Browse publications by year: 2016

  1. Mohamed Shahrizan Abu Bakar, Khairuddin Idris, Zoharah Omar, Siti Normaliz Othman
    The mediation of moral disengagement is seldom used as a mechanism in determining the relationship
    between abusive supervision and deviant behavior. Integration of Moral Disengagement Theory, Social
    Exchange Theory and past research findings, a model is developed which shows abusive supervision
    will increase possibility of individual involved in deviant behavior which directly will affect individual
    or organization or both. This model shows how the integration obtained from the literature review
    between variables which are abusive supervision, moral disengagement and deviant behavior are able
    to explore and give understanding towards individual’s deviant behavior in an organization. This
    understanding will help organization to conduct an intervention to overcome deviant behavior issue in
    an organization.
  2. Ang, Kean Hua
    Methodology is compulsory in research study that involve with the process of design,
    application, and analysis. The literature review was conducted to describe the relationship of
    sampling area, sample size, and determination of the measurement scale. The sample size can
    be determined through formula (or equation). When sample size are applied in sampling area,
    probability and non-probability sampling will be involve in determining the quantity and
    quality of data collection for research. Random probability sampling is divided into simple
    random, systematic, stages random, various stages random, and grouping; while nonprobability
    sampling can be divided into chance, aimed, quota, snowball, dimensional, critical cases, and maximum variation. Next, the measurement scale can be determined through
    normal, ordinal interval and ratio in questionnaire or interview, which all four scales will be
    determine measurements such as Likert scale, Thurstone scale, Guttman scale, and the
    difference procedures of Sematics scale in carrying out an analysis research. Therefore, the
    sample size and sampling area, and also the choice of measurement scale is important in the
    methodology for smoothing and accelerating the process of collecting and gathering data.
    MeSH terms: Probability; Surveys and Questionnaires; Research Design; Sample Size
  3. Nur Ajrun Khalid, Rohana Yusof
    Rapid progress of Information Communication Technology (ICT) will accelerate the distribution of
    information from government to the people; however the monopoly of technology ICT services will
    lead to inequality of information distribution in between of normal people and disabled people.
    Embrace with the inequality of ICT distribution directly make the group of disabled people left behind
    at the information age, or the situation also known as digital divide. Hence, this article attempts to
    identify and examine the issues facing by disabled people in order to catch up the fast diffusion of ICT.
    MeSH terms: Communication; Government; Disabled Persons; Information Science; Socioeconomic Factors; Information Dissemination; Digital Divide
  4. Wan Baharudin Wan Mahmood, Khairuddin Idris, Bahaman Abu Samah, Zoharah Omar
    Employees support during the implementation of organizational changes is important to ensure
    successful change. Thus, identifying factors that motivate individuals to support organizational change
    is of vital interest for the successful management of changes. Previous studies have confirmed a
    number of factors that can affect individual behavior to support the change. However, there are only
    few studies that have identified the potential factors to form a framework that is based on theory, in
    particular using the theory of planned behavior. Therefore, this study explores how perceived benefits
    of change, supervisor support and change self-efficacy affects behavioural support for change.
    Furthermore, this review offers propositions based on current literature for further in-depth empirical
    investigations to find out the effects of these factors towards behavioural support for change that can be
    used as a guide in the academic field as well as practical.
    MeSH terms: Humans; Motivation; Organizational Innovation; Perception; Self Efficacy
  5. Mohamed Shahrizan Abu Bakar, Khairuddin Idris, Zoharah Omar, Siti Normaliz Othman
    Workplace deviant behavior is an action performed voluntarily by an individual and harms the
    organizational norms and affects individual, organization or both. Therefore, it is a priority to the
    organization to understand and look at the workplace deviant behavior issue because different
    individual and environment will cause differences in how an individual behaves. Understanding the
    terms, factors, typologies and effects of deviant behavior will enable organization to draw the
    rehabilitation plan so deviant behavior will be curbed from the beginning. Overcoming workplace
    deviant behavior will result in positive impact to the organization management and financial and will
    lead to positive and conducive environment at the workplace.
    MeSH terms: Problem Behavior; Aggression; Environment; Mental Processes; Workplace
  6. Mutiara Dwi Sari, Ab. Aziz Yusof, Ahmad Shaifful Anuar Ahmad Shukor
    Salah satu syarat untuk menjadi sebuah negara maju adalah tersedianya modal insan yang unggul yang
    lahir daripada Institusi Pengajian Tinggi. Kerajaan Malaysia telah memberikan peruntukan yang besar
    untuk mencapai matlamat tersebut. Walau bagaimanupun, terdapat kekangan dan keterhadan kewangan
    Kerajaan untuk memenuhi keseluruhan biaya Institusi Pengajian Tinggi. Oleh itu, semua pihak terkait
    perlulah mencari alternatif dan jalan keluar bagi mengatasi masalah ini. Wakaf merupakan salah satu
    sistem ekonomi Islam yang dikatakan sangat berpotensi bagi membangunkan pendidikan. Kertas kerja
    ini mempunyai dua tujuan. Pertama, untuk mengenal pasti pembangunan wakaf pendidikan dengan
    kajian kes di Universiti College Bestari (UCB), Terengganu, Malaysia. Kedua, menganalisis isu
    kelestaraian wakaf dan kaedah-kaedah yang digunakan UCB dalam mempastikan kelestarian wakaf
    tersebut. Bagi mencapai kedua-dua tujuan ini kaedah kualitatif yang melibatkan temu bual mendalam
    dua orang responden telah dijalankan. Data yang diperolehi di analisis menggunakan kaedah analisis
    kandungan. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa pembangunan wakaf di UCB sudah bermula sejak tahun
    1998. Pengurusan dan pentadbiran wakaf UCB dilakukan di bawah tiga agensi (joint venture) yang
    setiapnya merupakan pemegang saham iaitu PEYATIM (Pertubuhan Kebajikan Anak Yatim Malaysia)
    (50%), PERKAYA (Pertubuhan Kebajikan Anak Yatim) Terengganu (30%) dan YAKIN (Yayasan
    Kebajikan Negeri Terengganu) (20%). Antara kaedah yang digunakan untuk melestarikan wakaf
    pengajian tinggi di UCB adalah penjagaan dan pengelolaan aset yang telus dengan kepimpinan yang
    kuat, sistem pemasaran dan kaedah wakaf yang mudah. Sumbangan kerajaan dan juga peranan alumni
    dikatakan juga membantu pembangunan wakaf tersebut. Kajian ini membuktikan bahawa sistem wakaf
    memiliki potensi untuk membantu membangunkan pendidikan yang lestari.
    MeSH terms: Azepines; Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures; Islam; Malaysia; Fenofibrate; Thiocarbamates
  7. Janary Lumbai, Shukri Zain
    The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of structured leadership, teachers’ efficacy
    and culture norms towards primary school teachers’ tasks of concern in Sarawak. This method involves
    quantitative survey among 420 teachers comprising the head of subject panel. The instrument used were Leadership Orientations questionnaire adopted by Lokman et al., (2011) from Bolman and Deal
    (1999), Teacher Efficacy (Meng Tian, 2008), School Culture Triage (Phillips, G. 1993) and Seven
    Stages of Concern (Hall et al., 1977). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and Amos version 21.
    Analysis of mean scores, t-test, pearson correlation, regression analysis and path analysis were used to
    test the hypothesis at significant level p
  8. Hani Salwah Yaakup, Wan Amizah Wan Mahmud, Mohd Shahizan Ali
    Malay beliefs’ system is based on inherited traditions. But, after the arrival of the religious system in
    the archipelago, religion become one of the basic beliefs of the Malay community. There was a clash
    between traditional cultural practices and religious practices in the Malay community. This creates a
    third form of belief based on popular culture. Since then, Malay community practice rituals based on
    the popular belief. This idea originally created by Mohd Taib Osman (1989) in developing a conceptual
    model of the Malay community belief systems. In fact there is some sort of confusion among the Malay
    community in response to popular belief practices as religious practices. This study examines how the
    popular belief is represented through local horror films in three phase which are first phase (1957-
    1967), second phase (1980-1990) and third phase (2001-2011). In addition, the transformation of popular belief representation through local horror films in this three different phase will also be
  9. Mohd Shukri Hanapi, Wan Khairul Aiman Wan Mokhtar
    Various research have been carried out by Islamic academicians, especially Islamic academicians from
    the past, related to fields they had explored such as beliefs (aqidah), Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh),
    mystical dimensions of Islam (tasawuf), interpretation (tafsir), hadith, astronomy (falak), philosophy
    etc. These academicians had used various research methods when exploring their fields of study.
    Hence, most of these research methods have yet to be studied before they could be applied as methods
    in Islamic research. It is for this reason that this study aims to study one the research methods used by
    past Islamic religious scholars, which is the thematic (al-mawdu‘iy) hadith method. The two questions
    that arise in this study are, what is the thematic hadith method and how can the method be applied in
    research related to Islam. In order to answer these questions, the discussions in this study were divided
    into two main parts. The first is to identify the thematic hadith method used by the muhaddithin when
    elaborating on the Prophet’s SAW hadith. The second is to analyse the suitability of applying the
    thematic hadith method in a study related to Islam. The quantitative study found that the thematic hadith method was suitable for application in studies related to Islam. The suitability was based on two
    aspects, namely rating the sources of the data and analysing the data.
  10. Nur Hikmah Mubarak Ali, Nadiyah Elias
    One of the hardest challenges in marriage are how to face negative thoughts that arised from difficult
    situations such as feeling inferior, abandoned, mistrust, and excessive jealousy. From the Cognitive-
    Behavioral perspective, these feelings are being exacerbated by unhealthy individual thought patterns
    originating from society and family upbringing. This article discusses the unhealthy thought patterns
    that are common in marriage, and strategies in changing these thought patterns by using healthy
    templates of Islamic thought patterns.
    MeSH terms: Pessimism; Cognition; Emotions; Face; Islam; Jealousy; Marriage
  11. Farhan Mat Arisah, Shamsul Azahari Zainal Badari, Ahmad Hariza Hashim
    Online shopping has been preferred over the conventional shopping methods as the results of hectic
    lifestyles nowadays. It is a convenient way to get groceries without having to queue at the counters.
    The objective of this research is to study the online shopping practices and the factors that affect it.
    Apart from that, it is also to identify the difference in online shopping behaviour among selected
    background factors (sex, social status, generation, ethnic, household income, education level and zone).
    The populations of this research include consumers of 17 years old and above whose chosen by
    convenience through mall intercept method. T-test result shows there is significant difference (t=-
    3.156, p=0.001) for online shopping practice between men and women. Meanwhile, based on ANOVA result, it shows that there is significant difference between mean scores of different generation [F(3,
    1298)= 3.475, p = 0.016], ethnics [F(4, 1291)= 3.678, p = 0.006] and household income [F (4, 1227)=
    6.935, p = 0.000]. However, there is no significant difference among mean scores for education level,
    zones and stratum (p>0.05). Apart from that, the result also indicates that only five factors taken into
    consideration before a particular customer does the online shopping which are safety, products offered,
    risk, trustworthy and customers experience. Thus, the sellers should approach their customers in
    different ways in order to meet the demand, hence expanding their bussiness.
    MeSH terms: Analysis of Variance; Commerce; Factor V; Female; Humans; Life Style; Male; Nerve Tissue Proteins; RNA-Binding Proteins
  12. Mohamad Izzuan Mohd Ishar, Mohd Khata Jabor
    This study is a survey to identify the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice.
    Leadership skills consist of three basic skills of technical skills, interpersonal skills and conceptual
    skills. The study also examined the relationship between the formations of leadership skills with the
    course of study and identifies the differences in formation of leadership skills during teaching practice
    conducted in rural schools and urban schools. The study was conducted through survey method by
    using questionnaires. Meanwhile, the population involved were students of Faculty of Education,
    UTM. Analysis of the findings of this study is using SPSS 17.0 by descriptive and inferential. The
    results of this study show that the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice is high at
    85.4%. For inferential statistical results showed there was no significant relationship to formation of
    leadership skills with the course of study and there was no significant difference in relationship between the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice conducted in rural schools and
    urban schools. In conclusion, all the elements of leadership skills can be formed and developed through
    teaching practice and will be improved from time to time. Meanwhile, there was no significant
    relationship to the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice with the course of study and
    with the different of teaching practice location.
    MeSH terms: Faculty; Leadership; Surveys and Questionnaires; Schools; Students; Social Skills
  13. Murugeesan, Yokananthini, Nurul Ain Mohd Hasan
    Previous research has found that interaction processes between coach and athlete have always been the
    strongest factor for sports performance. Other researches have drawn conclusions to other factors in the
    coach-athlete relationship, such as culture and gender. Research has generally shown that effective
    communication required the development of trust and respect between coach and athlete (Yukelson,
    1984). The review focuses on an analysis of past literature on communication styles, culture, and
    gender as potential key factors influencing the coach-athlete relationship. This review paper examined
    studies specific to the empirical studies on athletes and coaches from the Western and Asian
    perspectives. In particular, the review analysed empirical studies on communication, gender and
    culture as potential factors influencing the coach-athlete relationship. The review concluded that while
    various studies on the coach-athlete relationship had been done, a majority of the empirical studies
    were within Western perspectives. Such empirical study is particularly under-researched in Malaysia.
    Therefore, the paper concludes by suggesting that future research which explores the aspects of
    communication styles, culture, and gender within the Malaysian context is timely.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Publications; Research; Trust; Athletic Performance; Athletes
  14. Mohamad Faisol Keling, Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad
    Logistics development of Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) involving the Malaysian Army (TDM),
    Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) and Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) have been developed since
    1957. Since the 1990s, ATM has been through the process of modernization which is can seen through
    the rapid and strong capabilities in logistics aspect. Defense policy development has involved the
    development of the logistical aspects of ATM. Purchasing of defense equipments such as the most
    modern warship in Armed Force in 1990, Scorpene submarines, fighter aircraft which is used by the
    developed countries such as the MiG-29, FA/18 Hornet and Sukhoi 30MKM, battle tanks from Poland
    and so on with the transfer package technology is essential to ensure that the principle of self-reliance
    defense ATM can be achieved. This process has force the government to allocate a large amount of
    money in providing modern logistics equipments so it can be used to the maximum by the defense forces. In fact, the development of the defense and Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) also growing
    along with the development of technology, defense policy, doctrine of current world logistics. However
    the logistics development has raised questions because of the capabilty of logistic and Malaysian
    Armed Forces (ATM) itself which are caused various accidents and issues affecting ATM.
    MeSH terms: Accidents; Aircraft; Animals; Government; Military Personnel; Poland; Policy Making; Social Change; Wasps; Developed Countries; Policy
  15. Lee Saat, Shukri Zain
    The objective of this study is to identify the level of instructional leadership, efficacy and the routine
    duties of the principal including their influence towards academic achievement of the school. Three
    instrument have been used in the collection of data namely Principal Instruction Management Rating
    Scale (PIMRS); Principals Sense Of Efficacy Scale (PSES); and The Principal’s Routine Duties.
    Whilst the academic achievement statistic refers to the SPM examinations result for the 2011 that was
    sourced directly from the JPNS examination unit. All the instruments was found to have a high level of
    genuineness and reliability with Cronbach’s alfa multiplier at 0.94. Altogether 650 set of
    questionnaires have been distributed to the secondary school in the southern zone namely Kuching,
    Samarahan, Sri Aman and Betong Division and 91% of them have been collected successfully. From
    the total number, 487 set have been processed after it was found to be complete and have fully satisfied
    the set characteristics. The research data has been analysed using SPSS software version 21.0. The
    result of the research shows that the level of instructional leadership, efficacy and the principal’s
    routine duties are high. Nevertheless, there is no significant and clear relationship between those
    variables with the school academic achievement. This shows that instructional leadership, efficacy and
    principal routine duties are not factors that would absolutely determine the academic achievement
    without the support of the other factors. Nonetheless, sub scale variable of the instructional leadership
    namely coordinate curriculum (r=.123, p=.01) and incentive given to teachers (r=.094, p=.04) shows
    that there is a significant relationship with the school academic achievement but not for the sub scale
    for efficacy and principal’s routine duties. Arising thereof, the principal is advised to implement
    capability enhancement, streamline interpersonal relationship, effective work delegation in
    collaboration with their subordinate in order to attain a more positive academic achievement. For this
    purpose, the principals are required at the outset to equip themselves by enhancing their knowledge,
    garner more experience, increase skilfulness including keeping abreast with the latest ability related to
    their duties as an instructional leader. In order words, the principal which lead the school should equip
    their self with the current requirement including applying “Leadership For a Need” culture.
  16. Nurfatin Afza Mohamad Murad, Nobaya Ahmad, Hanina Halimatusaadiah Hamsan
    This paper aims to describe the activities of drug treatment and rehabilitation program at one center in
    Kuala Lumpur based on the preliminary study. Treatment and rehabilitation center adopts the biopsycho
    - socio – spiritual model in their recovery process. The data was collected using observation as
    well as personal interviews of respondents who are undergoing treatment and rehabilitation at the
    center. Counsellors are also interviewed to get information about treatment programs that are being
    conducted. Initial research findings indicated that the approach to treatment and rehabilitation using the
    Therapeutic Community has helped facilitate the drug rehabilitation process, especially during the
    remodeling behavior and vocational life skills. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that the
    program can be used as an alternative to drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation in this country.
  17. Mohamad Faisol Keling, Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad, Mohamed Fajil Abdul Batau
    This article describes the development process of the National Defence Policy (NDP), which is
    executed by the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) and government. In this chapter, it will touch on the
    early development of the international political developments during and after the Cold War (1991),
    the Southeast Asian region and threats that affect the development of the defense. In addition, this
    paper describes the development process of the Malaysian defense policy adopted since 1957 to 2010.
    The NDP formed since 1957 involves various aspects such as the importance of the region to Malaysia,
    the concept of defense and the principle of national defense. This article clarify in detail on the aspects
    as set out in the NDP in particular the principle of self-reliance defense, principal of regional
    cooperation defense and the principle of the foreign aid defense. In addition, this paper also describes
    the implementation of a number of defense strategies implemented by MAF as resistant barring
    defense, forward defense, diplomacy defense, and total defense. To fine-tune the process of national
    defense developmet, this chapter also will look on the efforts and development process by all branches of service of MAF which are Malaysian Army (MA), Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) and Royal
    Malaysian Air Force (RMAF).
    MeSH terms: Diplomacy; Government; International Cooperation; Malaysia; Military Personnel; Touch; Therapeutic Touch
  18. Nazrolnizah Mohamad Noorzeli, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab
    Self performance is important among entrepreneurs due to increasing the business enhancement.
    Nevertheless, previous literature showed that there are less current study which focused on the self
    performance using Biofeedback techniques among entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Thus, this study was
    aimed; 1) to look at how Emwave Biofeedback techniques can be used to improve self performance
    among Ikhtiar Malaysia women entrepreneurs and 2) to improve the HRV score among participants
    through increased the HF coherence. A total of 10 respondents were recruited in this study. The
    changing nature of Heart Rate variability (HRV) of HF, LF and VLF frequencies was measured
    through Biofeedback Emwave training techniques. The HRV Biofeedback techniques were used to
    determine the emotional state and the balance ability between individual Sympathetic and
    Parasympathetic systems. This balance is important to enable women entrepreneurs to control internal
    and external stimuli to be adapted to their business environment. The study showed that the technique
    is able to improve the characteristics of HRV to increase self performance among women
    entrepreneurs. The study found that respondents who successfully completed the HRV training able to
    increase their self performance in term of HRV score and businesses. Result showed that there was a
    positive correlation (0.80-1.00) between all the business and HRV. This showed that Emwave
    Biofeedback training is appropriate to be used as an intervention program to improve self performance
    and business enhancement among the participants. Thus, this study concludes that HRV Biofeedback
    techniques can be an important measure in gauging business entrepreneur’s health and performance.
  19. Ahamad Jama' Amin Yang
    Fabian Society is a type of political think tank which was founded by a group of students and
    intellectuals at London School of Economics (LSE), United Kingdom in the late of 19 centuries. The
    Fabian political thought is a new manifestation of socialist ideology in United Kingdom emerged through the role of Labour Party Partiat that time. After the World War II, the influence of this political
    thought began to widespread throughout Malaya via British-educated Malayan students. This
    development brought about a new form of political idealism based on social-democrat orientation
    which emphasized on class struggles and civil issues in Malaya. Thus, the aim of this article is to
    scrutinize objectively and descriptively the influence of the Fabian political thought in the Malaysian
    political development from 1952 to 1970. Using the approach of history reconstructionist, the analysis
    discussion was developed based on the use of primary sources as the argument base. The research
    findings indicate that the influence of the Fabian political thought developed in Malaya by the role of
    the socialist intellectual-progressive group throughout the research. The development did not only
    involve labour movements and left-wing political parties such as Malayan Democratic Union (MDU)
    and the Malayan Labour Party, but it also influenced students movements at universities through
    University of Malaya Socialist Club in Singapore around 1950s and students societies in Universiti
    Malaya, Kuala Lumpur around 1960s. In fact, at the same time the progressive Fabian group slipped in
    right-conservative group through their direct involvement in UMNO and the Perikatan regime at the
    time. This indirectly proves that there is a different side of the socialist role through the role of the
    Fabian group in the development of democracy and politics in Malaysia.
    MeSH terms: Democracy; London; Malaysia; Politics; Research; Singapore; Students; Universities; Dissent and Disputes; World War II
  20. Kumuthini Jagabalan, J.D., Tan, Helen, Nimehchisalem, Vahid
    Writing ability is essential in second language (L2) learners’ educational and professional life.
    However, experiencing writing apprehension can inhibit the L2 learners’ confidence (Daly, 1975). The
    objective of this study was to investigate the writing apprehension levels of ESL pre-university learners
    in writing argumentative composition. 320 pre-university learners from a local institution participated
    in the study. Two instruments were employed in the study. The first was the Second Language Writing
    Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) and the other one was the Analytic Scale of Argumentative Writing
    (ASAW). The findings revealed a moderate level of writing apprehension among the pre-university
    learners in argumentative writing. Among the three Second Language Writing Apprehension (SLWA)
    dimensions, avoidance behaviour obtained the highest mean score. As writing is one of the important
    components tested in Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the findings of the present study
    may become a platform for instructors to develop a better understanding about SLWA. Hence, it may
    throw light on what educators can do to help these L2 learners cope with or eliminate writing
    apprehension as it hampers the writing quality.
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