Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Khalil I, Colombara DV, Forouzanfar MH, Troeger C, Daoud F, Moradi-Lakeh M, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Dec 07;95(6):1319-1329.
    PMID: 27928080 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0339
    Diarrheal diseases (DD) are leading causes of disease burden, death, and disability, especially in children in low-income settings. DD can also impact a child's potential livelihood through stunted physical growth, cognitive impairment, and other sequelae. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study, we estimated DD burden, and the burden attributable to specific risk factors and particular etiologies, in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2013. For both sexes and all ages, we calculated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disability. We estimate that over 125,000 deaths (3.6% of total deaths) were due to DD in the EMR in 2013, with a greater burden of DD in low- and middle-income countries. Diarrhea deaths per 100,000 children under 5 years of age ranged from one (95% uncertainty interval [UI] = 0-1) in Bahrain and Oman to 471 (95% UI = 245-763) in Somalia. The pattern for diarrhea DALYs among those under 5 years of age closely followed that for diarrheal deaths. DALYs per 100,000 ranged from 739 (95% UI = 520-989) in Syria to 40,869 (95% UI = 21,540-65,823) in Somalia. Our results highlighted a highly inequitable burden of DD in EMR, mainly driven by the lack of access to proper resources such as water and sanitation. Our findings will guide preventive and treatment interventions which are based on evidence and which follow the ultimate goal of reducing the DD burden.
    MeSH terms: Child; Child, Preschool; Diarrhea/economics; Diarrhea/mortality*; Diarrhea/epidemiology*; Female; Disabled Persons; Humans; Male; Risk Factors; Cost of Illness; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Mediterranean Region/epidemiology; Global Burden of Disease*
  2. Gaffney D, Small B, Kitchener H, Young Ryu S, Viswanathan A, Trimble T, et al.
    Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2016 Nov;26(9):1690-1693.
    PMID: 30814204 DOI: 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000823
    Eighty-seven percent of cervix cancer occurs in less-developed regions of the world, and there is up to an 18-fold difference in mortality rate for cervix cancer depending on the region of the world. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was founded through the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup with the aim of improving access to clinical trials in cervix cancer worldwide, and in so doing improving standards of care. The CCRN recently held its first international educational symposium in Bangkok. Sixty-two participants attended from 16 different countries including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Taiwan, China, Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Columbia, Brazil, Canada, and the United States. The focus of this symposium was to evaluate progress, to promote new clinical trials for the CCRN, and to provide education regarding the role of brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer.
    MeSH terms: Bangladesh; Brachytherapy; Brazil; Canada; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms; China; Female; Genital Neoplasms, Female; Humans; India; Japan; Malaysia; Pakistan; Philippines; Singapore; Taiwan; Thailand; United States; Vietnam; Republic of Korea; Standard of Care
  3. Ahmadi H, Nilashi M, Ibrahim O, Raisian K
    Curr Health Sci J, 2016 03 29;42(1):82-93.
    PMID: 30568817 DOI: 10.12865/CHSJ.42.01.12
    As Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have a great possibility for rising physician's performance in their daily work which improves quality, safety and efficiency in healthcare, they are implemented throughout the world (Boonstra and Broekhuis, 2010). In physician practices the rate of EMRs adoption has been slow and restricted (around 25%) according to Endsley, Baker, Kershner, and Curtin (2005) in spite of the cost savings through lower administrative costs and medical errors related with EMRs systems. The core objective of this research is to identify, categorize, and analyse meso-level factors introduced by Lau et al, 2012, perceived by physicians to the adoption of EMRs in order to give more knowledge in primary care setting. Finding was extracted through questionnaire which distributed to 350 physicians in primary cares in Malaysia to assess their perception towards EMRs adoption. The findings showed that Physicians had positive perception towards some features related to technology adoption success and emphasized EMRs had helpful impact in their office. The fuzzy TOPSIS physician EMRs adoption model in meso-level developed and its factors and sub-factors discussed in this study which provide making sense of EMRs adoption. The related factors based on meso-level perspective prioritized and ranked by using the fuzzy TOPSIS. The purpose of ranking using these approaches is to inspect which factors are more imperative in EMRs adoption among primary care physicians. The result of performing fuzzy TOPSIS is as a novelty method to identify the critical factors which assist healthcare organizations to inspire their users in accepting of new technology.
    MeSH terms: Delivery of Health Care; Group Practice; Malaysia; Primary Health Care; Surveys and Questionnaires; Cost Savings; Medical Errors; Electronic Health Records; Physicians, Primary Care
  4. Pradhan P, Bhardwaj A, Venkatachalam VP
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):89-91.
    PMID: 27418875
    We report a case of bilateral cricoarytenoid joint arthritis with history of rheumatoid arthritis, presented with stridor to the outpatient department. Endolaryngoscopy revealed adducted vocal cords and a nodule over left arytenoid which later confirmed to be rheumatoid nodule on histopathologic examination. Initially, although patient responded well to medical treatment, recurrence was noticed after 6 months follow-up.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Arytenoid Cartilage; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Outpatients; Phonation; Respiratory Sounds; Rheumatoid Nodule; Vocal Cords
  5. Prasanna LC, Alva R, Sneha GK, Bhat KM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):77-81.
    PMID: 27540329
    Multiple anomalies in the celiac arterial system presents as rare vascular malformations, depicting deviations of the normal vascular developmental pattern. We found a common left gastro-phrenic trunk and a hepato-spleno-mesenteric trunk arising separately from the abdominal aorta in one cadaver. We also found a common hepatic artery and a gastro-splenic trunk arising individually from the abdominal aorta in another cadaver. Even though many variations in the celiac trunk have been described earlier, the complex variations described here are not mentioned and classified by earlier literature. Knowledge of such variations has significance in the surgical and invasive arterial radiological procedures in the upper abdomen.
    MeSH terms: Abdomen; Aorta, Abdominal; Cadaver; Celiac Artery; Hepatic Artery; Spleen; Stomach; Vascular Malformations
  6. Puttegowda B, Theodore J, Basappa R, Nanjappa MC
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):82-4.
    PMID: 27547120
    A 28-year-old male patient with bipolar disorder taking olanzapine and lorazepam for almost 10 years presented with weight gain, diabetes, and anasarca was examined in this study. Evaluation of the patient revealed he was in heart failure. The reason for his heart failure was ambiguous and an investigation into it revealed negative results. Literature search conducted showed a few reported cases of putative olanzapine induced cardiomyopathy. One such relatively rare case is presented here.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Benzodiazepines; Bipolar Disorder; Diabetes Mellitus; Edema; Heart Failure; Humans; Lorazepam; Male; Cardiomyopathies; Weight Gain
  7. Kumar A, Aggarwal K, Agrawal H, Sharma S, Garg PK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jul;23(4):86-9.
    PMID: 27660550 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.4.12
    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology. It manifests in two distinct clinical presentations: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric CD is rare and may present as an isolated neck mass. A 22-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of right neck swelling that occupied the posterior triangle of the right neck region. After surgical exploration, a solitary, well defined, and hyper vascular mass was excise. A histopathological examination confirmed the lesion as CD, hyaline-vascular variant. CD of the neck is a diagnosis that is usually not taken into consideration while evaluating neck masses due to its rarity and unassuming presentation. It should be keep in the differential diagnosis of neck masses as the clinical and radiological features evade a firm diagnosis. The treatment of unicentric CD is complete surgical excision, which cures the patient.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Diagnosis, Differential; Diarrhea; Humans; Hyalin; Intestinal Diseases; Male; Skin Abnormalities; Vascular Diseases; Eye Diseases, Hereditary; Young Adult
  8. Stenström B, Windsor HM, Fulurija A, Benghezal M, Kumarasinghe MP, Kimura K, et al.
    Clin Case Rep, 2016 11;4(11):1026-1033.
    PMID: 27830066
    Repeated experimental reinfection of two subjects indicates that Helicobacter pylori infection does not promote an immune response protective against future reinfection. Our results highlight the importance of preventing reinfection after eradication, through public health initiatives, and possibly treatment of family members. They indicate difficulties for vaccine development, especially therapeutic vaccines.
    MeSH terms: Family; Public Health; Vaccines; Helicobacter pylori; Helicobacter Infections; Biomedical Research
  9. Velaitham P, Vijayasingham N
    PMID: 27847619
    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengue fever.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 41 year old Malay female was admitted to medical ward and diagnosed to have "dengue fever with warning signs". On the day of admission she noted sudden onset of right eye blurring of vision. She presented to our clinic 1 week later. Ocular examination revealed right eye visual acuity of <20/1000 and ischaemic CRVO with macular edema. She had no other risk factors to develop retinal vein occlusion. She progressively developed proliferative retinopathy and received multiple laser therapy. There was no anterior segment neovascularization. However, her vision improved to only 20/400 despite of resolution of macular edema and new vessels elsewhere.

    CONCLUSION: Dengue virus infection is known to cause thrombocytopenia which can result in hemorrhagic events. It can also cause procoagulant state which can result in thrombotic events secondary to immune reaction. Awareness among treating physicians of such ocular complication which can result in significant morbidity for patient is necessary.

  10. Lim TS, Thong KM
    Pak J Med Sci, 2016 11 25;32(5):1302-1304.
    PMID: 27882041
    Pleural effusion or hydrothorax is a relatively rare but well-recognized complication associated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe the successful long term resolution of a patient who developed pleural effusions after starting continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), by altering the PD prescription to normal volume daytime ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (DAPD) transiently before resuming the usual CAPD exchanges four months later. After 8 years of follow up, there is no sign of recurrence of the effusion. Normal volume DAPD present as an attractive alternative and cheap method for resolution of pleura-peritoneal fistula.
    MeSH terms: Exudates and Transudates; Fistula; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hydrothorax; Peritoneal Dialysis; Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory; Peritoneum; Pleura; Pleural Effusion
  11. Johari HH, Khaw BL, Yusof Z, Mohamad I
    World J Clin Cases, 2016 Nov 16;4(11):375-379.
    PMID: 27900327
    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is very common in Malaysian population. The most commonly ingested FB is fish bone. Common presenting symptoms include FB sensation, odynophagia and or sharp pricking pain during swallowing. A careful history and physical examination is very important. Despite negative laryngoscopy and rigid esophagoscopy, persistent symptoms warrants further radiographic imaging studies. The FB can migrate extraluminally and involve other important adjacent structures of the neck and along the digestive tract. We report 3 cases of extraluminal migration of fish bone and their complications, which were successfully managed. One case with vascular complication which involve common carotid artery and the other two cases with neck abscess formation involving thyroid gland, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess.
    MeSH terms: Abscess; Animals; Deglutition; Deglutition Disorders; Eating; Esophagoscopy; Foreign Bodies; Laryngoscopy; Neck; Pain; Physical Examination; Sensation; Thyroid Gland; Carotid Artery, Common
  12. Purohit B, Ganewatte E, Kollias SS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Sep;23(5):91-95.
    PMID: 27904430
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab often face the uncommon but severe complication of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML may be further complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after the removal of the drug. Since both PML and IRIS are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, early clinical and radiological diagnosis of these complications is of paramount importance. Here, we report a case of an adult male patient who was diagnosed with PML after receiving natalizumab therapy for 6 years for the treatment of MS. Upon cessation of natalizumab, he presented with a paradoxical worsening of clinical and radiological findings consistent with an inflammatory brain injury due to IRIS. He was treated with high dose corticosteroid therapy followed by a gradual improvement in clinical and imaging findings. This article illustrates the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of natalizumab-associated PML-IRIS, along with a brief overview of its clinical features, complications and management strategies.
    MeSH terms: Natalizumab; Adrenal Cortex Hormones; Adult; Brain Injuries; Humans; Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multiple Sclerosis; Radiography; Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
  13. Pannu D, Bharti R, Anand HP, Sharma M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Sep;23(5):96-99.
    PMID: 27904431
    Term, live abdominal pregnancy secondary to rupture of a uterine rudimentary horn is a rare condition. Pregnancies conceived in the rudimentary horn of the uterus usually rupture during early gestation and present as a catastrophic event. However, rarely, after rupture of the uterine horn the foetus may continue to grow in the abdominal cavity and reach term gestation. A primigravida with a term pregnancy was referred to our centre for caesarean section with ultrasonography findings of transverse lie and placenta previa. During surgery, a live baby was extracted from the abdominal cavity, revealing a bicornuate uterus with rupture of the rudimentary horn. The early peroperative diagnosis and prompt control of the bleeding with excision of the rudimentary horn and transfusion of multiple blood products saved the patient's life. The case is presented for its rarity and to highlight the importance of a high index of suspicion in cases presenting with abnormal foetal presentation.
    MeSH terms: Cesarean Section; Female; Fetus; Humans; Labor Presentation; Placenta Previa; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, Abdominal; Ultrasonography; Urogenital Abnormalities; Uterus; Abdominal Cavity
  14. Khayi S, Blin P, Chong TM, Chan KG, Faure D
    Stand Genomic Sci, 2016;11:87.
    PMID: 27942352
    Several species of the genus Dickeya provoke soft rot and blackleg diseases on a wide range of plants and crops. Dickeya solani has been identified as the causative agent of diseases outbreaks on potato culture in Europe for the last decade. Here, we report the complete genome of the D. solani IPO 2222T. Using PacBio and Illumina technologies, a unique circular chromosome of 4,919,833 bp was assembled. The G + C content reaches 56% and the genomic sequence contains 4,059 predicted proteins. The ANI values calculated for D. solani IPO 2222T vs. other available D. solani genomes was over 99.9% indicating a high genetic homogeneity within D. solani species.
  15. Lim SY, Yap KP, Thong KL
    Gut Pathog, 2016;8:65.
    PMID: 27999619 DOI: 10.1186/s13099-016-0147-8
    BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes considerable morbidity in humans with high mortality rates. In this study, we have sequenced the genomes and performed comparative genomics analyses on two strains, LM115 and LM41, isolated from ready-to-eat food in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: The genome size of LM115 and LM41 was 2,959,041 and 2,963,111 bp, respectively. These two strains shared approximately 90% homologous genes. Comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses revealed that LM115 and LM41 were more closely related to the reference strains F2365 and EGD-e, respectively. Our virulence profiling indicated a total of 31 virulence genes shared by both analysed strains. These shared genes included those that encode for internalins and L. monocytogenes pathogenicity island 1 (LIPI-1). Both the Malaysian L. monocytogenes strains also harboured several genes associated with stress tolerance to counter the adverse conditions. Seven antibiotic and efflux pump related genes which may confer resistance against lincomycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, quinolone, tetracycline, and penicillin, and macrolides were identified in the genomes of both strains.

    CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent L. monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Malaysia. The identification of strains with pathogenic, persistent, and antibiotic resistant potentials from minimally processed food warrant close attention from both healthcare and food industry.

  16. Tevaraj JM, Tai Li Min E, Mohd-Noor RA, Thavaratnam LK, Salmah WM, Wan Hitam WH
    Case Rep Ophthalmol Med, 2016;2016:6741925.
    PMID: 28078151 DOI: 10.1155/2016/6741925
    A previously healthy 27-year-old Malay male presented with acute onset of painless, severe blurring of vision in his right eye. It was associated with headache and vomiting for the past week. Relative afferent pupillary defect was present in the right eye, with reduced optic nerve function. Patient also had bilateral generalised optic disc swelling, splinter haemorrhages, and tortuous vessels. Initial examination was suggestive of either optic neuritis or raised intracranial pressure. Typical features of bilateral optic perineuritis (OPN) such as tram track and doughnut sign were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Connective tissue and infective screening were negative. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic perineuritis and treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroids followed by a three-month course of oral steroids. His vision and optic nerve function recovered to baseline levels.
    MeSH terms: Adrenal Cortex Hormones; Connective Tissue; Headache; Humans; Intracranial Pressure; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Malaysia; Male; Optic Nerve; Optic Neuritis; Papilledema; Pupil Disorders; Vision Disorders; Vomiting
  17. Shanmugasundaram K, Subramanian S, Vedam V, Kumar V
    Case Rep Pathol, 2016;2016:9154309.
    PMID: 28078158 DOI: 10.1155/2016/9154309
    Carcinoma arising primarily from the jaw is a locally aggressive lesion with poor prognosis. Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) lesion develops either de novo remnants of odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic cyst/tumor, epithelium remnants, or/and salivary gland residues. We describe very interesting case of primary intraosseous carcinoma of mandible. This extensive lesion was sent for oncological opinion and further management. Due to the uncertainty of diagnostic criteria of PIOC, only few cases of this lesion with a typical presentation have been reported. This article presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma with a unique appearance and detailed review stating its clinicopathological correlation.
    MeSH terms: Attitude; Mandible; Odontogenic Cysts; Odontogenic Tumors; Prognosis; Salivary Glands; Uncertainty
  18. Mir SA, Masoodi SR, Wani AI, Ahmad SN, Hameed I
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):118-122.
    PMID: 28090186 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.13
    Primary adrenal lymphomas (PAL) are rare occurrences with only less than 150 cases reported in the literature. Two-thirds of these cases were reported in the last decade due to the advancements in imaging techniques and immunohistochemistry. The non-specific signs and symptoms have resulted in a delayed onset of symptoms and diagnosis of these tumors. Reports of the results of chemotherapy are not gratifying, and most patients die within one year of the diagnosis. We report a 65-year-old male with adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), who presented with hypercalcemia and renal failure. We reviewed all adrenal NHL cases presented with hypercalcemia and attempted to comprehend its etiology and overall survival effect.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Humans; Hypercalcemia; Immunohistochemistry; Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Male; Neoplasms; Publications; Renal Insufficiency
  19. Hui CK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):123-127.
    PMID: 28090187 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.14
    A 32 year old woman presented with acute onset of abdominal pain and fever. An urgent computerised tomography (CT) of the whole abdomen showed dilated loop at the terminal ileum in the right lower abdomen with thickening of the wall and oedema. The CT was suggestive of distal small bowel obstruction at the ileum with surrounding wall oedema. Multiple biopsies taken from the terminal ileum and colon on colonoscopy were all unremarkable. She represented one-year later with a recurrence of intestinal obstruction. CT enteroclysis showed collapse at the distal 3 cm segment of the terminal ileum. There was no associated wall thickening, active inflammatory changes or ileitis. This was suspicious of post-inflammatory change or fibrosis. She was subsequently found to have selective IgA deficiency with recurrent infection in the terminal ileum resulting in intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, selective IgA deficiency should be considered in patients with recurrent intestinal obstruction without anatomical obstructions.
    MeSH terms: Abdomen; Adult; Biopsy; Colon; Colonoscopy; Edema; Female; Humans; Ileitis; Ileum; Intestinal Obstruction; Tomography; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Abdominal Pain; IgA Deficiency
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