CASE PRESENTATION: We present a successful aortic valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass in a 48 years old lady with antiphospholipid syndrome, who has severe aortic regurgitation as a result of Libman-sacks endocarditis. Antiphospholipid antibodies were positive and the clinical data showed both negative cultures and infective parameters. Surgically resected vegetations revealed sterile fibrinous and verrucous vegetations on aortic valve. Valve replacement and the course of cardiopulmonary bypass was uneventful, and the patient was discharged well.
CONCLUSIONS: Classically Libman-Sacks endocarditis is often and more commonly associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, although it can occur in both primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. It is not a common entity, and it is a frequent underestimated disease as most clinicians do not routinely screen for valvular lesion in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome unless they are symptomatic. However, due to its high prevalence of cardiac involvement, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in the attempt to minimize cardiovascular and haemodynamic complications. Valve surgery in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome carries considerable early and late morbidity and mortality, usually caused by thromboembolic and bleeding events. The perioperative anticoagulation management and haemostatic aspect of antiphospholipid syndrome present an exceptional challenges to clinicians, surgeons, anaesthetists and laboratory personnel.
Methods: For this study PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase electronic databases were used to search for eligible studies on the interface between novel coronavirus and vaccine design until December 31, 2020.
Results: We have included fourteen non-randomized and randomized controlled phase I-III trials. Implementation of a universal vaccination program with proven safety and efficacy through robust clinical evaluation is the long-term goal for preventing COVID-19. The immunization program must be cost-effective for mass production and accessibility. Despite pioneering techniques for the fast-track development of the vaccine in the current global emergency, mass production and availability of an effective COVID-19 vaccine could take some more time.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a revisiting of the reported solicited and unsolicited systemic adverse events for COVID-19 candidate vaccines. Hence, it is alarming to judiciously expose thousands of participants to COVID-19 candidate vaccines at Phase-3 trials that have adverse events and insufficient evidence on safety and effectiveness that necessitates further justification.
Methodology: The Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Medline (1966 to April week 1, 2020), Embase (1966 to April week 1, 2020) and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. Published and unpublished randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the continuous outcomes and mean differences (MDs); both with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic BP. The secondary outcomes were changes in lipid profile, glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers for CVD, kidney and liver functions safety parameters. We assessed the data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence.
Results: Five trials were included involving 325 patients aged 18-80 years. Two trials involved high-income countries and three trials involved moderate-income countries. The analysis performed was based on three comparisons. No significant changes were found between systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP) for the first comparison, 1,000 mg per day for a combined formulation of olive leaf extract versus a placebo. The second comparison, 500 mg per day of olive leaf extract versus placebo or no treatment, showed a significant reduction in systolic BP over a period of at least 8 weeks of follow up (MD -5.78 mmHg, 95% CI [-10.27 to -1.30]) and no significant changes on diastolic BP. The third comparison, 1,000 mg per day of olive leaf extract versus placebo shows no significant difference but an almost similar reduction in systolic BP (-11.5 mmHg in olive leaf extract and -13.7 mmHg in placebo, MD 2.2 mmHg, 95% CI [-0.43-4.83]) and diastolic BP (-4.8 mmHg in olive leaf extract and -6.4 mmHg in placebo, MD 1.60 mmHg, 95% CI [-0.13-3.33]). For secondary outcomes, 1,000 mg per day of olive leaf extract versus captopril showed a reduction in LDL (MD -6.00 mg/dl, 95% CI [-11.5 to -0.50]). The 500 mg per day olive leaf extract versus placebo showed a reduction in inflammatory markers for CVD IL-6 (MD -6.83 ng/L, 95% CI [-13.15 to -0.51]), IL-8 (MD -8.24 ng/L, 95% CI [-16.00 to -0.48) and TNF-alpha (MD -7.40 ng/L, 95% CI [-13.23 to -1.57]).
Conclusions: The results from this review suggest the reduction of systolic BP, LDL and inflammatory biomarkers, but it may not provide a robust conclusion regarding the effects of olive leaf extract on cardiometabolic profile due to the limited number of participants in the included trials.
Review registrations: PROSPERO CDR 42020181212.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, Chromolaena odorata gel and quercetin gel (bioactive flavonoid compound) were successfully formulated and compared with placebo and conventional wound aid gel. The chromatographic profilling was conducted to screen the presence of phytoconstituents. Subsequently, all formulated gels were subjected to physical characteristic and stability study.
METHODS: Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) of C.odorata methanolic leaves extract shows a distinct compound separation at retention time 8.4min to 34.8 min at 254nm. All gels were characterised by evaluating their rheological properties including storage modulus, loss modulus and plastic viscosity. Besides, texture analysis was performed to measure the gels' firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index.
RESULTS: From the observation, C. odorata gel demonstrated better spreadability as compared to the other gels, which acquired less work and favourable to be applied onto the skin. Moreover, C. odorata gel showed no changes in organoleptic properties and proven to be stable after 30 days of accelerated stability study at 40°C ± 2°C with relative humidity (RH) of 75%± 5%.
CONCLUSION: C. odorata gel has shown to be stable, reflecting the combination of materials used in the formulation, which did not degrade throughout the study. This work suggests the potential of this gel as a vehicle to deliver the active ingredients of C. odorata to the skin, which can be further explored as a topical application in antimicrobial wound management or other skin diseases study.
METHODS: A systematic search for prediction models for at least 50 per cent ACS in patients with LEAD was conducted. A prediction model in screened patients from the USA with an ankle : brachial pressure index of 0.9 or less was subsequently developed, and assessed for discrimination and calibration. External validation was performed in two independent cohorts, from the UK and the Netherlands.
RESULTS: After screening 4907 studies, no previously published prediction models were found. For development of a new model, data for 112 117 patients were used, of whom 6354 (5.7 per cent) had at least 50 per cent ACS and 2801 (2.5 per cent) had at least 70 per cent ACS. Age, sex, smoking status, history of hypercholesterolaemia, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, coronary heart disease and measured systolic BP were predictors of ACS. The model discrimination had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of 0.71 (95 per cent c.i. 0.71 to 0.72) for at least 50 per cent ACS and 0.73 (0.72 to 0.73) for at least 70 per cent ACS. Screening the 20 per cent of patients at greatest risk detected 12.4 per cent with at least 50 per cent ACS (number needed to screen (NNS) 8] and 5.8 per cent with at least 70 per cent ACS (NNS 17). This yielded 44.2 and 46.9 per cent of patients with at least 50 and 70 per cent ACS respectively. External validation showed reliable discrimination and adequate calibration.
CONCLUSION: The present risk score can predict significant ACS in patients with LEAD. This approach may inform targeted screening of high-risk individuals to enhance the detection of ACS.