Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Feng Z, Hu X, Jiang Z, Song H, Ashraf MA
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):189-97.
    PMID: 26980999 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.10.008
    The recognition of protein folds is an important step in the prediction of protein structure and function. Recently, an increasing number of researchers have sought to improve the methods for protein fold recognition. Following the construction of a dataset consisting of 27 protein fold classes by Ding and Dubchak in 2001, prediction algorithms, parameters and the construction of new datasets have improved for the prediction of protein folds. In this study, we reorganized a dataset consisting of 76-fold classes constructed by Liu et al. and used the values of the increment of diversity, average chemical shifts of secondary structure elements and secondary structure motifs as feature parameters in the recognition of multi-class protein folds. With the combined feature vector as the input parameter for the Random Forests algorithm and ensemble classification strategy, we propose a novel method to identify the 76 protein fold classes. The overall accuracy of the test dataset using an independent test was 66.69%; when the training and test sets were combined, with 5-fold cross-validation, the overall accuracy was 73.43%. This method was further used to predict the test dataset and the corresponding structural classification of the first 27-protein fold class dataset, resulting in overall accuracies of 79.66% and 93.40%, respectively. Moreover, when the training set and test sets were combined, the accuracy using 5-fold cross-validation was 81.21%. Additionally, this approach resulted in improved prediction results using the 27-protein fold class dataset constructed by Ding and Dubchak.
  2. Sarfraz M, Sajid S, Ashraf MA
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2016 Nov;23(6):761-766.
    PMID: 27872574
    In diabetes mellitus dyslipidemia is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In type 2 diabetes mellitus early detection and treatment of dyslipidemia can avoid risk for cardiovascular disorder. The present study was carried to determine the prevalence and pattern of hyperlipidemia in patients with hyperglycemia. The cross sectional study was done in different laboratories of Pakistan, the laboratories served patients referred from different government and private hospitals between July 2014 and June 2015. All known cases of diabetes mellitus were evaluated for their lipid profile. Totally 200 diabetic patients were included in the study in which 120 (60%) were males and 80 (40%) were females. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 97.18% while for females 87.15%. Among dyslipidemic male the proportion with mixed dyslipidemic patients was 17.5%, combined two parameters dyslipidemia was 47.5% and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia was 35%. In females these proportions in mixed, combined two parameters and isolated single parameter were 16.25%, 51.25% and 32.5%, respectively. Majority of hyperglycemic patients were dyslipidemic. The most prevalent pattern among male was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG) and low High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and in female it was high Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG.
  3. Wang X, Huang Y, Radha Krishna L, Puvanendran R
    J Pain Symptom Manage, 2016 Apr;51(4):794-799.
    PMID: 26891608 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.11.028
    Decision-making on behalf of an incapacitated patient at the end of life is a complex process, particularly in family-centric societies. The situation is more complex when attempts are made to accommodate Eastern concepts of end-of-life care with more conventional Western approaches. In this case report of an incapacitated 74-year-old Singaporean man of Malay descent with relapsed Stage 4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma who was without an established lasting power of attorney, we highlight the difficult deliberations that ensue when the patient's family, acting as his proxy, elected to administer lingzhi through his nasogastric tube (NGT). Focusing on the questions pertaining to end-of-life decision-making in Asia, we consider the issues surrounding the use of NGT and lingzhi in palliative care (PC) and the implementation of NGT for administering lingzhi in a PC setting, particularly in light of a dearth of data on such treatment measures among PC patients.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Attitude to Death; Decision Making*; Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage*; Family/psychology; Humans; Intubation, Gastrointestinal*; Malaysia/ethnology; Male; Phytotherapy/methods*; Phytotherapy/psychology; Phytotherapy/ethics; Palliative Care/methods*; Palliative Care/psychology; Palliative Care/ethics; Singapore; Terminal Care/methods; Terminal Care/psychology; Terminal Care/ethics; Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy; Fatal Outcome; Reishi*
  4. Patel RP, Förster DW, Kitchener AC, Rayan MD, Mohamed SW, Werner L, et al.
    R Soc Open Sci, 2016 Oct;3(10):160350.
    PMID: 27853549
    Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and species distribution projections (up to the Late Pleistocene) to infer how environmental changes may have influenced the distribution of these sister species over the past 120 000 years. The molecular analysis was based on sequenced mitogenomes of 3 bay cats and 40 Asian golden cats derived mainly from archival samples. Our molecular data suggested a time of split between the two species approximately 3.16 Ma and revealed very low nucleotide diversity within the Asian golden cat population, which supports recent expansion of the population. Discussion. The low nucleotide diversity suggested a population bottleneck in the Asian golden cat, possibly caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano in Northern Sumatra (approx. 74 kya), followed by a continuous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene. Species distribution projections, the reconstruction of the demographic history, a genetic isolation-by-distance pattern and a gradual variation of pelage pattern support the hypothesis of a post-Toba population expansion of the Asian golden cat from south China/Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Our findings reject the current classification of five subspecies for the Asian golden cat, but instead support either a monotypic species or one comprising two subspecies: (i) the Sunda golden cat, distributed south of the Isthmus of Kra: C. t. temminckii and (ii) Indochinese, Indian, Himalayan and Chinese golden cats, occurring north of the Isthmus: C. t. moormensis.
  5. Kumar S, Markscheffel B
    Scientometrics, 2016;109(1):533-550.
    PMID: 32287514 DOI: 10.1007/s11192-016-1942-1
    Hantavirus, one of the deadliest viruses known to humans, hospitalizes tens of thousands of people each year in Asia, Europe and the Americas. Transmitted by infected rodents and their excreta, Hantavirus are identified as etiologic agents of two main types of diseases-Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, the latter having a fatality rate of above 40 %. Although considerable research for over two decades has been going on in this area, bibliometric studies to gauge the state of research of this field have been rare. An analysis of 2631 articles, extracted from WoS databases on Hantavirus between 1980 and 2014, indicated a progressive increase (R2 = 0.93) in the number of papers over the years, with the majority of papers being published in the USA and Europe. About 95 % papers were co-authored and the most common arrangement was 4-6 authors per paper. Co-authorship has seen a steady increase (R2 = 0.57) over the years. We apply research collaboration network analysis to investigate the best-connected authors in the field. The author-based networks have 49 components (connected clump of nodes) with 7373 vertices (authors) and 49,747 edges (co-author associations) between them. The giant component (the largest component) is healthy, occupying 84.19 % or 6208 vertices with 47,117 edges between them. By using edge-weight threshold, we drill down into the network to reveal bonded communities. We find three communities' hotspots-one, led by researchers at University of Helsinki, Finland; a second, led by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, USA; and a third, led by Hokkaido University, Japan. Significant correlation was found between author's structural position in the network and research performance, thus further supporting a well-studied phenomenon that centrality effects research productivity. However, it was the PageRank centrality that out-performed degree and betweenness centrality in its strength of correlation with research performance.
  6. James PB, Jamshed SQ, Patel I
    Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 2016 May;6(5):337-338.
    PMID: 32289032 DOI: 10.1016/S2222-1808(15)61041-6
    In its forty years history (1976-2016), the West African region has recorded the most devastating form of the Ebola virus disease. The sparse knowledge of healthcare professionals and general public combined with lesser responses from international community are major factors for the dissemination of the disease. In the context of this outbreak, there is a need to highlight the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists, especially in the African healthcare setting. Moreover, the prerequisite of diagnostic kits for the timely detection of the infection as well as pharmacists' awareness of the current therapeutic regimen are recommended.
  7. Pourshahrestani S, Zeimaran E, Adib Kadri N, Gargiulo N, Samuel S, Naveen SV, et al.
    J Mater Chem B, 2016 Jan 07;4(1):71-86.
    PMID: 32262810 DOI: 10.1039/c5tb02062j
    Haemorrhage remains the leading cause of potentially survivable death in both military and civilian populations. Although a large variety of hemostatic agents have been developed, many of them have an inadequate capacity to induce hemostasis and are not effective in killing bacteria. In recent years, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) were found to be effective in inducing hemostasis. However, the materials may not be considered as ideal hemostats since they do not offer antimicrobial activity. The gallium ion (Ga+3) not only exhibits antibacterial properties but also accelerates the blood coagulation cascade. The aim of this study was to develop MBGs containing various concentrations of Ga2O3 (1, 2 & 3 mol%) via the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process and investigate whether the addition of Ga3+ would induce both hemostatic and antibacterial effects. The results indicated that the incorporation of lower Ga2O3 content (1 mol%) into the MBG system improved structural properties including the specific surface area, mesopore size and pore volume as well as the release of silicon and calcium ions. The bioactive glass was found to stimulate blood coagulation, platelet adhesion and thrombus generation and exerted an antibacterial effect against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Likewise, Ga-doped MBGs showed excellent cytocompatibility even after 3 days, with the 1% Ga2O3-containing MBG attaining the best biocompatibility that render them safe hemostatic agents for stopping bleeding. This study demonstrated that the lowest Ga2O3-substituted MBG can be a potent candidate for controlling haemorrhage and wound infection.
  8. Almhanawi BH, Khalid B, Ibrahim TA, Tohit ERM
    Porto Biomed J, 2016 12 27;2(1):23-27.
    PMID: 32258580 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbj.2016.11.002
    Highlights: EDTA induces platelet microparticles (PMPs) vesiculation.Sodium citrated tubes are better than EDTA tubes in PMPs analysis.Sodium citrate has a minor impact on platelet structure.

    Abstract: Platelet microparticles (PMPs) are small membrane fragments released from activated platelets in response to various stimuli. PMPs serve as biomarkers for several diseases and conditions and are useful tools for prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to compare the direct effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium citrate anticoagulants on platelet structure and PMP vesiculation using transmission electron microscopy to visualize the morphologic changes in platelets. Micrographs revealed that platelets in the EDTA-anticoagulated tube manifested with significant morphologic changes and induced PMP vesiculation. On the other hand, the sodium citrate-anticoagulated tube showed a normal platelet structure and minor modifications in some cases, with poor indication of PMP vesiculation. In conclusion, EDTA induced platelet activation and PMP vesiculation and represents a major source of artifacts during the pre-analysis steps of PMP vesiculation.

  9. Lee HY, Nyon MP, Strych U
    Curr Trop Med Rep, 2016;3(3):80-86.
    PMID: 32226714 DOI: 10.1007/s40475-016-0084-0
    Various types of vaccines are under pre-clinical and clinical development to address the recent appearance of Middle East respiratory syndrome or MERS, an emerging infectious disease that has already caused over 600 deaths and remains a threat to world health. The causative agent for this respiratory disease is a member of the betacoronavirus genus, phylogenetically closely related to the SARS coronavirus that caused an international health emergency in 2002. With lessons learned from the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, and with undeniable technological advances, vaccine development against MERS was initially fast-paced and has produced several DNA and protein vaccine candidates with promising results during early pre-clinical testing. At least one vaccine candidate has even entered first-in-humans clinical trials now. With the number of MERS cases declining though and other infectious diseases attracting increased attention, the question remains, whether, similar to the situation after the SARS pandemic, vaccine development is halted or remains the priority it rightfully should.
  10. Ali I, Alharbi OML, Marsin Sanagi M
    Environ Chem Lett, 2016;14(1):79-98.
    PMID: 32214934 DOI: 10.1007/s10311-015-0547-x
    Many analytical techniques have been used to monitor environmental pollutants. But most techniques are not capable to detect pollutants at nanogram levels. Hence, under such conditions, absence of pollutants is often assumed, whereas pollutants are in fact present at low but undetectable concentrations. Detection at low levels may be done by nano-capillary electrophoresis, also named microchip electrophoresis. Here, we review the analysis of pollutants by nano-capillary electrophoresis. We present instrumentations, applications, optimizations and separation mechanisms. We discuss the analysis of metal ions, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, explosives, viruses, bacteria and other contaminants. Detectors include ultraviolet-visible, fluorescent, conductivity, atomic absorption spectroscopy, refractive index, atomic fluorescence spectrometry, atomic emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Detection limits ranged from nanogram to picogram levels.
  11. Khan A, Khan AH, Adnan AS, Syed Sulaiman SA, Gan SH, Khan I
    Biomed Res Int, 2016;2016:9710965.
    PMID: 27833921
    Background. Hemodialysis related hemodynamic instability is a major but an underestimated issue. Moreover, cardiovascular events are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. However, there have been many controversies regarding the role and management of hyper- and/or hypotension during hemodialysis that needs to be addressed. Objective. To critically review the available published data on the atypical role of hyper- and/or hypotension in cardiovascular associated morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis and to understand the discrepancies in this context. Methods. A comprehensive search of literature employing electronic as well as manual sources and screening 2783 papers published between Jan 1980 and Oct 2015 was conducted to collect, identify, and analyze relevant information through peer-reviewed research articles, systematic reviews, and other published works. The cardiovascular events, including accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and stress induced myocardial dysfunction, leading to death were considered relevant. Results. A total of 23 published articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for in-depth review and analysis to finalize a comprehensive systematic review article. All the studies showed a significant association between the blood pressure and cardiovascular disease events in hemodialysis patients. Conclusions. Both intradialytic hypertension/hypotension episodes are major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality with a high percentage of probable causality; however, clinicians are faced with a dilemma on how to evaluate blood pressure and treat this condition.
    MeSH terms: Blood Pressure; Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality; Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology*; Renal Dialysis/adverse effects*; Humans; Hypertension/etiology; Hypertension/mortality; Hypertension/physiopathology*; Hypotension/etiology; Hypotension/mortality; Hypotension/physiopathology*
  12. Ramly R
    The prevalence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) and its risk factors among Malaysian adults are still high. National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015 shows that 17.5% of Malaysian adults have diabetes, out of which 53% are undiagnosed, 30.3% are hypertensive whereby 57% of them were undiagnosed. 1 in every 2 Malaysian adults is overweight or obese. Except for hypertension which prevalence is slightly lower compared to 2011 NHMS, all of these prevalences are increasing over the years in spite of vigorous efforts that have been conducted in educating and creating public awareness on the disease and its prevention and control. The increasing trend in NCD and its related risk factors have proved that the educational sensibility is not sufficient in prompting the adoption of healthy behaviors. Obstacles include lack of perceived priority for health, and lack of perceived priority for NCD within the health sector itself. NCD is very much associated with human behavior, environment, economic and social factors. Many studies and experiences have shown that carefully planned and fully implemented community-based intervention program play a big role in overcoming the problem of NCD. The intervention should consist of community and individual empowerment, environmental support and reorienting health services. In 2013, the ministry has taken a big step by embarking on a nationwide community based intervention program namely Komuniti Sihat Perkasa Negara (KOSPEN). This initiative brings the NCD prevention and control program to the community through trained health volunteers, who will function as health agent of change or health enablers that introduce and facilitate healthy living practices amongst their respective community members. This would serve as a mean to control NCD such as high blood pressure and diabetes and its associated risk factors such as obesity, unhealthy diet, smoking and sedentary life style within local communities Combining public education and efforts to prompt behavioral changes, KOSPEN is based on three main strategies which are advocacy and awareness, health policy adoption and establishment of healthy environments and routine NCD risk factors screenings. Trained volunteers are also capable of measuring blood pressure, blood glucose levels and body mass index (BMI) following which, at risk cases are referred to nearby health clinics for further confirmation and management. In addition to these, the volunteers who will be known as Gerak Sihat Malaysia (GSiM) are also trained to plan and organize related intervention programs at the community level for those who need it. As of May 2016, there is 5,000 KOSPEN localities nationwide with 30,000 volunteers trained. 300,000 adults have been screened for high Blood Pressure, at risk blood sugar level, overweight and smokers, out of which 70% have been referred to health clinics for Diabetic confirmation, 36% for high risk Blood Pressure and 6.5% for class II Obesity. In addition to this, weight management program is now being piloted in 134 KOSPEN localities. The Health Ministry is targeting as many as 10,000 KOSPEN localities and 50,000 GSiM by 2022. With this individual and community empowerment effort, almost six million citizens is estimated to get benefit from the program, while 1.6 million adults are expected to undergo NCD screening tests by KOSPEN volunteers.
    8th National Public Health Conference 2016, Managing Society in Combating Public Health Challenges, 2-4 August 2016
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Patient Participation
  13. Praneeth VKK, Kondo M, Woi PM, Okamura M, Masaoka S
    Chempluschem, 2016 Oct;81(10):1123-1128.
    PMID: 31964085 DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201600322
    A novel tetranuclear copper-based water oxidation catalyst was designed and synthesized by using a new multinucleating ligand containing two proton dissociation sites, 1,3-bis(6-hydroxy-2-pyridyl)-1H-pyrazole. The copper complex showed electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation reactions under aqueous basic conditions (pH 12.5) with an overpotential of approximately 500 mV. UV/Vis absorption and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic techniques coupled with electrochemical analyses of the catalyst system strongly suggest that the tetranuclear copper complex works as a homogeneous system under the conditions used. The results described here demonstrate the utility of a discrete tetranuclear copper complex in water oxidation reactions.
  14. Rizman-Idid M, Farrah-Azwa AB, Chong VC
    Zool Stud, 2016;55:e35.
    PMID: 31966180 DOI: 10.6620/ZS.2016.55-35
    Mohammed Rizman-Idid, Abu Bakar Farrah-Azwa, and Ving Ching Chong (2016) Scientific enquiries into jellyfish blooms and associated problems are often deterred by the lack of taxonomical and ecological studies worldwide. Taxonomic difficulty is attributed to the high degree of morphological variations among and within species. To date, only two scyphozoan jellyfish species have been documented from field surveys in Malaysian waters, whereas another four Malaysian scyphozoan and two cubozoan jellyfish species have been mentioned in toxicological studies. None of these species have; however, been verified. This study thus aimed to document and resolves the uncertainty of earlier identified species in the region using morphology and molecular DNA sequencing. Jellyfish specimens were collected from Malaysian waters in the Straits of Malacca, South-China Sea and the Sulu-Sulawesi Sea over two years (June 2008 to October 2010), and their DNA sequences were compared with those from the Atlantic and Pacific regions. Ten scyphozoan and two cubozoan species were recorded in Malaysian waters (South China Sea and Straits of Malacca). These jellyfish included eight species from the order Rhizostomeae (Rhizostomatidae, Lobonematidae, Mastigiidae, Catostylidae and Cepheidae), two species from Semaestomeae (Pelagiidae and Cyaneidae) and two species from class Cubozoa; one from order Carybdeida (family Carukiidae) and another from order Chirodropida (family Chiropsalmidae). Molecular identification of species using phylogenetic approaches was based on DNA sequences of partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) regions. The COI phylogenetic tree of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa species from the Atlantic and Pacific regions showed distinct clustering of six Malaysian jellyfish species. However, most of the deeper divergences and relationships between the families were unresolved, which were also observed in the 16S and ITS1 phylogenetic trees. The Malaysian edible species Lobonemoides robustus, Rhopilema hispidum and Rhopilema esculentum were grouped within Rhizostomeae, whereas other scyphozoans showed phylogenetic affinities to Semaestomeae and Kolpophorae. Chrysaora and Cyanea appeared non-monophyletic; however their paraphyly was not confirmed. This study has provided the much needed baseline information on the taxonomy of Malaysian jellyfish species which have been substantiated by partial COI, 16S and ITS1 sequences. A total of 12 putative species of jellyfish were identified, which encompassed 12 genera.
  15. Li KC, Shieh BS, Chiu YW, Huang DJ, Liang SH
    Zool Stud, 2016;55:e53.
    PMID: 31966198 DOI: 10.6620/ZS.2016.55-53
    Kuan-chung Li, Bao-sen Shieh, Yuh-wen Chiu, Da-ji Huang, and Shih-hsiung Liang (2016) The Chevron snakehead (Channa striata) has been invading Taiwan for over 30 years, and it is currently widely distributed across diverse aquatic habitats within the island. Due to its strong environmental adaptability and carnivorous diet, C. striata has caused great negative impacts to the biodiversity of native fishes and aquatic organisms in Taiwan. To effectively restrain its spatial distribution and population, the objective of this study was to investigate the growing conditions, diet composition, and reproductive biology of C. striata in the field. In total, 294 individuals were collected from wetlands, irrigation canals, streams, and reservoirs in southern Taiwan from September 2008 to December 2010. Among 272 sex-identified individuals, more females (164) were collected than males (108). The morphological differences between the sexes could not be distinguished by the 10 body measurements recorded. Diverse food items, including snails, odonates, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, were identified in the stomachs of 35 individuals. The minimum body length of sexually mature C. striata females exhibited at a standard length of 24.5 cm (total length 28 cm). The appearance of mature oocytes were mainly observed from July to November in 2009 and from April to October in 2010. Greater absolute fecundity (oocyte/individual) was estimated in Taiwan for C. striata than in its original distribution range possibly due to less water level fluctuation in the sampling habitats of Taiwan. The relative fecundity (oocyte/g) for C. striata was considered lower but within the documented range in Taiwan when compared with its original habitat in Malaysia. To effectively manage C. striata in Taiwan, regionally eradiating young and adult individuals, especially during the reproductive season and educating people to stop releasing it in the wild are possible ways to restrain and control the further spread of this exotic fish in Taiwan.
  16. Okamura T, Tsujimura Y, Soma S, Takahashi I, Matsuo K, Yasutomi Y
    J. Gen. Virol., 2016 Dec;97(12):3413-3426.
    PMID: 27902330 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000641
    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection models in cynomolgus macaques are important for analysis of the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency virus and for studies on the efficacy of new vaccine candidates. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis of SIV or simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in cynomolgus macaques from different Asian countries. In the present study, we analysed the infectivity and pathogenicity of CCR5-tropic SIVmac and those of dual-tropic SHIV89.6P inoculated into cynomolgus macaques in Indonesian, Malaysian or Philippine origin. The plasma viral loads in macaques infected with either SIVmac239 or SHIV89.6P were maintained at high levels. CD4+ T cell levels in macaques infected with SIVmac239 gradually decreased. All of the macaques infected with SHIV89.6P showed greatly reduced CD4+ T-cell numbers within 6 weeks of infection. Eight of the 11 macaques infected with SIVmac239 were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 2-4.5 years, while four of the five macaques infected with SHIV89.6P were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 1-3.5 years. We also analysed cynomolgus macaques infected intrarectally with repeated low, medium or high doses of SIVmac239, SIVmac251 or SHIV89.6P. Infection was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR at more than 5000, 300 and 500 TCID50 for SIVmac239, SIVmac251 and SHIV89.6P, respectively. The present study indicates that cynomolgus macaques of Asian origin are highly susceptible to SIVmac and SHIV infection by both intravenous and mucosal routes. These models will be useful for studies on virus pathogenesis, vaccination and therapeutics against human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.
    MeSH terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology*; Animals; Asia; Disease Models, Animal*; HIV/genetics; HIV/physiology*; Humans; Macaca fascicularis; Male; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/physiology*; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology; Disease Progression; Viral Load
  17. Kamath MG, Pai CG, Kamath A
    Indian J Gastroenterol, 2016 Nov;35(6):425-431.
    PMID: 27783351
    BACKGROUND: Little data exist on the progression of recurrent acute (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) from regions from where the entity of tropical chronic pancreatitis was originally described. The study aimed to follow up patients with RAP and CP seen at a southern Indian centre for progression of disease over time.

    METHODS: Prospectively enrolled patients with RAP and CP were followed up, and the alcoholic and idiopathic subgroups were assessed for progression of structural and functional changes in the organ.

    RESULTS: One hundred and forty patients (RAP = 44; 31.4 %, CP = 96; 68.5 %) were followed up over a median 12.2 (interquartile range 12.0-16.8) months. The cause was alcohol in 31 (22.1 %) and not evident in 109 (77.8 %). The disease progressed from RAP to CP in 7 (15.9 %), 6 (16.2 %) out of 37 in the idiopathic and 1 (14.2 %; p = 1.00) out of 7 in the alcoholic subgroups. Three (42.8 %) and 1 (14.2 %) developed steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively, and 2 (4.5 %) developed calcification. Established CP progressed in 19 (19.7 %), 1 (1.0 %), 5 (5.2 %), 2 (2.0 %) and 11 (11.4 %) newly developed DM, steatorrhea, calcification and duct dilation during follow up. Among the idiopathic and alcoholic CP, disease progression was seen in 15 (20.8 %) out of 72 and 4 (16.6 %) out of 24 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic RAP and CP progressed during the short-term follow up. This is similar to other etiological forms of pancreatitis, as described from elsewhere in the world.

    MeSH terms: Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Chronic Disease; Diabetes Mellitus/etiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; India; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Prospective Studies; Recurrence; Time Factors; Disease Progression; Steatorrhea/etiology; Young Adult
  18. Maisarah AS, Nurul Ajilah MK, Siti Amalina MR, Norazuroh MN
    This literature review focuses on the implementation of biomedical ethics in Malaysia based on the government and institutional settings. Insights of the development of biomedical ethics and the responsible entities, particularly the clinical trials that become the emerging field of interest by the government to boost the biomedical research in Malaysia are provided. Some issues and their implications for research and ethical review process in Malaysia are also elucidated. The review indicates the advancement of policies by the government in implementing the biomedical ethics with some affairs that should be a matter to be concerned.
    Keywords: Biomedical, ethics, implementation, standards, research ethic committee, good laboratory practice.
    MeSH terms: Clinical Trials as Topic; Humans; Malaysia; Ethics, Research
  19. Citation:
    Ethical Professional Practice Guidelines. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Medicine Malaysia; 2016
    MeSH terms: Ethics, Medical; Humans; Malaysia; Guidelines as Topic; Ethics, Research
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