Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 241 in total

  1. Chik MW, Hussain Z, Zulkefeli M, Tripathy M, Kumar S, Majeed ABA, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):578-594.
    PMID: 29594914 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0505-9
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess outstanding properties that could be useful in several technological, drug delivery, and diagnostic applications. However, their unique physical and chemical properties are hindered due to their poor solubility. This article review's the different ways and means of solubility enhancement of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The advantages of SWNTs over the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the method of non-covalent modification for solubility enhancement has been the key interest in this review. The review also highlights a few examples of dispersant design. The review includes some interesting utility of SWNTs being wrapped with polymer especially in biological media that could mediate proper drug delivery to target cells. Further, the use of wrapped SWNTs with phospholipids, nucleic acid, and amphiphillic polymers as biosensors is of research interest. The review aims at summarizing the developments relating to wrapped SWNTs to generate further research prospects in healthcare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  2. Lee XJ, Show PL, Katsuda T, Chen WH, Chang JS
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Dec;269:489-502.
    PMID: 30172460 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.090
    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is regarded as the state-of-the-art technology in separation processes. Surface modification techniques play a critical role in improving the conventional membrane system which is mostly hydrophobic in nature. The hydrophobic nature of membranes is known to cause fouling, resulting in high maintenance costs and shorter lifespan of MBR. Thus, surface grafting aims to improve the hydrophilicity of bio-based membrane systems. This review describes the major surface grafting techniques currently used in membranes, including photo induced grafting, plasma treatment and plasma induced grafting, radiation induced grafting, thermal induced grafting and ozone induced grafting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method is discussed along with their parametric studies. The potential applications of MBR are very promising, but some integral membrane properties could be a major challenge that hinders its wider reach. The fouling issue could be resolved with the surface grafting techniques to achieve better performance of MBRs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  3. Yap JX, Leo CP, Mohd Yasin NH, Derek CJC
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jun;273:129657.
    PMID: 33524750 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129657
    Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  4. Nadiah Ramlan, Nazirah Wahidah Mohd Zamri, Mohamad Yusof Maskat, Mohd Suzeren Md Jamil, Saiful Irwan Zubairi, Chin OH, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1147-1155.
    A 50Hz glow discharge He/CH4
    plasma was generated and applied for the glass surface modification to reduce the powder
    adhesion on wall of spray dryer. The hydrophobicity of the samples determined by the water droplet contact angle and
    adhesion weight on glass, dependent on the CH4 flow rate and plasma exposure time. The presence of CH3
    groups and
    higher surface roughness of the plasma treated glass were the factors for its hydrophobicity development. Response
    surface methodology (RSM) results using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) showed that optimal responses
    were obtained by the combination of parameters, CH4
    gas flow rate = 3 sccm and exposure time = 10 min. In optimum
    conditions, the contact angle increased by 47% and the weight of the adhesion reduced by 38% (w/w). The plasma
    treatment could enhance the value of the contact angle and thus reduced the adhesion on the spray dryer glass surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  5. Foo KS, Bavoh CB, Lal B, Mohd Shariff A
    Molecules, 2020 Aug 15;25(16).
    PMID: 32824121 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25163725
    In this study, series of non-ionic surfactants from Span and Tween are evaluated for their ability to affect the viscosity profile of cyclopentane hydrate slurry. The surfactants; Span 20, Span 40, Span 80, Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80 were selected and tested to provide different hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance values and allow evaluation their solubility impact on hydrate formation and growth time. The study was performed by using a HAAKE ViscotesterTM 500 at 2 °C and a surfactant concentration ranging from 0.1 wt%-1 wt%. The solubility characteristic of the non-ionic surfactants changed the hydrate slurry in different ways with surfactants type and varying concentration. The rheological measurement suggested that oil-soluble Span surfactants was generally inhibitive to hydrate formation by extending the hydrate induction time. However, an opposite effect was observed for the Tween surfactants. On the other hand, both Span and Tween demonstrated promoting effect to accelerate hydrate growth time of cyclopentane hydrate formation. The average hydrate crystallization growth time of the blank sample was reduced by 86% and 68% by Tween and Span surfactants at 1 wt%, respectively. The findings in this study are useful to understand the rheological behavior of surfactants in hydrate slurry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions*
  6. Jindal MH, Le CF, Mohd Yusof MY, Sekaran SD
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(1):1-7.
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained increasing attention as a potential candidate in the development of novel antimicrobial agent. Designing AMPs with enhanced antimicrobial activity while reducing the cell toxicity level is desired especially against the antibiotic-resistant microbes. Various approaches towards the design of AMPs have been described and physicochemical properties of AMPs represent the primary factors determining the antimicrobial potency of AMPs. The most common parameters include net charge and hydrophobicity, which greatly influence the antimicrobial activity of AMPs. Moreover, certain amino acids would have critical importance in affecting the antimicrobial activity as well as cell cytotoxicity of AMPS. In this review, net charge, hydrophobicity, and specific amino acid residues were discussed as factors contributing to the antimicrobial activity of AMPs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  7. Zainab Ngaini, Rafeah Wahi, Dayang Halimatulzahara, Nur An-Nisaa’ Mohd Yusoff
    Oil pollution remains a serious concern especially in Malaysia. Many strategies have been employed to overcome oil pollution. In this research, sago waste material abundantly found in Sarawak was used and chemically modified into an oil adsorbent . Sago waste cellulosic residues were modified using fatty acid derivatives. The capability of the chemically modified sago waste to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the untreated sago waste. The modified sago waste showed higher hydrophobicity than the untreated sago waste, implying that it is less affinity for water and also an excellent affinity for oil. This chemically modified sago waste would be the most suitable for applications where engine oil (i.e., Shell Helix HX5) is to be removed from an aqueous environment. The modified sago waste selectively absorbs the oil and remains on the surface and is to be removed when the application is complete.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  8. Wan Jusoh WZA, Abdul Rahman S, Ahmad AL, Mohd Mokhtar N
    Data Brief, 2019 Jun;24:103910.
    PMID: 31193576 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.103910
    This paper focus to examine the best molecular interaction between Polyamide Thin Film Composite (PA TFC) layers with different properties of the support membrane. The support membrane of Nylon 66 (N66) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was chosen to represent the hydrophilic and hydrophobic model respectively in the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation. The Condensed-Phase Optimized Molecular Potential for Atomistic Simulation Studies (COMPASS) force field was used with the total simulation runs were set 1000 picoseconds run production ensembles. The temperature and pressure set for both ensembles were 298 K and 1 atm respectively. The validity of our model densities data was check and calculated where the deviation must be less than 6%. The comparison between hydrophobic and hydrophilic of the support membrane data was examined by the distance and magnitude of intensity of the Radial Distribution Function (RDF's) trends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  9. Moeinzadeh R, Jadval Ghadam AG, Lau WJ, Emadzadeh D
    Carbohydr Polym, 2019 Dec 01;225:115212.
    PMID: 31521264 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115212
    In this work, nanocomposite ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were synthesized through addition of different quantities of amino-functionalized nanocrystalline cellulose (NCs) in order to improve membrane anti-fouling resistance against oil depositions. The characterization results demonstrated that the overall porosity and hydrophilicity of the membranes were improved significantly upon addition of NCs despite a decrease in the pore size of nanocomposite membranes. The UF performance results showed that the nanocomposite membrane incorporated with 1 wt% NCs achieved an optimal water flux improvement, i.e., approximately 43% higher than the pristine membrane. Such nanocomposite membrane also exhibited promising oil rejection (>98.2%) and excellent water flux recovery rate of ˜98% and ˜85% after one and four cycles of treating 250-ppm oil-in-water emulsion solution, respectively. The desirable anti-fouling properties of nanocomposite membrane can be attributed to the existence of hydrophilic functional groups (-OH) on the surface of membrane stemming from addition of NCs that renders the membrane less vulnerable to fouling during oil-in-water emulsion treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  10. Ong CC, Sundera Murthe S, Mohamed NM, Perumal V, Mohamed Saheed MS
    ACS Omega, 2018 Nov 30;3(11):15907-15915.
    PMID: 31458235 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01566
    This article demonstrates a novel nanoscale surface modification method to enhance the selectivity of porous poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) in removing oil from water. The surface modification method is simple and low cost by using sugar as a sacrificial template for temporal adhering of carbon nanotubes (CNT) before addition of PDMS prepolymer to encapsulate the CNT on its surface once polymerized. The PDMS-CNT demonstrated a tremendous increase in absorption capacity up to 3-fold compared to previously reported absorbents composed solely of PDMS. Besides showcasing excellent absorption capacity, the PDMS-CNT also shows a faster absorption rate (25 s) as compared to that of pure PDMS (40 s). The enhanced absorption rate is due to the incorporation of CNT, which roughens the surface of the polymer at the nanoscale and lowers the surface energy of porous PDMS while at the same time increasing the absorbent hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. This property makes the absorbent unique in absorbing only oil but repelling water at the same time. The PDMS-CNT is an excellent absorbent material with outstanding recyclability and selectivity for removing oil from water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  11. Wang Y, Lee SM, Gentle IR, Dykes GA
    Biofouling, 2020 11;36(10):1227-1242.
    PMID: 33412938 DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2020.1865934
    A statistical approach using a polynomial linear model in combination with a probability distribution model was developed to mathematically represent the process of bacterial attachment and study its mechanism. The linear deterministic model was built based on data from experiments investigating bacterial and substratum surface physico-chemical factors as predictors of attachment. The prediction results were applied to a normal-approximated binomial distribution model to probabilistically predict attachment. The experimental protocol used mixtures of Streptococcus salivarius and Escherichia coli, and mixtures of porous poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyl dimethacrylate) and aluminum sec-butoxide coatings, at varying ratios, to allow bacterial attachment to substratum surfaces across a range of physico-chemical properties (including the surface hydrophobicity of bacterial cells and the substratum, the surface charge of the cells and the substratum, the substratum surface roughness and cell size). The model was tested using data from independent experiments. The model indicated that hydrophobic interaction was the most important predictor while reciprocal interactions existed between some of the factors. More importantly, the model established a range for each factor within which the resultant attachment is unpredictable. This model, however, considers bacterial cells as colloidal particles and accounts only for the essential physico-chemical attributes of the bacterial cells and substratum surfaces. It is therefore limited by a lack of consideration of biological and environmental factors. This makes the model applicable only to specific environments and potentially provides a direction to future modelling for different environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  12. Ayu RS, Khalina A, Harmaen AS, Zaman K, Mohd Nurrazi N, Isma T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 01 24;10(1):1166.
    PMID: 31980742 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-58278-y
    In this study, it focused on empty fruit brunch (EFB) fibres reinforcement in polybutylene succinate (PBS) with modified tapioca starch by using hot press technique for the use of agricultural mulch film. Mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were studied. Mechanical analysis showed decreased in values of modulus strength for both tensile and flexural testing for fibres insertion. Higher EFB fibre contents in films resulted lower mechanical properties due to poor fibre wetting from insufficient matrix. This has also found evident in SEM micrograph, showing poor interfacial bonding. Water vapour permeability (WVP) shows as higher hydrophilic EFB fibre reinforcement contents, the rate of WVP also increase. Besides this, little or no significant changes on thermal properties for composite films. This is because high thermal stability PBS polymer show its superior thermal properties dominantly. Even though EFB fibres insertion into PBS/tapioca starch biocomposite films have found lower mechanical properties. It successfully reduced the cost of mulch film production without significant changes of thermal performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  13. Liu C, Zhao M, Zheng Y, Cheng L, Zhang J, Tee CATH
    Langmuir, 2021 Jan 26;37(3):983-1000.
    PMID: 33443436 DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02758
    When two or more droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic surface, the merged droplet can jump spontaneously from the surface without requiring any external energy. This phenomenon is defined as coalescence-induced droplet jumping and has received significant attention due to its potential applications in a variety of self-cleaning, anti-icing, antifrosting, and condensation heat-transfer enhancement uses. This article reviews the research and applications of coalescence-induced droplet jumping behavior in recent years, including the influence of droplet parameters on coalescence-induced droplet jumping, such as the droplet size, number, and initial velocity, to name a few. The main structure types and influence mechanism of the superhydrophobic substrates for coalescence-induced droplet jumping are described, and the potential application areas of coalescence-induced droplet jumping are summarized and forecasted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  14. Wan Ikhsan SN, Yusof N, Aziz F, Ismail AF, Jaafar J, Wan Salleh WN, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jul 15;290:112565.
    PMID: 33873023 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112565
    The vast amount of oily wastewater released to the environment through industrialization has worsened the water quality in recent years, posing adverse impacts on general human health. Oil emulsified in water is one of the most difficult mixtures to be treated, making it imperative for new technology to be explored to address this issue. The use of conventional water treatment such as flotation, coagulation, precipitation, adsorption, and chemical treatment have low separation efficiencies and high energy costs, and are not applicable to the separation of oil/water emulsions. Therefore, there is a demand for more efficient methods and materials for the separations of immiscible oil/water mixtures and emulsions. Superwetting materials that can repel oil, while letting water pass through have been widely explored to fit into this concern. These materials usually make use of simultaneous hydrophilic/oleophobic mechanisms to allow a solid surface to separate oily emulsion with little to no use of energy. Also, by integrating specific wettability concepts with appropriate pore scale, solid surfaces may achieve separation of multifarious oil/water mixtures namely immiscible oil/water blends and consolidated emulsions. In this review, materials used to impart superwetting in solid surfaces by focusing on superhydrophilic/superoleophobic wetting properties of the materials categorized into fluorinated and non-fluorinated surface modification are summarized. In each material, its background, mechanism, fabricating processes, and their effects on solid surface's wetting capability are elaborated in detail. The materials reviewed in this paper are mainly organic and green, suggesting the alternative material to replace the fluorine group that is widely used to achieve oleophobicity in oily wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  15. Nordin NI, Ariffin H, Andou Y, Hassan MA, Shirai Y, Nishida H, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Jul 30;18(8):9132-46.
    PMID: 23903185 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18089132
    In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was treated with superheated steam (SHS) in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190-230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9%) compared to the untreated OPMF (33%). Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  16. Sani FA, Heidelberg T, Hashim R, Farhanullah
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2012 Sep 1;97:196-200.
    PMID: 22609603 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.03.030
    A series of glucose based surfactants varying in chain length and anomeric configuration were synthesized and investigated on their surfactant properties. The synthesis applied glycosylation of propargyl alcohol followed by cycloaddition with alkyl azides in CLICK chemistry fashion. This approach enables a homogeneous coupling of hydrophilic unprotected sugars and hydrophobic paraffin components in low molecular weight alcohols without solvent side reactions, as commonly found for APGs. The combination of alcohols as inert medium with practically quantitative coupling of the surfactant domains avoids particularly hydrophobic contaminations of the surfactant, thus providing access to pure surfactants. ATGs with chain lengths up to 12 carbons exhibit Krafft points below room temperature and no cloud points were detected. The values for the CMC of ATGs with 12 carbon alkyl chains and above were in good agreement with those of corresponding alkyl glucosides. However, lower homologues exhibited significantly smaller CMCs, and the trend of the CMC upon the chain length did not match common surfactant behavior. This deviation may be related to the triazole that links the two surfactant domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  17. Fulazzaky MA, Abdullah S, Salim MR
    Data Brief, 2016 Jun;7:834-8.
    PMID: 27077083 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2016.03.058
    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  18. Khung YL, Ngalim SH, Scaccabarozi A, Narducci D
    Sci Rep, 2015 Jun 12;5:11299.
    PMID: 26067470 DOI: 10.1038/srep11299
    Using two different hydrosilylation methods, low temperature thermal and UV initiation, silicon (111) hydrogenated surfaces were functionalized in presence of an OH-terminated alkyne, a CF3-terminated alkyne and a mixed equimolar ratio of the two alkynes. XPS studies revealed that in the absence of premeditated surface radical through low temperature hydrosilylation, the surface grafting proceeded to form a Si-O-C linkage via nucleophilic reaction through the OH group of the alkyne. This led to a small increase in surface roughness as well as an increase in hydrophobicity and this effect was attributed to the surficial etching of silicon to form nanosize pores (~1-3 nm) by residual water/oxygen as a result of changes to surface polarity from the grafting. Furthermore in the radical-free thermal environment, a mix in equimolar of these two short alkynes can achieve a high contact angle of ~102°, comparable to long alkyl chains grafting reported in literature although surface roughness was relatively mild (rms = ~1 nm). On the other hand, UV initiation on silicon totally reversed the chemical linkages to predominantly Si-C without further compromising the surface roughness, highlighting the importance of surface radicals determining the reactivity of the silicon surface to the selected alkynes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  19. Tong WL, Ong WJ, Chai SP, Tan MK, Hung YM
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11896.
    PMID: 26100977 DOI: 10.1038/srep11896
    The unique characteristic of fast water permeation in laminated graphene oxide (GO) sheets has facilitated the development of ultrathin and ultrafast nanofiltration membranes. Here we report the application of fast water permeation property of immersed GO deposition for enhancing the performance of a GO/water nanofluid charged two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT). By benchmarking its performance against a silver oxide/water nanofluid charged TPCT, the enhancement of evaporation strength is found to be essentially attributed to the fast water permeation property of GO deposition instead of the enhanced surface wettability of the deposited layer. The expansion of interlayer distance between the graphitic planes of GO deposited layer enables intercalation of bilayer water for fast water permeation. The capillary force attributed to the frictionless interaction between the atomically smooth, hydrophobic carbon structures and the well-ordered hydrogen bonds of water molecules is sufficiently strong to overcome the gravitational force. As a result, a thin water film is formed on the GO deposited layers, inducing filmwise evaporation which is more effective than its interfacial counterpart, appreciably enhanced the overall performance of TPCT. This study paves the way for a promising start of employing the fast water permeation property of GO in thermal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  20. Then, Yoon Yee, NorAzowa Ibrahim, Norhazlin Zainuddin, Hidayah Ariffin, Wan MdZin Wan Yunus
    Natural fiber is incompatible with hydrophobic polymer due to its hydrophilic nature. Therefore, surface modification of fiber is needed to impart compatibility. In this work,superheated steam (SHS)-alkali was introduced as novel surface treatment method to modify oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) for fabrication of biocomposites. The OPMF was first pre-treated with SHS and subsequently treated with varying NaOH concentration (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) and soaking time (1, 2, 3 and 4h) at room temperature. The biocomposites were then fabricated by melt blending of 70 wt% SHS-alkali treated-OPMFs and 30 wt% poly(butylene succinate) in a Brabender internal mixer followed by hot-pressed moulding. The combination treatment resulted in fiber with rough surface as well as led to the exposure ofmicrofibers. The tensile test result showed that fiber treated at 2% NaOH solution and 3h soaking time produced biocomposite with highest improvement in tensile strength (69%) and elongation at break (36%) in comparison to that of untreated OPMF. The scanning electron micrographs of tensile fracture surfaces of biocomposite provide evident for improved adhesion between fiber and polymer after thetreatments.This work demonstrated that combination treatments of SHS and NaOH could be a promising way to modify OPMF for fabrication of biocomposite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
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