Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Khoirun Nisa Mahmud, Maizatulakmal Yahayu, Siti Hajar Md. Sarip, Nurul Husna Rizan, Chai BM, Nurul Farhana Mustafa, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1423-1434.
    Generation of huge volumes of lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural sector is of concern due to its direct effects on the depletion of overall environmental quality. Conversion of biomass into solid biofuel through pyrolysis reaction has become one of the solutions to manage the abundance of biomass. Pyroligneous acid (PA) produced from the condensation of smoke generated during biomass carbonization process has the potential to be applied in various applications based on the diverse active chemical compounds present. In this study, PA obtained from palm kernel shell (PKS) was evaluated for antifungal activity and solid pineapple biomass (PB) was evaluated for antibacterial and plant growth promoter activities. Higher antifungal activity was determined for crude PA from PKS (PA-PKS) and dichloromethane-extract (DPA-PKS) with 0% coverage area when evaluated using rubber wood blocks against mold and blue sapstain after for 4 weeks of observation. This antifungal activity can be attributed to the presence of phenols and its major derivatives as suggested from the GC-MS and FTIR analysis. Concentrated PA from PB displayed good antibacterial capabilities with almost similar growth inhibition for Escherichia coli (13±1 to 20±1 mm) and Corynebacterium agropyri (20±1 mm). PA-PB also showed good potential as PGP where the addition of 2% (v/v) of PA-PB into the fertilizer for okra plant resulted in highest number of leaves and fruits while 4% (v/v) PA-PB managed to give highest plant height, longest root, heaviest fruits and biggest leaf diameter. Thus, this study successfully demonstrated the potential use of PA obtained from lignocelluosic biomass in various applications.
  2. Noor Azrizal-Wahid, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Mohammed Rizman- Idid
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1413-1422.
    ix species of Eurema butterflies comprised of 261 adult individuals collected from various sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia were identified. The morphometric measurement of the specimens was carried out by using seven characters measured from the wing and body regions. Morphometric analysis was determined through the multivariate analysis of Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) and Cluster Analysis. The results of DFA showed that two out of seven characters utilized have the lowest values of Partial’s Wilks Lambda; basal length and hindwing length. These characters therefore are significant for the discrimination of the Eurema species. The classification matrix shows that both E. hecabe and E. blanda were completely discriminated by the characters set. Moreover, there was great overlaps occurred between the species groups when plotting a conical graph except for species E. blanda that formed homogenous group. Basal length was also suggested as the species-specific character for grouping the species E. blanda. In Cluster Analysis, E. hecabe tends to be closer to E. sari with the lowest value of agglomeration. The results from dendogram generated from average linkage also showed several relationship patterns among the six species.
  3. Maria Abu Bakar, Azman Jalar, Abdul Razak Daud, Roslina Ismail, Nur Azida Che Lah, Najib Saedi Ibrahim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1275-1279.
    This work investigates the micromechanical properties of Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu (SAC 305) on Immersion Tin (ImSn) surface
    finished after subjected to high temperature storage (HTS) at 180°C for 200 to 1000 h period. Nanoindentation approach
    was used to measure the micromechanical properties of the solder. It was observed that the indentation depth and plastic
    depth were increased and a clear trend of decreasing hardness as opposed to the increasing reduced modulus as the HTS
    time lengthened. The plasticity-asscociated properties become stronger meanwhile the elasticity-associated properties
    decreased with the HTS time. These findings indicate that nanoindentation approach can clearly determine the plastic
    and elastic deformation occurance throughout the test.
  4. Norinsan Kamil Othman, Solhan Yahya, Denni Asra Awizar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1253-1258.
    Anticorrosive properties of nano silicate from paddy husk in salt medium was investigated via weight loss method, Tafel
    polarization and impedance techniques. Prior to the corrosion test, the silica powder was obtained from burning the
    rice husk and extended with a chemical treatment process. The size of silica powder was characterized via zeta sizer and
    showed the amount of micro silica particle appear more than the nano size particle. Nano silica powder was produced
    from the refluxing process of micro silica to enhance the good properties of silica particle. The corrosion inhibition
    efficiency of nano silicate showed good inhibition with increased in inhibitor concentrations. Weight loss test exhibits
    high inhibition as more than 80% even, immersed in the corrosive medium until 14 days. The nano silicate inhibitor
    affected the anodic reaction as showed by Tafel plot analysis. Impedance results also correlated with other test as shown
    by the large size of Nyquist semicircle which represents as high resistance of charge transfer. The surface morphology
    of inhibited specimen showed a smooth surface after nano silicate inhibitor applied in the NaCl medium as observed
    through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX).
    MeSH terms: Corrosion; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Particle Size; Oryza; Silicon Dioxide; Sodium Chloride; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission; X-Rays; Weight Loss; Electric Impedance; Silicates
  5. Wan Nasarudin Wan Jalal, Huda Abdullah, Mohd Syafiq Zulfakar, Badariah Bais
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1243-1252.
    Kaedah sol gel digunakan untuk menghasilkan filem nipis CoxZn(1-x)Al2
    O4 berstruktur nano pada suhu 600°C. Corak
    pembelauan XRD menunjukkan pembentukan struktur tunggal spinel ZnAl2
    O4 dan CoAl2
    . Saiz hablur dan ketumpatan
    bahan berkurangan apabila kepekatan bahan dopan Co bertambah, iaitu masing-masing daripada 19.52 kepada 10.39 nm
    dan 4.609 kepada 4.585 g/cm3
    . Parameter kekisi pula meningkat daripada 8.085 kepada 8.098 Å apabila Co meningkat.
    Analisis FTIR menunjukkan ikatan ZnO, Co dan Al-O berlaku antara 487 hingga 550 cm-1, manakala ikatan spinel bagi
    dan CoAl2
    pula terbentuk pada 655 cm-1. Imej AFM menunjukkan kekasaran permukaan menurun apabila Co
    bertambah iaitu daripada 30.21 nm (×=0.00) kepada 14.83 nm (×=0.30). Nilai pemalar dielektrik (εr
    ) menunjukkan
    penurunan secara linear apabila Co meningkat iaitu daripada 8.53 kepada 7.31. Seterusnya, GPS antena difabrikasi
    menggunakan sampel CoxZn(1-x)Al2
    . Prestasi dan frekuensi operasi GPS antena diukur menggunakan penganalisis
    rangkaian siri PNA pada frekuensi kenaan 1-2 GHz. Analisis mendapati antena beroperasi pada frekuensi 1.570 Ghz
    dengan kerungian pulangan -15.6 hingga -21.2 dB dan lebar jalurnya pula adalah 80 hingga 315 MHz. Kesemua antena
    yang telah difabrikasi memenuhi keperluan minimum antena untuk beroperasi pada aplikasi GPS.
  6. Gaaz TS
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1235-1242.
    The additions of nanofillers are able to enhance the mechanical properties of neat polymer matrix. There were few
    researchers reported on the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (HNTsTPU)
    nanocomposites formed through casting and compression moulding. However, fewer researchers also reported study
    on HNTs-TPU formed through injection molding. The main objective of this paper was to study the effect of HNTs addition
    of TPU matrix on mechanical and physical properties. HNTs were mixed in TPU matrix using a brabender mixer with
    concentration ranging from 0.5 to 7 wt. % HNT loading (at specific mixing speed, mixing time and mixing temperature).
    Injection moulding was carried out to form tensile bar shaped specimens with specific moulding parameters (injection
    temperature, injection time and injection pressure). Increment around 35% of tensile strength of the specimen was found
    at 1 wt. % HNT loading concentration which exhibited the value of 24.3 MPa, compared to neat TPU; the best mixing. The
    Young’s modulus was increased with increasing HNTs loading. The elongation decreased with increasing HNTs loading.
    The FESEM results showed that HNTs were dispersed in TPU matrix. The TGA results showed that the addition of 1 wt. %
    HNTs enhanced the thermal properties. It can be concluded that HNTs-TPU has improved tensile and physical properties
    compared with neat TPU due to the addition of nanofiller.
  7. Mohd Napi Ml, Nayan N, Ahmad MK, Fazlee FIM, Hamed NKA, Khalid N
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1207-1211.
    Flourine doped tin oxide films were synthesized by using hydrothermal method with different volume of solvents. The
    thin film growth was carried out by fixing the concentration of tin and fluorine element precursors by only varying their
    solvents which were 2-propanol and DI water. The fabrication of FTO thin film by using mineral salt group as tin precursor
    with hydrothermal method on soda lime glass showed that the nanostructured growth did not distribute largely and took
    longer time. The seed layer of FTO has been used to overcome these problems thus the thin film growth distributed largely
    in short time. These experiments were conducted at a constant of hydrothermal temperature and reaction time which
    were 150°
    C and 5 h respectively. The result showed that, there was a change on the surface morphology in the formation
    of FTO films. The minimum value of sheet resistance was 0.1475 Ω/sq which was obtained using 65 mL of 2-propanol
    and 20 mL of DI water was lower than sheet resistance of commercial FTO films of 01693 Ω/sq. This fabricated FTO films
    showed a good transparency with higher of transmittance than 80%. The experimental findings suggested that 65 mL
    amount of 2-propanol and 20 mL of DI water in precursor solutions could produce the better of FTO performance than
    commercial FTO.
  8. Kee LH, Ying Chyi JL, Zainal Abidin Talib, Mohammad Shuhazlly Mamat, Hong Ngee JL, Fakhrurrazi Ashari, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1201-1206.
    Zinc selenide/graphene oxide (ZnSe/GO) composite is synthesized using hydrothermal method. Two different methods
    such as direct and indirect route have been investigated to form the ZnSe/GO composite. In this research, the graphene
    oxide used was in sheet and liquid form. The synthesized composite was then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD)
    for phase identification, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for morphology analysis and ultravioletvisible
    spectroscopy (UV-Vis) for optical properties. ZnSe/GO composite showed absorption peak ranging from 460 to
    480 nm with the optical band gap obtained through Tauc equation. The optical band gap of the ZnSe/GO composite has
    been tuned down to a smaller value as compared to the bulk ZnSe compound. The optical band gap has been reduced
    to around 2.53 eV when liquid graphene oxide was used while around 2.23 to 2.32 eV when graphene oxide sheet was
    used. The purity of ZnSe/GO composite synthesis via indirect hydrothermal method is higher than those synthesized via
    direct hydrothermal method. The type of graphene oxide will affect the morphology of the composite where the ZnSe
    compound was either wrapped by tiny thorn-like substance or graphene oxide layer.
    MeSH terms: Graphite; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Oxides; Spectrum Analysis; X-Ray Diffraction; Zinc Compounds; Selenium Compounds
  9. Fazli FIM, Nayan N, Ahmad MK, Mohd Napi Ml, Hamed NKA, Khalid NS
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1197-1200.
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2
    ) nanoparticles thin film has been successfully synthesized by a spray pyrolysis deposition method
    by using an air compressor on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and was annealed at different temperature. TiO2
    is the most common oxide as an electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) which still has chances of improvements to
    increase its efficiency as an electrode. The efficiency of a DSSC was relatively low but modifications on every part of a
    DSSC were currently in research progress and an increase in adsorbed dye molecules was considered a potential. Thus,
    the influences of annealing temperature on structural and morphological properties of TiO2
    have been studied using
    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively, while the efficiency of
    the films in a solar cell was studied by a solar simulator. The FESEM result showed several degrees of porosity obtained
    by varying the annealing temperature. The crystallinity of TiO2 investigated by XRD showed that the crystallinity of the
    thin films was generally unaffected by the annealing temperature. The relationship between the properties and the
    efficiency of the films as an electrode was also studied
    MeSH terms: Coloring Agents; Electrodes; Fluorine; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Oxides; Sunlight; Temperature; Titanium; X-Ray Diffraction; Porosity; Tin Compounds; Nanoparticles
  10. Fakhrurrazi Ashari, Ying Chyi JL, Zainal Abidin Talib, W. Wahmood Wan Yunus, Jian LY, Kee LH, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1191-1196.
    Zinc selenide (ZnSe) quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized through a hydrothermal method using ZnCl2
    and Na2
    powder as the precursor in the presence of oleylamine as capping agent. The hydrothermal route was conducted at a
    moderate temperature (150°C) for 8 h. Optical properties of ZnSe QDs were studied through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy
    (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) while the structural properties of ZnSe QDs were characterized using transmission
    electron microscope (TEM). The photoluminescence (PL) characterization on ZnSe QDs showed that the QDs emit light in
    blue range region at around 440 nm with optical band gap energy at 3.68 eV. The TEM results showed that the average
    particle size is around 8.9 nm. It is a good candidates for optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LED).
  11. Ehsan Borzouyan Dastjerdi, Ismail Sahid, Khairiah Jusoh
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1183-1190.
    Due to the increasing production and use of nanoparticles in various sectors such as electronic industries and healthcare,
    concerns about the unknown effects caused by the presence of these materials in the natural environment and agricultural
    systems were on the rise. Because of the growing trend of ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) which is one of the most widely
    used nanoparticles being released into the environment, it has attracted the attention for more studies to be done on
    the effects of this nanoparticle on organisms. This study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxicity effect of nZnO
    on groundnut seedlings in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. The experimental treatments of this study include eight
    concentrations of nZnO (10, 30, 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000 & 2000 mg.L-1) added to MS medium and MS medium without
    nanoparticles have been used as control treatment. For the first 6 days after sowing, germination percent and germination
    rate index were calculated by counting the germinated seeds every day. Groundnut seedlings were incubated for 3 weeks
    in optimum condition and after that, seedling characteristics such as length, wet and dry weight of radicle and plumule
    were measured. The water content of radicle and plumule were also calculated. The results of this study showed that
    radicle and plumule length of groundnut seedlings were affected by nZnO exposure, in a way that length of radicles in 50
    mg.L-1 nZnO and higher concentrations was significantly lower than that of control treatment and the shortest plumule
    length was observed in 2000 mg.L-1 nZnO concentration treatment. Both the radicle and plumule wet weight were also
    decreased as the nanoparticle concentration was increased. However, despite the decreasing in radicle and plumule dry
    weight with increasing in nZnO concentration, this increase was not significant. However radicle dry weight in 10 mg.L-1
    nZnO was significantly higher than nZnOtreatments with 200 mg.L-1 concentration and higher concentrations. Moreover,
    observations of this study did not show any significant difference between the water content of nZnO concentration
    treatments and control treatment.
    MeSH terms: Agriculture; Attention; Environment; Fabaceae; Seeds; Water; Zinc Oxide; Germination; Seedlings; Nanoparticles
  12. Patterson Richard F, Savas E
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1177-1181.
    The goal of this paper was to present a series of limit theorems that characterizes independent double random variables
    via four dimensional summability transformation. In order to accomplish this goal we began with the presentation of the
    following theorem that characterize pairwise independent random variables: let [xk,l] be a double sequence of pairwise
    independent random variables such that [xk, l] was uniformly integrable. Let [am, n, k, l] be a four dimensional matrix such that
    ≤ C for all ordered pair (m, n) and for some C and
    converges to 0 in probability
    Then (xk,l – E(xk,l) converges in mean to 0. Other extensions and variations via multidimensional transformation
    shall also be presented.
  13. Nooranis Mustapha, Nozieana Khairuddin, Ida Idayu Muhamad, Shahrir Hashim, Md. Bazlul Mobin Siddique
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1169-1176.
    Interest in the use of intelligent packaging systems for food products has increased in recent years. Intelligent packaging
    systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged
    food during transport and storage. The potential of HEC/PANI film as pH indicator and pH sensor were evaluated. HEC/
    PANI film was prepared by solution blending and casting method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed
    that there was no chemical interaction between HEC and PANI. The film properties were retained chemically. The electrical
    conductivity increment from 1.14×105 to 2.2 ×105
    S/cm was observed when PANI was incorporated into the HEC film matrix.
    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the electrical conductance network of PANI was formed
    in HEC/PANI film. The electrical sensitivity of the film has been studied with I-V characterization. The changes in color and
    current of HEC/PANI film on interaction to pH buffer 1-14 shows its suitability as pH indicator and pH sensor for food.
  14. Kaewbuddee C, Chanpiwat P, Kidkhunthod P, Wantala K
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1155-1167.
    The aims of this work were to investigate the characteristics of nanoscale zero valent irons (nZVI) coupled with mesoporous
    materials (RH-MCM-41) adsorbent and to study the removal mechanisms of Pb (II) from synthetical solutions using full
    pictorial design batch experiments. Synthetic nZVI coupled with RH MCM-41 as Pb (II) adsorbent were characterized
    by XRD, TEM, BET and XANES. The results of XANES analyses confirmed the ability of RH-MCM-41 to prevent oxidations of
    to Fe2+ and Fe3+. XANES results also verified the oxidation states of Pb (II). The solution pH was the most significant
    positive effect in controlling Pb (II) adsorption. The equilibrium and kinetic adsorption isotherms well fitted with the
    Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second order kinetic adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is the rate limiting
    step for Pb (II) removal. Furthermore, Langmuir-Hinshelwood confirmed the obvious Pb (II) adsorption at the active
    site of adsorbents. The reduction rate constant (kr
    = 5,000 mg/L.min) was higher than the adsorption rate constant (Kad
    = 0.0002 L/mg). Regarding the research results, four pathways including: reduction process, adsorption on FeOOH,
    adsorption on RH-MCM-41 and complex reaction between Fe and Pb ions were suggested for Pb (II) removal by nZVI
    coupled with RH-MCM-41.
    MeSH terms: Adsorption; Ions; Kinetics; Lead; Silicon Dioxide
  15. Darfizzi Derawi
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1149-1154.
    was synthesised via alcoholysis reaction of epoxidized palm olein (EPOo
    ). The experimental design
    was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM) based on 3 factors; reaction time, reaction temperature and
    catalyst loading. Responses such as percentage of conversion and percentage of yield were determined using statistical
    software ‘Design Expert 9’. Hydroxy-ether-POo
    showed the presence of proton peak attached to the carbon of ether
    (3.2, 3.5 ppm) and proton of the hydroxyl (4.8 ppm). The presence of carbon peak bonded to hydroxyl was detected at
    chemical shift 75 ppm and carbonyl carbon of ether at 72 ppm.
  16. Mohd Jamil Abdul Wahab, Noor Azrieda Abd Rashid, Salmiah Ujang, Choon LS
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1139-1147.
    Timber scaffold boards have been widely utilised in the offshore construction industry. However, technical specifications
    and inspection procedure for the application of scaffold boards from a wood material were inadequate. In the development
    of the standard requirements, evaluation of actual engineering practices could indicate the level of workplace safety. A
    study was conducted to identify risk and safety measures concerning the use of timber scaffold boards in construction.
    This article discusses on the occupational risks and ergonomics issues of the scaffolding application based on the physical
    and mechanical conditions of tropical timber scaffold boards extracted from offshore oil and gas rigs. The boards were
    exposed to a seasonal climate of East Coast monsoon of South China Sea between November and February. The scaffolding
    application extended up to 20 m directly above the ocean surface and some boards were completely immersed below
    the ocean surface particularly during elevated tidal waves. Some of the boards were installed as the on-deck platforms.
    Forty scaffold boards fabricated from tropical timber species were evaluated. Physical characteristics of the boards
    were described by natural and man-made factors. A three-point bending test was conducted to determine the maximum
    load capacity of each board and the mode of fracture was evaluated. Timber identification test was conducted to identify
    the groups of the timber being used. The microscopic observation confirmed the presence of hyphae which indicated the
    biological deterioration has happened in some of the boards. Occupational risks were summarised based on the results
    of the physical and mechanical assessments
    MeSH terms: China; Climate; Engineering; Oceans and Seas; Physical Examination; Seasons; Wood; Workplace; Hyphae; Tidal Waves; Construction Industry
  17. Ramalingam A, Siti Balkis Budin, Lim Yc, Lislivia Si Yn, Satirah Zainalabidin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1131-1137.
    UKMR-1, a local variant of mutant Roselle strain (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is enriched with free radical scavenging polyphenols
    such as anthocyanin, vitamin C and hydroxycitric acid. However, pharmacological actions of UKMR-1 are not fully known.
    This study was conducted to determine whether supplementation of aqueous UKMR-1 calyx extract was able to protect
    against nicotine-induced cardiac injury in rats. In this experimental study, healthy male albino rats were randomly
    allotted into three groups (n=7 per group): control, nicotine and UKMR-1+Nicotine groups. Nicotine (0.6 mg/kg, i.p.)
    was administered to both nicotine and UKMR-1+Nicotine groups for 28 consecutive days. UKMR-1+Nicotine group also
    received 100 mg/kg UKMR-1 extract orally via gavage 30 min prior to nicotine injection, daily. UKMR-1+Nicotine group
    had significantly (p<0.05) higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, as well as lower malondialdehyde content in
    heart tissue homogenate than nicotine group, suggesting its cardio protective activity by inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
    UKMR-1 also lowered (p<0.05) the blood pressure in nicotine-administered rats. In addition, UKMR-1 significantly (p<0.05)
    restored activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase as well as
    redox balance ratio (GSH:GSSG). In conclusion, UKMR-1 was a
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anthocyanins; Ascorbic Acid; Blood Pressure; Blood Pressure Determination; Citrates; Free Radicals; Glutathione Peroxidase; Glutathione Transferase; Male; Malondialdehyde; Nicotine; Oxidation-Reduction; Superoxide Dismutase; Lipid Peroxidation; Glutathione Disulfide; Protective Agents; Hibiscus; Lactate Dehydrogenases; Rats; Polyphenols
  18. Aqilah Leela T. Narayanan, Muhammad Akmal Ayob, Norayati Nordin, Arief Ruhullah A. Harris, Eko Supriyanto
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1121-1129.
    Lung atelectasis caused by shallow breathing patterns is common after cardiac, thoracic and upper abdominal surgeries.
    A common method used to address this problem is to encourage patients to perform breathing exercises using incentive
    spirometers in the postoperative period. However, to be effective, this procedure must be repeated regularly so that
    adequate lung volumes can be maintained to prevent atelectasis. Current models of single-use, low-cost incentive
    spirometers do not have features that can track and store data on breathing exercises. This makes it difficult to monitor
    patients’ breathing exercises effectively. We present here a device designed to be interfaced with the Spiro-ball incentive
    spirometer and programmed to monitor the incentive spirometry performance. Laboratory based validation performed
    indicate that there were no significant differences between the value obtained from the device and manual reading;
    p-value > 0.05 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 3.882. The device was able to retrieve and display pertinent data
    on incentive spirometry performance. It was also able to correctly track and register random sets of inspiration data
    through different dates and timelines. Being a separate entity which is reusable, it does not add to the cost of the singleuse
    incentive spirometer
  19. Fazia Adyani Ahmad Fuad, Houston Douglas R, Michels Paul AM, Fothergill-gilmore Linda A, Walkinshaw Malcolm D
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1113-1120.
    Cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of
    trypanosomatid diseases. In this paper, we report the identification of compounds that could potentially be developed as
    selective inhibitors of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from Leishmania mexicana (LmiPGAM). Virtual
    screening was used in this search, as well as compounds identified by high-throughput screening. A ligand-based virtual
    screen programme, ultra fast shape recognition with atom types (UFSRAT), was used to screen for compounds resembling
    the substrate/product, before a structure-based approach was applied using AutoDock 4 and AutoDock Vina in a consensus
    docking scheme. In this way eight selected compounds were identified. In addition, three compounds from the Library of
    Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) were selected from the published results of high-throughput screening of
    this library. The inhibitory effects of these compounds were tested at a fixed concentration of 1 mM. The results showed
    that seven compounds inhibited LmiPGAM activity and of these, two compounds (one each from high-throughput and
    virtual screening) showed substantial inhibition (i.e. 14% and 49% remaining activity, respectively). Taken together, the
    findings from this study indicate that these compounds have potential as novel inhibitors that specifically target LmiPGAM.
    MeSH terms: Inorganic Chemicals; Leishmania mexicana; Libraries; Ligands; Phosphoglycerate Mutase; Gene Library; Consensus
  20. Kim TW, Kim CW, Kwon SG, Hwang JH, Park DH, Kang DG, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1097-1103.
    In order to examine differences of meat quality traits depending on pH values post-mortem, the pH range was classified
    according to initial pH (pH45min) and ultimate pH (pH24hr) post-mortem. The differences of meat quality traits depending
    on sex were not changed by a number of amount, except for backfat thickness and fat content. The value of pH45min was
    positively correlated with pHdif, whereas pH24hr was negatively associated with lightness (CIE L*) and protein content. At
    pH45min post-slaughter, collagen content, fat content, shear force, water holding capacity and yellowness (CIE b*) showed
    lower values at the higher pH range of pH>6.7 than those of other ranges, but CIE L* and redness (CIE a*) presented
    the lowest value at the intermediate pH range of pH6.3~6.7. Conversely, at pH24hr post-slaughter, fat and moisture
    contents maintained the highest average values at the higher pH range of pH>6.1, but protein content showed higher
    value at the lower pH range of pH<5.7. Higher pH24hr appeared significantly lower shear force, but higher water holding
    capacity. CIE L*, a*, and b* values showed significantly higher values at the lowest region of pH24hr. Since meat quality
    characteristics seemed to be favored by consumers in rather than at the range of pH5.7~6.1, which showed significant
    differences of meat color, appearance, and meat juiciness, it is suggested that production of pork meat to appropriate
    pH value is performed by pig breeders and control measures taken during pre- and post-slaughters.
    MeSH terms: Red Meat; Animals; Collagen; Color; Meat; Swine; Water; Sus scrofa
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