmacological agents. Avulsion injury of cervical ventral roots can be replicated in rats,
    resulting in a progressive loss of the motoneurons and increase in neurotoxic expression of microglia. This is a report
    on the effect of prompt nerve implantation and minocycline treatment on the suppression of microglia activation and
    survival of motoneurons. 20 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study, which was approved by the
    Animal Ethical Committee, USM (approval number /2011/(73)(346)). The animals underwent surgical avulsion of the
    C6 nerve root, followed by reimplantation with peripheral nerve graft and treatment with intraperitoneal minocycline.
    At 6 weeks postoperatively, immunohistochemistry using primary antibody Iba1 (microglia) and nicotinamide adenine
    dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPh) with neutral-red staining (motoneuron) under flourescence microscopy
    was performed at the C6 spinal cord segment and then quantified. This study showed significant reduction of microglia
    expression in the study group; mean ranks of control and study group were 15.2 and 11.6, respectively; U=9.5, Z=3.02,
    p<0.05. However, this did not translate into a significant increase of motoneuron survival in the combined group;
    the mean ranks of control and study group were 40.6 and 41.6, respectively; U=44.5, Z=-.0378, p>0.05. This may
    be due to the effect of the surgery; the surgery has the potential to cause additional trauma to the cord parenchyma,
    leading to further motoneuron loss and an increase in scarring around the avulsed region, thus impeding regeneration
    of the motoneuron.
    MeSH terms: Accidents; Adenine; Animals; Brachial Plexus; Cicatrix; Female; Immunohistochemistry; Microscopy; Minocycline; Motor Neurons; Niacinamide; Phosphates; Replantation; Spinal Cord; Spinal Nerve Roots; Staining and Labeling; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Microglia; Motor Vehicles; Models, Animal; Rats
  17. Onuoha MDU, Ismail AS, Mansor MF, Ismail I
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1635-1642.
    Fluids with different properties would exhibit different flow behaviour in any multiphase flow system at a given operating
    condition. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the operational and flow behaviour of any known fluid properties in a
    multiphase flow system of either liquid-liquid two-phase flow (oil and water) or gas-liquid-liquid three-phase flow (gas,
    oil and water) would be helpful in designing of pipelines and optimization of the production, separation, transportation
    and distribution systems, as may be found in oil and gas and allied petro-chemical industries. This paper presents the
    experimental observation of the flow patterns and water holdup for a two-phase low viscosity oil-water flow in horizontal
    pipes. The test fluids comprised of tap water and 2D-diesel which has a density of 832 kg/m3
    , viscosity of 3.24 mPa.s,
    surface tension of 0.030 N/m and flash point of 79°C. A total of 30 runs has been accomplished and the experimental
    results showed three different flow patterns identified as stratified flow (ST), stratified flow with mixing interface (ST&MI)
    and water-in-oil dispersed flow (), with superficial velocities of oil and water in the ranges of 0.32 - 0.87 m/s (Vos) and
    0.20 - 0.90 m/s (Vws), respectively. However, analysis of water holdup in the commingled flows of the test fluids showed
    its dependency on the fluid flow patterns and superficial velocity of water.
  18. Nur Haizum Abd Rahman, Muhammad Hisyam Lee, Suhartono, Mohd Talib Latif
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1625-1633.
    The air pollution index (API) has been recognized as one of the important air quality indicators used to record the
    correlation between air pollution and human health. The API information can help government agencies, policy makers
    and individuals to prepare precautionary measures in order to eliminate the impact of air pollution episodes. This study
    aimed to verify the monthly API trends at three different stations in Malaysia; industrial, residential and sub-urban areas.
    The data collected between the year 2000 and 2009 was analyzed based on time series forecasting. Both classical and
    modern methods namely seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and fuzzy time series (FTS) were
    employed. The model developed was scrutinized by means of statistical performance of root mean square error (RMSE).
    The results showed a good performance of SARIMA in two urban stations with 16% and 19.6% which was more satisfactory
    compared to FTS; however, FTS performed better in suburban station with 25.9% which was more pleasing compared
    to SARIMA methods. This result proved that classical method is compatible with the advanced forecasting techniques in
    providing better forecasting accuracy. Both classical and modern methods have the ability to investigate and forecast
    the API trends in which can be considered as an effective decision-making process in air quality policy.
    MeSH terms: Administrative Personnel; Air Pollutants; Air Pollution; Government Agencies; Humans; Industry; Malaysia; Seasons
  19. Mostak Ahmed, Noorlidah Abdullah, Nuruddin MM
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1609-1615.
    In recent decades, minimizing the frequency of nutrient deficiency and malnutrition in rural areas of developing
    countries becomes an alarming issue. Oyster mushrooms are rich source of both macro and micro nutrients. The
    objective of this paper was to evaluate the yield of newly introduced oyster mushroom strains viz. Pleurotus sajorcaju
    (PSC), Pleurotus flabellatus (FLB), Pleurotus florida (FLO), Pleurotus ostreatus (PO2
    and PO3
    ), Pleurotus ostreatus
    (HK-51) and Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1
    and PG3
    ) and to justify their nutritional values when grown in the climatic
    condition of Bangladesh. Strain HK-51 produced the highest amount of fresh sporophore (197.80 g). In contrast, the
    highest number of fruiting body was obtained from the strain FLO (82 g) followed by strain PSC (69 g). Strain PG1 has
    recorded the highest biological yield (278 g), productivity (55%) and biological efficiency (96%). Nutrient and mineral
    analysis of sporophore of strain PG1 showed protein (31.80%), lipid (3.6%), potassium (1.3 mg/100 g), phosphorus
    (0.8 mg/100 g), calcium (32 mg/100 g), iron (43 mg/100 g), magnesium (12 mg/100 g), copper (3.5 mcg/100 g), zinc
    (12.5 mcg/100 g) and manganese (2.3 mcg/100 g). This study showed that the strain PG1
    performed well with regard to
    quality and productivity as compared to other strains. Hence, oyster mushroom strain PG1
    is a potential cheap source
    of nutrients and minerals to combat socioeconomic problems including malnutrition, diseases linked to malnutrition,
    poverty reduction and agricultural diversity.
    MeSH terms: Bangladesh; Calcium, Dietary; Copper; Florida; Iron; Lipids; Magnesium; Manganese; Minerals; Nutritive Value; Phosphorus; Potassium; Poverty; Zinc; Phosphorus, Dietary; Pleurotus
  20. Lai OT, Md. Selim Reza, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Ailie Sofyiana Serasa, Azimah Hussin, Ern LK
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1603-1607.
    The ultimate bearing capacity is an essential requirement in design quantification for shallow foundations especially
    for structures built on large rock masses. In many engineering projects, structures built on foundation of heavily jointed
    rock masses may face issues such as instability and sudden catastrophic rock slope failure. Determination of the ultimate
    bearing capacity (Qult) of foundations resting on rock mass has traditionally been determined by employing several
    strength criterions. One of the accepted and widely implemented methods is to use the Hoek-Brown failure criterion 2002,
    where the required parameters are determined from a rock mass classification system, Geological Strength Index (GSI).
    This paper defines an assessment for ultimate bearing capacity (Qult) based on the Hoek-Brown failure criterion 2002
    for a granitic rock slope beneath a 20 m diameter concrete water tank at Bandar Mahkota Cheras, Kajang, Selangor.
    Based on the Hoek-Brown failure criterion 2002, the ultimate bearing capacity (Qult) of rock mass was 7.91 MPa. The
    actual stress acting on the rock mass was 0.32 MPa. The assessment showed that the rock mass is safe since the ultimate
    bearing capacity (Qult) is 24.7 times higher than the actual stress acting on the rock mass.
    MeSH terms: Engineering; Foundations; Geology; Silicon Dioxide; Water
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