Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Tang C, Hoo PC, Tan LT, Pusparajah P, Khan TM, Lee LH, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2016;7:474.
    PMID: 28003804 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00474
    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development.
    MeSH terms: Agaricales; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Antihypertensive Agents; Antioxidants; Carbohydrates; Cholesterol; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Learning; Lipids; Melanosis; Memory; Nutritive Value; Phenols; Ribosomes; Sesquiterpenes; Taste; Thrombosis; Flammulina
  2. Tan JM, Karthivashan G, Gani SA, Fakurazi S, Hussein MZ
    Chem Cent J, 2016;10:81.
    PMID: 28028386 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-016-0228-2
    In this paper, we demonstrate the preparation of silibinin-loaded carbon nanotubes (SWSB) with surface coating agents via non-covalent approach as an effective drug delivery system. The resulting surface-coated SWSB nanocomposites are extensively characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The FTIR and Raman studies show that an additional layer is formed by these coating agents in the prepared nanocomposites during the coating treatment and these results are confirmed by FESEM. Drug loading and release profiles of the coated SWSB nanocomposites in phosphate buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 is evaluated by UV-Vis spectrometry. The in vitro results indicate that the surface-modified nanocomposites, with SB loading of 45 wt%, altered the initial burst and thus, resulted in a more prolonged and sustained release of SB. In addition, these nanocomposites exhibit a pseudo-second-order release kinetic which was driven by the ion exchange between the ionized SWSB and the anions in the release medium. The cytotoxicity effect of the resulting nanocomposites on normal mouse fibroblast cells is evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It is observed that the surfactant and polymer coating improved the biocompatibility of the SWSB nanocomposites significantly, which deem further exploitation for their application as potential anticancer drug delivery system.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Bromides; Delayed-Action Preparations; Fibroblasts; Fourier Analysis; Ion Exchange; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Phosphates; Polymers; Silymarin; Sodium Chloride; Surface-Active Agents; Drug Delivery Systems; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared; Nanotubes, Carbon; Mice; Nanocomposites
  3. Gyawali S, Rathore DS, Shankar PR, Kc VK, Jha N, Sharma D
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):44-55.
    PMID: 27540325
    BACKGROUND: Unsafe injection practice can transmit various blood borne infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of injection safety among injection providers, to obtain information about disposal of injectable devices, and to compare the knowledge and practices of urban and rural injection providers.

    METHODS: The study was conducted with injection providers working at primary health care facilities within Kaski district, Nepal. Ninety-six health care workers from 69 primary health care facilities were studied and 132 injection events observed. A semi-structured checklist was used for observing injection practice and a questionnaire for the survey. Respondents were interviewed to complete the questionnaire and obtain possible explanations for certain observed behaviors.

    RESULTS: All injection providers knew of at least one pathogen transmitted through use/re-use of unsterile syringes. Proportion of injection providers naming hepatitis/jaundice as one of the diseases transmitted by unsafe injection practice was significantly higher in urban (75.6%) than in rural (39.2%) area. However, compared to urban respondents (13.3%), a significantly higher proportion of rural respondents (37.3%) named Hepatitis B specifically as one of the diseases transmitted. Median (inter-quartile range) number of therapeutic injection and injectable vaccine administered per day by the injection providers were 2 (1) and 1 (1), respectively. Two handed recapping by injection providers was significantly higher in urban area (33.3%) than in rural areas (21.6%). Most providers were not aware of the post exposure prophylaxis guideline.

    CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the injection providers about safe injection practice was acceptable. The use of safe injection practice by providers in urban and rural health care facilities was almost similar. The deficiencies noted in the practice must be addressed.

    MeSH terms: Health Facilities; Health Personnel; Hepatitis B; Injections; Jaundice; Nepal; Primary Health Care; Surveys and Questionnaires; Rural Health; Syringes; Vaccines; Post-Exposure Prophylaxis; Checklist
  4. Chaturvedi D, Singh VK
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):25-36.
    PMID: 27688849 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.3
    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries.
    MeSH terms: Ethanol; Animals; Chlorophyll; Chlorophyllides; Developing Countries; Fasciola; Fasciola hepatica; Fascioliasis; Foodborne Diseases; Lymnaea; Molluscacides; Sunlight; Trematoda; Water; Incidence; Spinacia oleracea
  5. Agduma AR, Sese MD
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):37-52.
    PMID: 27688850 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.4
    The biochemical changes in two Selaginella species namely, S. tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring and S. plana (Desv. ex Poir.) Heiron., as induced by desiccation and subsequent rehydration were explored. Plants were allowed to dehydrate naturally by withholding irrigation until shoot's relative water content (RWC) reached <10%. After which, dehydrated plants were watered until fully rehydrated states were obtained which was about 90% RWC or more. Desiccation-tolerance characteristics were observed in S. tamariscina while desiccation-sensitivity features were seen in S. plana. Membrane integrity was maintained in S. tamariscina but not in S. plana as evidenced in the relative electrolyte leakage measurements during desiccation phase and the subsequent rehydration stage. Pigment analyses revealed conservation of some chlorophylls and carotenoids during desiccation and reaching control levels following rehydration in S. tamariscina. Very low pigment contents were found in S. plana during desiccation phase and the pigments were not recovered during rehydration attempt. Meanwhile, compatible solute determination showed rise in total sugar and proline contents of desiccated S. tamariscina only, indicating presence of biochemical protection machineries in this species and absence of such in S. plana during dehydrating conditions. These data indicate that one key element for desiccation-tolerance in lower vascular plants is the ability to protect tissues from severe damages caused by intense desiccation.
    MeSH terms: Carotenoids; Chlorophyll; Dehydration; Desiccation; Fluid Therapy; Plants; Proline; Water; Selaginellaceae
  6. Radhamany D, Das KS, Azeez PA, Wen L, Sreekala LK
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):127-34.
    PMID: 27688856 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.10
    The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a widely distributed bird species found throughout the world. Being a species which has close association with humans, they chiefly nest on man-made structures. Here we describe the materials used by the house sparrow for making nests along an urban to rural gradient. For the current study, we selected the Coimbatore to Anaikatty road (State Highway-164), a 27 km inter-state highway, which traverses along an urban core to rural outstretch of Coimbatore. Of the 30 nests observed, 15 nests were from the rural, 8 were from the suburban, and 7 were from the urban areas. The nests had two distinct layers, specifically the structural layer and the inner lining. In the current study, we identified 11 plant species, 2 types of animal matter, and 6 types of anthropogenic matter, including plastic pieces and fine rope. The amount of anthropogenic materials in the nest formation varied along the gradients. The usage of anthropogenic materials was high in urban areas (p<0.05) whereas it did not differ at the sub-urban regions (p>0.05). A gradual decrease in the usage of plant matter towards the urban area was noticed (p<0.05). This study explicitly documents the links between nest material usage along an urban to rural gradient, in a human associated bird.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Humans; Nesting Behavior; Plastics; Rural Population; Sparrows
  7. Ham JE, Harrison JC, Jackson SR, Wells JR
    Atmos Environ (1994), 2016 May;132:300-308.
    PMID: 27346977
    The reaction products from limonene ozonolysis were investigated using the new carbonyl derivatization agent, O-tert-butylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (TBOX). With ozone (O3) as the limiting reagent, five carbonyl compounds were detected. The yields of the carbonyl compounds are discussed with and without the presence of a hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenger, giving insight into the influence secondary OH radicals have on limonene ozonolysis products. The observed reaction product yields for limonaketone (LimaKet), 7-hydroxyl-6-oxo-3-(prop-1-en-2-yl)heptanal (7H6O), and 2-acetyl-5-oxohexanal (2A5O) were unchanged suggesting OH• generated by the limonene + O3 reaction does not contribute to their formation. The molar yields of 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH) and 3-acetyl-6-oxoheptanal (3A6O) decreased by 68% and >95%; respectively, when OH• was removed. This suggests that OH• radicals significantly impact the formation of these products. Nitric oxide (NO) did not significantly affect the molar yields of limonaketone or IPOH. However, NO (20 ppb) considerably decreased the molar reaction product yields of 7H6O (62%), 2A5O (63%), and 3A6O (47%), suggesting NO reacted with peroxyl intermediates, generated during limonene ozonolysis, to form other carbonyls (not detected) or organic nitrates. These studies give insight into the transformation of limonene and its reaction products that can lead to indoor exposures.
  8. Thanaviratananich S, Cho SH, Ghoshal AG, Muttalif AR, Lin HC, Pothirat C, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2016 Jul;95(28):e4090.
    PMID: 27428193 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004090
    Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases (APBORD) was a cross-sectional, observational study examining the burden of respiratory disease in adults across 6 Asia-Pacific countries.This article reports symptoms, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), work impairment and cost burden associated with allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis in Thailand.Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled at 4 hospitals in Thailand during October 2012 and October 2013. Participants completed a survey detailing respiratory symptoms, HCRU, work productivity, and activity impairment. Locally sourced unit costs were used in the calculation of total costs.The study enrolled 1000 patients. The most frequent primary diagnosis was AR (44.2%), followed by rhinosinusitis (24.1%), asthma (23.7%), and COPD (8.0%). Overall, 316 (31.6%) of patients were diagnosed with some combination of the 4 diseases. Blocked nose or congestion (17%) and cough or coughing up phlegm (16%) were the main reasons for the current medical visit. The mean annual cost for patients with a respiratory disease was US$1495 (SD 3133) per patient. Costs associated with work productivity loss were the principal contributor for AR and rhinosinusitis patients while medication costs were the highest contributor for asthma and COPD patients.The study findings highlight the burden associated with 4 prevalent respiratory diseases in Thailand. Thorough investigation of concomitant conditions and improved disease management may help to reduce the burden of these respiratory diseases.
    MeSH terms: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Asthma/epidemiology*; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Rhinitis/epidemiology*; Sinusitis/epidemiology*; Thailand/epidemiology; Cost of Illness; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology*; Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology*
  9. Teow SY, Liew K, Ali SA, Khoo AS, Peh SC
    J Trop Med, 2016;2016:2853045.
    PMID: 27956904
    Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Biological Products; Cooking; Curcumin; Methicillin; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus; Global Health; Methicillin Resistance; Curcuma; Zingiberaceae; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  10. Hashim SNM, Yusof MFH, Zahari W, Noordin KBAA, Kannan TP, Hamid SSA, et al.
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2016 Jun;13(3):211-217.
    PMID: 30603401 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-016-9057-6
    Combination between tissue engineering and other fields has brought an innovation in the area of regenerative medicine which ultimate aims are to repair, improve, and produce a good tissue construct. The availability of many types of scaffold, both synthetically and naturally have developed into many outstanding end products that have achieved the general objective in tissue engineering. Interestingly, most of this scaffold emulates extracellular matrix (ECM) characteristics. Therefore, ECM component sparks an interest to be explored and manipulated. The ECM featured in human amniotic membrane (HAM) provides a suitable niche for the cells to adhere, grow, proliferate, migrate and differentiate, and could possibly contribute to the production of angiogenic micro-environment indirectly. Previously, HAM scaffold has been widely used to accelerate wound healing, treat bone related and ocular diseases, and involved in cardiovascular repair. Also, it has been used in the angiogenicity study, but with a different technical approach. In addition, both side of HAM could be used in cellularised and decellularised conditions depending on the objectives of a particular research. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to investigate the behavior of ECM components especially on the stromal side of HAM and further explore the angiogenic potential exhibited by this scaffold.
    MeSH terms: Amnion; Cell Count; Extracellular Matrix; Eye; Humans; Morphogenesis; Tissue Engineering; Regenerative Medicine
  11. Liau MT, Amini F, Ramasamy TS
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2016 Oct;13(5):455-464.
    PMID: 30603427 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-016-9093-2
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is usually seen in those above 50 years old. Current medical treatments only provide symptomatic relief but cannot cure the disease. There are claims that PD can be cured by stem cell transplant. The present study is aimed to assess the clinical potency and safety of stem cell in treating PD. A total of eleven articles were included for analysis, with four randomised control trials (RCTs), five non-RCTs and 2 follow up studies. All the four non-RCTs showed improvement of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale with no adverse events. However, results from RCTs showed no significant differences in the rating score among the transplant group and the Sham surgery group. The secondary analysis of one study showed a significant improvement of the rating score in those patients aged 60 and younger. Transplant group also associated with an overall higher incidence of adverse events. In conclusion, the RCTs and non-RCTs produced opposite results. When the studies were performed as non-RCTs in small number of patients, they showed promising result in the patients. It could say that currently the use of stem cell/progenitor cells in treating PD need much research despite having the implanted stem cell to be able to survive and integrated. The survival of implanted dopamine neurons in the striatum, however, does not indicate a success in correcting PD symptoms. Further investigations will shed light on the application and mechanism of action of stem cells in treating PD.

    Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13770-016-9093-2 and is accessible for authorized users.

    MeSH terms: Corpus Striatum; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Parkinson Disease; Parkinson Disease, Secondary; Incidence; Neostriatum; Stem Cell Transplantation; Dopaminergic Neurons
  12. Tan, Soo Kee
    MyJurnal
    This paper examines the transformation of the Korean development model since the 1960s. The statedirected
    capitalism that characterized the close liaison between government and business successfully
    transformed Korea into an industrial powerhouse in the 1970s. Under the strong leadership of Park
    Chung Hee, the Korean government picked industrial winners and promoted them with cheap capital
    and protection to boost industrial productions and exports. This guided capitalism was very successful,
    but the Korean government began to abandon the ideology and moved toward liberalism gradually since
    1980s. Under the Chun Doo Hwan’s administration, the active role of the state in the economy was
    reduced, allowing more freedom in the market. Then the government began to emphasize liberalizing
    the economy for foreign goods, capital, and free operation of the market by minimizing government
    control. After the 1997 financial crisis, promoting foreign direct investment into the country and signing
    FTAs became important growth strategies for the Korean economy. It is believed that the neoliberalism
    will continue to override the nation’s economic direction for welfare of the country.
  13. Mohd Ikbal Mohd Huda
    MyJurnal
    When Japan emerged as a global economic power, it increased its role in shaping
    the development of the international community through bilateral and multilateral
    economic cooperation. The history of Japanese ODA began after gaining its
    independence from the United States in 1952. Japan began building its ODA
    program beginning with the payment for war reparations as well as economic and
    technical cooperation to Asian countries it formally colonised. Until the end of 2015
    Japan was still actively adapting its ODA to support the process of socioeconomic
    development of recipient nations. This article examines the evolution of Japanese
    ODA from 1945 to 2015. This research is significant in assessing the disbursement
    trend, the challenges and direction of Japanese ODA in the 21st century. There are
    five time periods of analysis for the history and evolution of Japanese ODA, firstly
    being that of Japan’s economic restructuring after the war from 1945 to 1953.
    Throughout this time period Japan received aid from the United States and the
    World Bank. The second period spans 22 years and is known as the quantitative
    development and expansion of ODA from 1954 to 1976. This period was also known
    as the war reparation period. Japan provided foreign assistance in the form of
    reparation as well as economic and technical assistance to former colonies. The
    third period was 14 years of systemic expansion from 1977 to 1991. Japan adapted
    4 goals during this period in order to increase the amount of aid to recipient
    countries. The fourth period was the development of ODA philosophy and policy
    from 1992 to 2002. The global ODA charter was introduced in this period, aimed
    to explain the Japanese ODA philosophy and promote its aid activities in line with
    its foreign policy. Japan’s role could clearly be established during this period. The
    last period, challenges in the new era of ODA, began in 2003 until the present time.
    This was when the ODA charter was re-­evaluated for the first time after 11 years
    on August 23, 2003 in order to shape a more comprehensive global cooperation
    policy. The re-­evaluation of the charter was relevant as the global challenges has
    increased Japan’s role and improved the relation between Japan and its aid
    recipients.
  14. Asmadi Hassan
    MyJurnal
    In 1994, the Government of Malaysia received 61.518 million yen to commence Kuala Lumpur
    International Airport (KLIA) project. The airport is located in the district of Sepang, Selangor, which
    was originally oil palm plantations and small villages. The construction project completed and began in
    used in the 1998. This paper is to evaluate the impact of Japan's ODA for Malaysia, particularly yen
    loan to socioeconomic. In term of socioeconomic impact, many new cities were established such as
    Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, Bandar Baru Nilai, Banting, Bandar Enstek and Cyber Jaya. Similarly, new
    housing, schools, shopping malls and other facilities such as the Sepang International Circuit and
    Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) were built. New roads connecting to the airport also completed
    the development of these places. In terms of employment, previously many who depended on agriculture,
    now turned to business, hospitality, services, transportation and others. In fact the huge investment
    significantly affected the surrounding population, particularly the creation of modern towns, businesses
    and educational centers which gave rise to various types of employment.
    MeSH terms: Agriculture; Cities; Employment; Government; Housing; Islam; Japan; Malaysia; Schools; Transportation; Airports
  15. Youssef EF, Shanb AA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):83-93.
    PMID: 28090182 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.9
    BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a progressive decline in physical capabilities and a disturbance of both postural control and daily living activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised versus home exercise programs on muscle strength, balance and functional activities in older participants.

    METHODS: Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35-45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG).

    RESULTS: The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs (P < 0.05). However, the mean values of the TUG and muscle strength at the ankle, knee and hip improved significantly only after the supervised program. A comparison between the supervised and home exercise programs revealed there were only significant differences in the BBS, TUG and muscle strength.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the supervised and home exercise training programs significantly increased balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants.

    MeSH terms: Activities of Daily Living; Ankle; Ankle Joint; Exercise Therapy; Humans; Exercise; Muscle Strength
  16. Zainazlan Md Zain1, Mohd Nasir Taib, Shahrizam M. S. Baki, Azni Zain Ahmed
    MyJurnal
    This paper examines the temperature profile of a building material and also a
    built space. The study directly examines the influence of solar radiation on
    building material and the heat it generated and diffuses into the built space.
    Two experiments are presented. The first look at a simple technique for
    evaluating heat performance of a building material, and the second evaluates
    the performance of a cross-ventilated built space with respect to solar radiation.
    MeSH terms: Construction Materials; Hot Temperature; Solar Energy; Temperature
  17. Yoneda M
    Nippon Rinsho, 2016 12;74(12):1973-1978.
    PMID: 30550652
    Nipah and Hendra virus were first identified in mid 1990s in Australia and Malaysia, caus- ing epidemics with high mortality rate in affected animals and humans. Since their first emer- gence, they continued to re-emerge in Australia and South East Asia almost every year. Nipah and Hendra virus were classified in the new genus Henipavirus because of their un- common features amongst Paramyxoviridae. Henipaviruses are zoonotic paramyxoviruses with a broad tropism, and cause severe acute respiratory disease and encephalitis. Their high virulence and wide host range make them to be given Biosecurity Level 4 status. This review summarizes details of Henipavirus emergence, reservoir hosts and pathology, and introduce recent progress in vaccines and antivirals.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Antiviral Agents; Asia, Southeastern; Australia; Encephalitis; Humans; Malaysia; Paramyxoviridae; Vaccines; Virulence; Paramyxovirinae; Tropism; Hendra Virus; Nipah Virus; Henipavirus Infections; Host Specificity
  18. Khodarahimi S, Hashim IHM, Mohd-Zaharim N
    Psychol Belg, 2016 Mar 01;56(1):65-79.
    PMID: 30479429 DOI: 10.5334/pb.320
    The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of an adult attachment style questionnaire, to understand the relationships between the type of attachment style in relation to self-perceived stress and social support, and to investigate the influence of gender, ethnicity and religion on the above constructs. The participants were 308 university students from Malaysia. A demographic questionnaire and three self-report inventories were administrated in this study. The data indicated that the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) is a multidimensional construct with nine factors: "dismissing," "preoccupied with romance," "preoccupied with close relationships," "fearful," "preoccupied with dependency," "secure emotional," "comfortable depending," "preoccupied with mistrust" and "mutual secure." Different attachment styles were positively or negatively correlated at a significant level with perceived stress and social support. Attachment styles were explained by 20 and 33% of the total variance in self-perceived stress and perceived social support, respectively. There were significant gender, ethnic and religious differences in attachment styles, perceived stress and social support.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Demography; Factor IX; Gender Identity; Humans; Malaysia; Surveys and Questionnaires; Social Support; Students; Universities; Self Report
  19. Kadhim IH, Hassan HA, Abdullah QN
    Nanomicro Lett, 2016;8(1):20-28.
    PMID: 30464990 DOI: 10.1007/s40820-015-0057-1
    In this paper, high-quality nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film was grown on bare Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel method. A metal-semiconductor-metal gas sensor was fabricated using nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film and palladium (Pd) metal. The contact between Pd and nanocrystalline SnO2 film is tunable. Ohmic barrier contact was formed without addition of glycerin, while Schottky contact formed by adding glycerin. Two kinds of sensor devices with Schottky contact were fabricated (Device 1: 8 h, 500 °C; Device 2: 10 h, 400 °C). The room temperature sensitivity for hydrogen (H2) was 120 and 95 % in 1000 ppm H2, and the low power consumption was 65 and 86 µW for two devices, respectively. At higher temperature of 125 °C, the sensitivity was increased to 195 and 160 %, respectively. The sensing measurements were repeatable at various temperatures (room temperature, 75, 125 °C) for over 50 min. It was found that Device 1 has better sensitivity than Device 2 due to its better crystallinity. These findings indicate that the sensors fabricated on bare Si by adding glycerin to the sol solution have strong ability to detect H2 gas under different concentrations and temperatures.
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