MATERIALS AND METHODS: This time-series comparative study was accomplished during the period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. It was conducted by recording the local meteorological data in the two sampling stations at Mansoria (A) and Ali Sabah Al-Salem (B) residential areas, in addition to the sampling and analysis of respirable particulates (PM10) using the SOP-10 High-Volume PM10 Samplers' Standard Method.
RESULTS: There were 256 and 278 measurement days (70.1 and 75.1% of the yearly days) in monitoring stations A and B, respectively, with a total of 119 (46.5%) and 134 (48.2%) days with dust storms, respectively. The daily concentrations of PM10 were higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of Kuwait State (150 μg/m3) at the two stations. The annual PM10 concentration of B station [192.5 (264.5) μg/m3] was nonsignificantly higher than that of A [191.2 (182.7) μg/m3]. At the two stations, the levels of PM10 during days with dust storms were significantly higher than that during days without.
CONCLUSION: Respirable particulate is slightly higher in Ali Sabah Al-Salem than in Mansoria. Days with dust storms have significantly greater PM10 levels than those without. The study recommends application of land-use planning, and windbreaks, combating desertification, and enhancing stoppage of outdoor activities during dust storms among public.
Patients and methods: This was a monocentric, cross sectional, case-control study which was conducted at the Putrajaya Hospital, Malaysia. We recruited 46 patients with RA (3 males; 43 females; mean age 48.15±14.96) and 46 age and sex-matched healthy controls (3 males; 43 females; mean age 47.11±12.22). RA patients were assessed for their disease activity based on disease activity score in 28 joints, disease damage based on radiographic erosions, and functional status based on Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores were determined by interviewing all the subjects. Subjects with RA were further subdivided based on their PSQI scores as "good sleepers" with PSQI scores of <5 and "poor sleepers" with PSQI scores of ≥5.
Results: The percentage of poor sleepers was significantly higher among RA patients (47.83% versus 9.57%). Median scores of 5 out of 7 components of the PSQI were higher among RA patients compared to controls. Among poor sleepers with RA, a significantly higher proportion tested positive for anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide autoantibodies (p=0.037). Besides, poor sleepers had significantly higher median Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (p=0.017) than good sleepers. However, both Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (p=0.968) and anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide (p=0.431) were insignificant when entered in the equation of a logistic regression model.
Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate a link between functional disability, anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibodies, and sleep quality in RA.