Browse publications by year: 2017

  1. Tseng SP, Yang CS
    J. Med. Entomol., 2017 09 01;54(5):1107-1108.
    PMID: 28874021 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx136
    MeSH terms: Animals; Bedbugs*; Electron Transport Complex IV*; Malaysia; Phylogeny; Genetic Variation
  2. Khan, Zahid, Radzuan Razali, Hanita Daud, Nursyarizal Mohd Nor, Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud
    State estimation plays a vital role in the security analysis of a power system. The weighted least squares method is one of the conventional techniques used to estimate the unknown state vector of the power system. The existence of bad data can distort the reliability of the estimated state vector. A new algorithm based on the technique of quality control charts is developed in this paper for detection of bad data. The IEEE 6-bus power system data are utilised for the implementation of the proposed algorithm. The output of the study shows that this method is practically applicable for the separation of bad data in the problem of power system state estimation.
    MeSH terms: Algorithms; Paper; Quality Control; Reproducibility of Results; Least-Squares Analysis
  3. Gylfe Å, Cajander S, Wahab T, Angelin M
    Lakartidningen, 2017 10 09;114.
    PMID: 28994855
    Melioidosis, an important diagnosis in the severely ill traveler Melioidosis is a common tropical infection in Southeast Asia and is caused by the highly pathogenic soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis and treatment is often challenging due to variations in clinical presentation, limited antibiotic susceptibility and high risk of recurring infection. In this report, three cases with different clinical presentations are described.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Humans; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Sweden/epidemiology; Thailand; Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolation & purification; Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology
  4. Zakharzhevskaya NB, Vanyushkina AA, Altukhov IA, Shavarda AL, Butenko IO, Rakitina DV, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 10;7(1):5008.
    PMID: 28694488 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-05264-6
    Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) vesicles exert a beneficial effect on the intestine, it is likely that ETBF vesicles can be utilized for potential pathogenic implementation. To confirm this possibility, we performed comparative proteomic HPLC-MS/MS analysis of vesicles isolated from ETBF and NTBF. Furthermore, we performed, for the first time, HPLC-MS/MS and GS-MS comparative metabolomic analysis for the vesicles isolated from both strains with subsequent reconstruction of the vesicle metabolic pathways. We utilized fluxomic experiments to validate the reconstructed biochemical reaction activities and finally observed considerable difference in the vesicle proteome and metabolome profiles. Compared with NTBF OMVs, metabolic activity of ETBF OMVs provides their similarity to micro reactors that are likely to be used for long-term persistence and implementing pathogenic potential in the host.
    MeSH terms: Bacteroides fragilis/cytology*; Bacteroides fragilis/pathogenicity; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Secretory Vesicles/metabolism*; Tandem Mass Spectrometry; Metabolic Networks and Pathways; Metabolomics/methods*
  5. Abd Rashid N, Hapidin H, Abdullah H, Ismail Z, Long I
    Brain Behav, 2017 06;7(6):e00704.
    PMID: 28638710 DOI: 10.1002/brb3.704
    INTRODUCTION: REM sleep deprivation is associated with impairment in learning and memory, and nicotine treatment has been shown to attenuate this effect. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of DREAM protein in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the association of DREAM protein in REM sleep-deprived rats hippocampus upon nicotine treatment.

    METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to normal condition, REM sleep deprivation and control wide platform condition for 72 hr. During this procedure, saline or nicotine (1 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously twice a day. Then, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory performance of the rats. The rats were sacrificed and the brain was harvested for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.

    RESULTS: MWM test found that REM sleep deprivation significantly impaired learning and memory performance without defect in locomotor function associated with a significant increase in hippocampus DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions and the mean relative level of DREAM protein compared to other experimental groups. Treatment with acute nicotine significantly prevented these effects and decreased expression of DREAM protein in all the hippocampus regions but only slightly reduce the mean relative level of DREAM protein.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that changes in DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions of rat's hippocampus and mean relative level of DREAM protein may involve in the mechanism of nicotine treatment-prevented REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    MeSH terms: Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Ganglionic Stimulants/pharmacology; Learning/drug effects; Learning/physiology; Learning Disorders/metabolism; Learning Disorders/prevention & control; Male; Memory/drug effects; Memory/physiology; Memory Disorders/metabolism; Memory Disorders/prevention & control; Nicotine/pharmacology*; Repressor Proteins/metabolism*; Sleep, REM/drug effects; Sleep, REM/physiology; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Maze Learning/drug effects; Rats; Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins/metabolism*
  6. Vo NTT, Phan TND, Vo TQ
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 May;24(3):66-72.
    PMID: 28814934 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.3.8
    BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, dengue fever is a major health concern, yet comprehensive information on its economic costs is lacking. The present study investigated treatment costs associated with dengue fever from the perspective of health care provision.

    METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 in Cu Chi General Hospital. The following dengue-related treatment costs were calculated: hospitalisation, diagnosis, specialised services, drug usage and medical supplies. Average cost per case and treatment cost across different age was calculated.

    RESULTS: In the study period, 1672 patients with dengue fever were hospitalised. The average age was 24.98 (SD = 14.10) years, and 47.5% were males (795 patients). Across age groups, the average cost per episode was USD 48.10 (SD = 3.22). The highest costs (USD 56.61, SD = 48.84) were incurred in the adult age group (> 15 years), and the lowest costs (USD 30.10, SD = 17.27) were incurred in the paediatric age group (< 15 years).

    CONCLUSION: The direct medical costs of dengue-related hospitalisation place a severe economic burden on patients and their families. The probable economic value of dengue management in Vietnam is significant.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Child; Dengue; Hospitalization; Hospitals, General; Humans; Male; Retrospective Studies; Vietnam; Health Care Costs
  7. Salleh Hudin N, De Neve L, Strubbe D, Fairhurst GD, Vangestel C, Peach WJ, et al.
    Ecol Evol, 2017 08;7(16):6163-6171.
    PMID: 28861222 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3114
    Several studies on birds have proposed that a lack of invertebrate prey in urbanized areas could be the main cause for generally lower levels of breeding success compared to rural habitats. Previous work on house sparrows Passer domesticus found that supplemental feeding in urbanized areas increased breeding success but did not contribute to population growth. Here, we hypothesize that supplementary feeding allows house sparrows to achieve higher breeding success but at the cost of lower nestling quality. As abundant food supplies may permit both high- and low-quality nestlings to survive, we also predict that within-brood variation in proxies of nestling quality would be larger for supplemental food broods than for unfed broods. As proxies of nestling quality, we considered feather corticosterone (CORT f), body condition (scaled mass index, SMI), and tarsus-based fluctuating asymmetry (FA). Our hypothesis was only partially supported as we did not find an overall effect of food supplementation on FA or SMI. Rather, food supplementation affected nestling phenotype only early in the breeding season in terms of elevated CORT f levels and a tendency for more variable within-brood CORT f and FA. Early food supplemented nests therefore seemed to include at least some nestlings that faced increased stressors during development, possibly due to harsher environmental (e.g., related to food and temperature) conditions early in the breeding season that would increase sibling competition, especially in larger broods. The fact that CORT f was positively, rather than inversely, related to nestling SMI further suggests that factors influencing CORT f and SMI are likely operating over different periods or, alternatively, that nestlings in good nutritional condition also invest in high-quality feathers.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Ankle; Breeding; Corticosterone; Feathers; Food Supply; Invertebrates; Phenotype; Population Growth; Seasons; Tarsal Bones; Temperature; Urbanization; Ecosystem; Dietary Supplements; Siblings; Sparrows
  8. Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S
    Pharmacogn Rev, 2017 1 14;10(20):84-89.
    PMID: 28082789 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.194044
    Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules such as free radicals. Flavonoids are phenolic substances widely found in fruits and vegetables. The previous studies showed that the ingestion of flavonoids reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and certain types of cancer. These effects are due to the physiological activity of flavonoids in the reduction of oxidative stress, inhibiting low-density lipoproteins oxidation and platelet aggregation, and acting as vasodilators in blood vessels. Free radicals are constantly generated resulting in extensive damage to tissues leading to various disease conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer's, renal diseases, cardiac abnormalities, etc., Medicinal plants with antioxidant properties play a vital functions in exhibiting beneficial effects and employed as an alternative source of medicine to mitigate the disease associated with oxidative stress. Flavonoids have existed over one billion years and possess wide spectrum of biological activities that might be able to influence processes which are dysregulated in a disease. Quercetin, a plant pigment is a potent antioxidant flavonoid and more specifically a flavonol, found mostly in onions, grapes, berries, cherries, broccoli, and citrus fruits. It is a versatile antioxidant known to possess protective abilities against tissue injury induced by various drug toxicities.
    MeSH terms: Antioxidants; Brassica; Cardiovascular Diseases; Citrus; Flavonoids; Free Radicals; Fruit; Lipoproteins, LDL; Metabolic Diseases; Neoplasms; Plants, Medicinal; Platelet Aggregation; Quercetin; Vasodilator Agents; Vegetables; Oxidative Stress; Onions; Protective Agents; Vitis; Flavonols; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
  9. Ahmad Saad FF, Abdul Rashid AM, Md Noh MSF
    J Pancreat Cancer, 2017;3(1):66-70.
    PMID: 30631845 DOI: 10.1089/pancan.2017.0014
    Background: Pancreatic malignancies encompass a heterogenous group of disorders, with poor prognosis at diagnosis. Traditionally, conventional computed tomography (CT) has been used for diagnosis, staging, and follow up. However, this technique lacks functional information; and is limited in diagnosis of occult pancreatic disease. Hybrid imaging in the form of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT provides a potential avenue for early detection and subsequent appropriate therapy. Case Presentation: A 60-year-old male, with a history of abdominal aortic aneurysm which was repaired, came with a complaint of 2 months history of back pain, radiating to the front. The pain was relieved on leaning forward, and aggravated by lying on his back. CT angiography of the abdomen was done, which revealed a concealed aortic aneurysm and a significant atrophy of the pancreatic tail. The serum cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 was elevated (50.0 U/mL, reference range 0.0-37.0 U/mL). At this juncture, the PET scan done revealed no discernible abnormalities. Patient was put on close follow-up in view of the rising trend of CA 19-9 levels. Three months following the initial scans, a repeat 18F-FDG (fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose) PET/CT revealed an FDG-avid lesion at the neck of the pancreas on PET without perceptible changes on the correlated CT. A Whipple's procedure ensued, with histopathological examination findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This article discusses the role of PET/CT in the early diagnosis of inconspicuous pancreatic lesions; which could have averted immediate medical therapy.
  10. Pandey CR, Singh N, Tamang B
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Mar;11(1):47-51.
    PMID: 28435574 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1703.020
    INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of subungual glomus tumour is mostly based on detailed history and clinical examination. Recently, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasound have been proposed as the imaging modality to confirm the clinical diagnosis and in planning the surgical management of these tumours. However, these imaging modalities are not routinely available in rural setting and also are expensive. Due to these limitations, we set out to establish that diagnosis and management of these rare tumours can be based solely on a battery of clinical tests and history taking.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we reviewed nine cases of glomus tumour. A clinical evaluation proforma was developed on the basis of clinical history and specific clinical test for diagnosis of these tumours. All the cases were evaluated and treated surgically by a single surgeon with a specific technique. Post-operatively, diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: Females (77.78%) were predominantly affected in this series and the tumours commonly occurred in the right hand (66.66%). Spontaneous pain, cold sensitivity test and Love's Pin test was positive in all cases (100%). Hildreth's test was positive in 88.89%. In none of the cases the tumours recurred during minimum follow-up of one year. In all cases, histopathological examination confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumours.

    CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of glomus tumours can be made clinically based on history taking and clinical examination. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound are not necessary for diagnosis and management of typical subungual tumours.

    MeSH terms: Female; Follow-Up Studies; Glomus Tumor; Hand; Love; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Medical History Taking; Nail Diseases; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Pain; Retrospective Studies; Ultrasonography; Surgeons
  11. Filho JAF, de Brito LS, Leão AP, Alves AA, Formighieri EF, Júnior MTS
    Bioinform Biol Insights, 2017;11:1177932217702388.
    PMID: 28469420 DOI: 10.1177/1177932217702388
    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Due to their typical patterns of repetition, discovery, and characterization, they demand analysis by various bioinformatics software. Probably, as a result of the need for a complex analysis, many genomes publicly available do not have these elements annotated yet. In this study, a de novo and homology-based identification of TEs and microsatellites was performed using genomic data from 3 palm species: Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm, v.1, Embrapa, unpublished; v.8, Malaysian Palm Oil Board [MPOB], public), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm, v.5, MPOB, public), and Phoenix dactylifera (date palm). The estimated total coverage of TEs was 50.96% (523 572 kb) and 42.31% (593 463 kb), 39.41% (605 015 kb), and 33.67% (187 361 kb), respectively. A total of 155 726 microsatellite loci were identified in the genomes of oil and date palms. This is the first detailed description of repeats in the genomes of oil and date palms. A relatively high diversity and abundance of TEs were found in the genomes, opening a range of further opportunities for applied research in these genera. The development of molecular markers (mainly simple sequence repeat), which may be immediately applied in breeding programs of those species to support the selection of superior genotypes and to enhance knowledge of the genetic structure of the breeding and natural populations, is the most notable opportunity.
    MeSH terms: Breeding; DNA Transposable Elements; Genotype; Software; United States; Microsatellite Repeats; Computational Biology; Genomics; Eukaryota; Phoeniceae
  12. Pramithasari FA, Butet NA, Wardiatno Y
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):103-115.
    PMID: 28228919 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.7
    Variation in morphometric characters in four sand crab (Albunea symmysta) populations from four intertidal areas in Sumatra (Aceh and Bengkulu) and Java (Cilacap and Yogyakarta) were studied. Crabs collected from the four sites were measured to obtain 10 morphometric characters, i.e., carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), ocular peduncle length and width (LOP and WOP), telson length and width (LT and WT), merus length (ML), carpus length (CaL), propodus length (PL), and dactylus length (DL). Allometric relationships were established among three morphometric characters (CW, PL, and DL) for each site, in which CL was fixed on the abscissa as a reference variable. The analysis of covariance showed that population from Yogyakarta had a greater carapace width and the Aceh population had a longer dactylus length. In terms of propodus length, the Aceh population had a longer dactylus length than the Bengkulu population. Two group populations were detected by cluster analysis with 10 morphometric characters, i.e., the Sumatra population and the Java population.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Brachyura; Eye; Head; Indonesia; Kenya; Lice Infestations; Anomura; Animal Shells
  13. Auyong DB, Yuan SC, Choi DS, Pahang JA, Slee AE, Hanson NA
    Reg Anesth Pain Med, 2017 3 9;42(3):302-309.
    PMID: 28272290 DOI: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000578
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous brachial plexus blocks at the interscalene level are associated with known diaphragm dysfunction from phrenic nerve paresis. More distal blocks along the brachial plexus may provide postsurgical analgesia while potentially having less effect on diaphragm function. Continuous interscalene, continuous supraclavicular, and continuous suprascapular nerve blocks were evaluated for respiratory function and analgesia after total shoulder arthroplasty.

    METHODS: After ethics board approval, subjects presenting for total shoulder arthroplasty were planned for randomization in a 1:1:1 ratio of a continuous interscalene, supraclavicular, or suprascapular block. The primary outcome was the assessment of vital capacity after 24 hours of continuous nerve block infusion (6 mL/h; 0.2% ropivacaine), without an initial bolus of local anesthetic during catheter placement. Additional outcomes included diaphragm excursion, pain scores, opioid consumption, and adverse effects.

    RESULTS: Seventy-five subjects, 25 per group, completed the study. At 24 hours of continuous infusion only (no initial block bolus), the mean vital capacity reduction in the continuous interscalene control group was 991 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 820-1162). Compared to the interscalene group, the continuous supraclavicular group had a mean vital capacity reduction of 803 mL (95% CI, 616-991; P = 0.322). The continuous suprascapular group had a significantly improved mean vital capacity reduction of 464 mL (95% CI, 289-639; P < 0.001) when similarly compared against the interscalene group. A relative compromise in ultrasound-measured diaphragm excursion was identified in the interscalene group compared to both the supraclavicular group (P = 0.012) and the suprascapular group (P < 0.001). Mean pain scores on an 11-point scale (2.2, 1.6, and 2.6) and 24-hour opioid consumption (13.8 mg, 9.9 mg, and 21.8 mg) for groups interscalene, supraclavicular, and suprascapular, respectively, did not show statistically significant differences. Less adverse effects (Horner syndrome, dyspnea, and hoarseness) were noted in the suprascapular group when compared with the interscalene group (P = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: A continuous suprascapular block may be a useful analgesic alternative to the interscalene or supraclavicular approaches when the preservation of lung function is a priority after shoulder replacement surgery.

    MeSH terms: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage; Autonomic Nerve Block/adverse effects; Autonomic Nerve Block/methods*; Clavicle/surgery*; Double-Blind Method; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis; Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology*; Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control*; Prospective Studies; Scapula/surgery*; Brachial Plexus Block/adverse effects; Brachial Plexus Block/methods; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/adverse effects; Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/methods*
  14. Rothan HA, Mahmod SA, Djordjevic I, Golpich M, Yusof R, Snigh S
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Apr;14(2):93-101.
    PMID: 30603466 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0023-8
    In this paper we report the differentiating properties of platelet-rich plasma releasates (PRPr) on human chondrocytes within elastomeric polycaprolactone triol-citrate (PCLT-CA) porous scaffold. Human-derived chondrocyte cellular content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and total collagen were determined after seeding into PCLT-CA scaffold enriched with PRPr cells. Immunostaining and real time PCR was applied to evaluate the expression levels of chondrogenic and extracellular gene markers. Seeding of chondrocytes into PCLT-CA scaffold enriched with PRPr showed significant increase in total collagen and GAGs production compared with chondrocytes grown within control scaffold without PRPr cells. The mRNA levels of collagen II and SOX9 increased significantly while the upregulation in Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) expression was statistically insignificant. We also report the reduction of the expression levels of collagen I and III in chondrocytes as a consequence of proximity to PRPr cells within the scaffold. Interestingly, the pre-loading of PRPr caused an increase of expression levels of following extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins: fibronectin, laminin and integrin β over the period of 3 days. Overall, our results introduce the PCLT-CA elastomeric scaffold as a new system for cartilage tissue engineering. The method of PRPr cells loading prior to chondrocyte culture could be considered as a potential environment for cartilage tissue engineering as the differentiation and ECM formation is enhanced significantly.
  15. Mahmod SA, Snigh S, Djordjevic I, Mei Yee Y, Yusof R, Ramasamy TS, et al.
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Apr;14(2):103-112.
    PMID: 30603467 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-016-0004-3
    Clinical investigations have shown a significant relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and estrogens levels in menopausal women. Therefore, treatment with exogenous estrogens has been shown to decrease the risk of OA. However, the effect estrogen has not been clearly demonstrated in the chondrocytes using phytoestrogens, which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens, may provide an alternative therapy. This study was designed to examine the possible effects of phytoestrogen (daidzein) on human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation. Phytoestrogens which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens may provide beneficial effect without causing hormone based side effect. Human chondrocytes cells were cultured in 2D (flask) and 3D (PCL-CA scaffold) systems. Daidzein cytotoxic effect was determined by MTT assay. Chondrocyte cellular content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), total collagen and chondrogenic gene expression were determined in both culture systems after treatment with daidzein. Daidzein showed time-dependent and dose-independent effects on chondrocyte bioactivity. The compound at low doses showed significant (p  0.05). The expression levels of Fibronectin, Laminin and Integrin β1 were significantly increased especially in 3D culture system. This study was illustrated the potential positive effects of daidzein on maintenance of human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation suggesting an attractive and viable alternative therapy for OA.
  16. Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Hajiaghaalipour F, Selvarajan KK, Adam A
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Jun;14(3):201-210.
    PMID: 30603477 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0026-5
    Injury to podocytes is an early event in diabetic nephropathy leading to proteinuria with possible progression to end-stage renal failure. The podocytes are unique and highly specialized cells that cover the outer layer of kidney ultra-filtration barrier and play an important role in glomerular function. In the past few decades, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a regenerative and differentiative capacity have been extensively used in cell-based therapies. In addition to their capability for regeneration and differentiation, MSCs contributes to their milieu by paracrine action of a series of growth factors via antiapoptotic, mitogenic and other cytokine actions that actively participate in treatment of podocyte damage through prevention of podocyte effacement, detachment and apoptosis. It is hoped that novel stem cell-based therapies will be developed in the future to prevent podocyte injury, thereby reducing the burden of kidney disease.
    MeSH terms: Cell Differentiation; Diabetic Nephropathies; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Mitogens; Proteinuria; Regeneration; Cytokines; Apoptosis; Podocytes; Adult Stem Cells; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
  17. Um Min Allah N, Berahim Z, Ahmad A, Kannan TP
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Oct;14(5):495-505.
    PMID: 30603504 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0065-y
    Advancement in cell culture protocols, multidisciplinary research approach, and the need of clinical implication to reconstruct damaged or diseased tissues has led to the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) test systems for regeneration and repair. Regenerative therapies, including dental tissue engineering, have been pursued as a new prospect to repair and rebuild the diseased/lost oral tissues. Interactions between the different cell types, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components involved in angiogenesis are vital in the mechanisms of new vessel formation for tissue regeneration. In vitro pre-vascularization is one of the leading scopes in the tissue-engineering field. Vascularization strategies that are associated with co-culture systems have proved that there is communication between different cell types with mutual beneficial effects in vascularization and tissue regeneration in two-dimensional or 3D cultures. Endothelial cells with different cell populations, including osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts in a co-culture have shown their ability to advocate pre-vascularization. In this review, a co-culture perspective of human gingival fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells is discussed with the main focus on vascularization and future perspective of this model in regeneration and repair.
    MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix; Fibroblasts; Humans; Neovascularization, Pathologic; Osteoblasts; Regeneration; Coculture Techniques; Cell Culture Techniques; Tissue Engineering; Myocytes, Smooth Muscle; Endothelial Cells
  18. Law JX, Liau LL, Saim A, Yang Y, Idrus R
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Dec;14(6):699-718.
    PMID: 30603521 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0075-9
    Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique to fabricate continuous fibers with diameter ranging from micrometers to a few nanometers. To date, the number of polymers that have been electrospun has exceeded 200. In recent years, electrospinning has become one of the most popular scaffold fabrication techniques to prepare nanofiber mesh for tissue engineering applications. Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, has been electrospun to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds that imitate the architecture of native human tissues. As collagen nanofibers are mechanically weak in nature, it is commonly cross-linked or blended with synthetic polymers to improve the mechanical strength without compromising the biological activity. Electrospun collagen nanofiber mesh has high surface area to volume ratio, tunable diameter and porosity, and excellent biological activity to regulate cell function and tissue formation. Due to these advantages, collagen nanofibers have been tested for the regeneration of a myriad of tissues and organs. In this review, we gave an overview of electrospinning, encompassing the history, the instrument settings, the spinning process and the parameters that affect fiber formation, with emphasis given to collagen nanofibers' fabrication and application, especially the use of collagen nanofibers in skin tissue engineering.
    MeSH terms: Collagen; Humans; Polymers; Regeneration; Porosity; Extracellular Matrix Proteins; Human Body; Tissue Engineering; Biomimetics; Nanofibers
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