METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to normal condition, REM sleep deprivation and control wide platform condition for 72 hr. During this procedure, saline or nicotine (1 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously twice a day. Then, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory performance of the rats. The rats were sacrificed and the brain was harvested for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: MWM test found that REM sleep deprivation significantly impaired learning and memory performance without defect in locomotor function associated with a significant increase in hippocampus DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions and the mean relative level of DREAM protein compared to other experimental groups. Treatment with acute nicotine significantly prevented these effects and decreased expression of DREAM protein in all the hippocampus regions but only slightly reduce the mean relative level of DREAM protein.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that changes in DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions of rat's hippocampus and mean relative level of DREAM protein may involve in the mechanism of nicotine treatment-prevented REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.
METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 in Cu Chi General Hospital. The following dengue-related treatment costs were calculated: hospitalisation, diagnosis, specialised services, drug usage and medical supplies. Average cost per case and treatment cost across different age was calculated.
RESULTS: In the study period, 1672 patients with dengue fever were hospitalised. The average age was 24.98 (SD = 14.10) years, and 47.5% were males (795 patients). Across age groups, the average cost per episode was USD 48.10 (SD = 3.22). The highest costs (USD 56.61, SD = 48.84) were incurred in the adult age group (> 15 years), and the lowest costs (USD 30.10, SD = 17.27) were incurred in the paediatric age group (< 15 years).
CONCLUSION: The direct medical costs of dengue-related hospitalisation place a severe economic burden on patients and their families. The probable economic value of dengue management in Vietnam is significant.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, we reviewed nine cases of glomus tumour. A clinical evaluation proforma was developed on the basis of clinical history and specific clinical test for diagnosis of these tumours. All the cases were evaluated and treated surgically by a single surgeon with a specific technique. Post-operatively, diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination.
RESULTS: Females (77.78%) were predominantly affected in this series and the tumours commonly occurred in the right hand (66.66%). Spontaneous pain, cold sensitivity test and Love's Pin test was positive in all cases (100%). Hildreth's test was positive in 88.89%. In none of the cases the tumours recurred during minimum follow-up of one year. In all cases, histopathological examination confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of glomus tumours.
CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of glomus tumours can be made clinically based on history taking and clinical examination. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound are not necessary for diagnosis and management of typical subungual tumours.
METHODS: After ethics board approval, subjects presenting for total shoulder arthroplasty were planned for randomization in a 1:1:1 ratio of a continuous interscalene, supraclavicular, or suprascapular block. The primary outcome was the assessment of vital capacity after 24 hours of continuous nerve block infusion (6 mL/h; 0.2% ropivacaine), without an initial bolus of local anesthetic during catheter placement. Additional outcomes included diaphragm excursion, pain scores, opioid consumption, and adverse effects.
RESULTS: Seventy-five subjects, 25 per group, completed the study. At 24 hours of continuous infusion only (no initial block bolus), the mean vital capacity reduction in the continuous interscalene control group was 991 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 820-1162). Compared to the interscalene group, the continuous supraclavicular group had a mean vital capacity reduction of 803 mL (95% CI, 616-991; P = 0.322). The continuous suprascapular group had a significantly improved mean vital capacity reduction of 464 mL (95% CI, 289-639; P < 0.001) when similarly compared against the interscalene group. A relative compromise in ultrasound-measured diaphragm excursion was identified in the interscalene group compared to both the supraclavicular group (P = 0.012) and the suprascapular group (P < 0.001). Mean pain scores on an 11-point scale (2.2, 1.6, and 2.6) and 24-hour opioid consumption (13.8 mg, 9.9 mg, and 21.8 mg) for groups interscalene, supraclavicular, and suprascapular, respectively, did not show statistically significant differences. Less adverse effects (Horner syndrome, dyspnea, and hoarseness) were noted in the suprascapular group when compared with the interscalene group (P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: A continuous suprascapular block may be a useful analgesic alternative to the interscalene or supraclavicular approaches when the preservation of lung function is a priority after shoulder replacement surgery.