MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six participants (58 males, 18 females) were recruited to participate in the study. Bilateral weight-bearing lateral radiographs of the right foot were taken from each participant. Navicular heights (NH), medial cuneiform height (MCH), calcaneal inclination angle (CIA) and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle (C1MA) were measured to represent the medial arch. The lateral arch was represented by cuboid height (CH) and calcaneal-fifth metatarsal angle (C5MA) whereas; MCH and CH represented the transverse arch. Mean difference of variables between males and females was compared using independent t-test while the correlation between the variables was determined using Pearson correlation.
RESULTS: All the variables were not significantly related to gender. Significant moderate to excellent linear correlations were observed between the variables. CIA showed the strongest correlation with C1MA (r = -0.90) and C5MA (r = -0.84) whereas, CH had the least correlation with other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: The moderate to excellent correlations between the variables indicate that deformation or elevation of the medial arch may consequently result in similar movements of the lateral and transverse arches and vice versa.
Methodology: The medical records of 84 obese children under 18 years of age seen at Paediatric clinic HUSM from 2006 to 2015 were reviewed. Demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), anthropometric (weight and height), clinical [body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)] and biochemical [serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting plasma glucose (FPG)] parameters were recorded, analyzed and compared.
Results: Majority of subjects in both age groups were boys, with 68.2% <10 years old. Mean age was 9.69 years (±3.36). The clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome were similar between those <10 years old and >10 years, with the exception of BMI, waist circumference, SBP and TG level. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the parameters of metabolic syndrome significantly associated with age ≥10 years were systolic hypertension (adjusted OR 7.17, 95% CI, 1.48 to 34.8) and BMI >30 kg/m2 (adjusted OR 3.02, 95% CI, 1.16 to 7.86).
Conclusion: There were similar clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome in both age groups. The proportions of children with metabolic syndrome were similar regardless of age group. The overall prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 27.3%. In view of the alarming presence of components of metabolic syndrome even in children less than 10 years of age, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity in the community should be intensified.