Interaction of flavokawain B (FB), a multitherapeutic flavonoid from Alpinia mutica with the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was investigated using different spectroscopic probes, i.e., intrinsic, synchronous, and three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling studies. Values of binding parameters for FB-HSA interaction in terms of binding constant and stoichiometry of binding were determined from the fluorescence quench titration and were found to be 6.88 × 10(4) M(-1) and 1.0 mol of FB bound per mole of protein, respectively, at 25 °C. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data obtained at different temperatures showed that the binding process was primarily mediated by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, as the values of the enthalpy change (ΔH) and the entropy change (ΔS) were found to be -6.87 kJ mol(-1) and 69.50 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. FB binding to HSA led to both secondary and tertiary structural alterations in the protein as revealed by intrinsic, synchronous, and 3-D fluorescence results. Increased thermal stability of HSA in the presence of FB was also evident from the far-UV CD spectral results. The distance between the bound ligand and Trp-214 of HSA was determined as 3.03 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer mechanism. Displacement experiments using bilirubin and warfarin coupled with molecular modeling studies assigned the binding site of FB on HSA at domain IIA, i.e., Sudlow's site I.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.