Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 120 in total

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  1. Khalilpourfarshbafi M, Gholami K, Murugan DD, Abdul Sattar MZ, Abdullah NA
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Feb;58(1):5-25.
    PMID: 29541908 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1663-8
    PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development.

    METHODS: Presently, we provide a review of key studies evaluating the effects of dietary flavonoids in different stages of adipocyte development with a particular emphasis on the investigations that explore the underlying mechanisms of action of these compounds in human or animal cell lines as well as animal models.

    RESULTS: Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development. Although most of the studies reveal anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids, some flavonoids demonstrated proadipogenic effect in mesenchymal stem cells or preadipocytes.

    CONCLUSION: The anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids is mainly via their effect on regulation of several pathways such as induction of apoptosis, suppression of key adipogenic transcription factors, activation of AMPK and Wnt pathways, inhibition of clonal expansion, and cell-cycle arrest.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  2. Wiart C
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2014 Feb;64:410.
    PMID: 24316313 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.11.052
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  3. Das S, Laskar MA, Sarker SD, Choudhury MD, Choudhury PR, Mitra A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2017 Jul;28(4):324-331.
    PMID: 28168765 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2679
    INTRODUCTION: Prenylated and pyrano-flavonoids of the genus Artocarpus J. R. Forster & G. Forster are well known for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, anti-cholinergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Some of these compounds have also been shown to be effective against Alzheimer's disease.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the in silico study was to establish protocols to predict the most effective flavonoid from prenylated and pyrano-flavonoid classes for AChE inhibition linking to the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    METHODOLOGY: Three flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. were selected for the study. With these compounds, Lipinski filter, ADME/Tox screening, molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) were performed in silico. In vitro activity was evaluated by bioactivity staining based on the Ellman's method.

    RESULTS: In the Lipinski filter and ADME/Tox screening, all test compounds produced positive results, but in the target fishing, only one flavonoid could successfully target AChE. Molecular docking was performed on this flavonoid, and this compound gained the score as -13.5762. From the QSAR analysis the IC50 was found to be 1659.59 nM. Again, 100 derivatives were generated from the parent compound and docking was performed. The derivative compound 20 was the best scorer, i.e. -31.6392 and IC50 was predicted as 6.025 nM.

    CONCLUSION: Results indicated that flavonoids could be efficient inhibitors of AChE and thus, could be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  4. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 17;21(6).
    PMID: 27322227 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21060780
    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  5. Saghir SA, Sadikun A, Al-Suede FS, Majid AM, Murugaiyah V
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2016 6 6;17(10):915-25.
    PMID: 27262321
    BACKGROUND: Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a well-known plant in Malaysia which bears a great significance in traditional medicine.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect, antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of ripe and unripe fruits, leaves and stem of A. carambola.

    METHODS: Antihyperlipidemic activity was assessed in poloxamer-407 (P-407) induced acute hyperlipidemic rat's model. The antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1-diphenyl-2-dipicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, cytotoxicity of A. carambola extracts was assessed using MTS assay on four leukemic cell lines (human colon cancer, human promyeloid leukemia, erythroid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia) and one normal cell (human umbilical vein endothelial cells).

    RESULTS: Methanolic extract of leaves had the most potent antihyperlipidemic activity in P-407 model, whereby it significantly reduced serum levels of total cholesterol (P<0.01), triglycerides (P<0.01), low-density lipoprotein (P<0.05), verylow- density lipoprotein (P<0.01) and atherogenic index (P<0.01). On the other hand, methanolic extracts of A. carambola stem and leaves showed the strongest antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts exhibited significant correlations with antioxidant but not with antihyperlipidemic activities. All plant parts showed no cytotoxic effect on the selected cancer or normal cell lines.

    CONCLUSION: Antihyperlipidemic activity of different parts of A. carambola is greatly affected by extraction solvents used. Methanolic extract of A. carambola leaves exhibited higher antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potentials compared to other parts of the plant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  6. Koosha S, Alshawsh MA, Looi CY, Seyedan A, Mohamed Z
    Int J Med Sci, 2016;13(5):374-85.
    PMID: 27226778 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.14485
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53; β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  7. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Ashkani S, Rahmat A, Juraimi AS, Puteh A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Mar 22;16:104.
    PMID: 27004511 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1072-6
    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  8. Rahmani M, Leng KW, Ismail HB, Hin TY, Sukari MA, Ali AM, et al.
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2004 Feb;18(1):85-8.
    PMID: 14974620
    A new flavonoid, dihydroglychalcone-A, was isolated from the leaves extract of Glycosmis chlorosperma in addition to two known sulphur-containing amides, dambullin and gerambullin. The structure of the new compound was assigned as 2'-hydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxy-3',4'-(2",2"-dimethylpyrano)dihydrochalcone. The extract of the leaves was also found to exhibit antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  9. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  10. Bakar NS, Zin NM, Basri DF
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):633-8.
    PMID: 22713953
    This study evaluated in vitro activity of 9 flavonoids in combination with vancomycin or oxacillin against vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) ATCC 700699 by employing the checkerboard method to obtain Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. Six flavonoids namely hesperitin, rutin, naringenin, flavones, naringin and 3, 7-dihyroxyflavone which exhibited notable inhibitory activity (MIC values < 3200 μg/ml) were further evaluated for combination assay with antibiotics. The combinations of vancomycin+flavone and oxacillin+flavone were found synergistic with the FIC index value 0.094 and 0.126, respectively. Other combinations showed an additive interaction (FIC index = 1.063) but no antagonistic reaction (FIC index > 4) were observed. In time kill studies, oxacillin-flavone combination at synergistic concentration demonstrated bactericidal effect at 24 h period with concentration-dependent manner on the VISA strain. Following 1 h exposure, the combination also produced persistent effect on the bacteria growth for 2.9 hrs at 1x sub-MIC and more than 24 h at 5x of sub-MIC and there was a significant difference between both concentrations (p<0.05). Vancomycin-flavone combination, however, showed no concentration-dependent effect and lower PAE values (1.159 h and 2.322 h at 1x and 5x sub-MIC, respectively) on the VISA strain. In conclusion, flavone markedly intensifies the susceptibility of oxacillin against VISA and the combination can be implicated for further interaction studies at molecular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  11. Feroz SR, Mohamad SB, Bujang N, Malek SN, Tayyab S
    J. Agric. Food Chem., 2012 Jun 13;60(23):5899-908.
    PMID: 22624666 DOI: 10.1021/jf301139h
    Interaction of flavokawain B (FB), a multitherapeutic flavonoid from Alpinia mutica with the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was investigated using different spectroscopic probes, i.e., intrinsic, synchronous, and three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling studies. Values of binding parameters for FB-HSA interaction in terms of binding constant and stoichiometry of binding were determined from the fluorescence quench titration and were found to be 6.88 × 10(4) M(-1) and 1.0 mol of FB bound per mole of protein, respectively, at 25 °C. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding data obtained at different temperatures showed that the binding process was primarily mediated by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, as the values of the enthalpy change (ΔH) and the entropy change (ΔS) were found to be -6.87 kJ mol(-1) and 69.50 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. FB binding to HSA led to both secondary and tertiary structural alterations in the protein as revealed by intrinsic, synchronous, and 3-D fluorescence results. Increased thermal stability of HSA in the presence of FB was also evident from the far-UV CD spectral results. The distance between the bound ligand and Trp-214 of HSA was determined as 3.03 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer mechanism. Displacement experiments using bilirubin and warfarin coupled with molecular modeling studies assigned the binding site of FB on HSA at domain IIA, i.e., Sudlow's site I.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  12. Jantan I, Mohd Yasin YH, Jamil S, Sirat H, Basar N
    J Nat Med, 2010 Jul;64(3):365-9.
    PMID: 20349149 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-010-0410-0
    Five prenylflavonoids and two prenylchalcones from Artocarpus lowii King, A. scortechinii King and A. teysmanii Miq., and acetylated derivatives of cycloheterophyllin and artonin E were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood by using an electrical impedance method. Among the tested compounds, only cycloheterophyllin inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) value of 100.9 microM. It also showed strong inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with an IC(50) value of 57.1 microM. Isobavachalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E and artonin E triacetate showed selective inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with IC(50) values ranging from 55.3 to 192.0 microM, but did not show such effect against other inducers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  13. Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2010 Sep;15(9):6244-56.
    PMID: 20877220 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15096244
    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) belongs to the Iridaceae family. The stigma of saffron has been widely used as spice, medicinal plant, and food additive in the Mediterranean and Subtropical countries. Recently, attention has been paid to the identification of new sources of safe natural antioxidants for the food industry. The antioxidant activities of spices are mainly attributed to their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Saffron is one of the spices believed to possess antioxidant properties, but information on its antioxidant activity and phenolic, flavonoids compound are rather limited, therefore this research was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of saffron stigmas extracted with different solvents. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds of saffron were also examined using reversed phase (RP)-HPLC. Results showed that saffron stigma possess antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of saffron stigma at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 68.2% and 78.9%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic saffron extract was 6.54 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), and for total flavonoids, 5.88 ± 0.12 mg rutin equivalent/g DW, which were also higher than values obtained from the ethanolic and boiling water extracts. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses indicated the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol as two bioactive compounds. In summary, saffron stigmas showed antioxidant activity and methanol appeared to be the best solvent to extract the active components, among which the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol might contribute towards the stigma's antioxidant properties. Hence, saffron stigma could be applied as a natural antioxidant source for industrial purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  14. Hong TB, Rahumatullah A, Yogarajah T, Ahmad M, Yin KB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(3):1057-69.
    PMID: 20479999 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11031057
    This study aims to elucidate the effects of chrysin on human ER-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The study demonstrated that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with 20 microM chysin for 48 h significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and induced cytoplasmic lipid accumulation in the cells, but that the observed of cell death was not caused by apoptosis. The expression of PPARalpha mRNA in chrysin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly increased, which was likely associated to the proliferation of the cells post chrysin treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  15. Kiat TS, Pippen R, Yusof R, Ibrahim H, Khalid N, Rahman NA
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3337-40.
    PMID: 16621533
    Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives, 4-hydroxypanduratin A and panduratin A, showed good competitive inhibitory activities towards dengue 2 virus NS3 protease with the Ki values of 21 and 25 microM, respectively, whilst those of pinostrobin and cardamonin were observed to be non-competitive. NMR and GCMS spectroscopic data formed the basis of assignment of structures of the six compounds isolated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  16. Pan Y, Tiong KH, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Oct 15;21(12):1645-50.
    PMID: 25442272 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.08.003
    This study was designed to investigate eight herbal active constituents (andrographolide, asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, eupatorin, sinensetin, caffeic acid, and rosmarinic acid) on their potential inhibitory effects on human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity. A fluorescence-based enzyme assay was performed by co-incubating human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 with its selective probe substrate, 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CEC), in the absence or presence of various concentrations of herbal active constituents. The metabolite (cyano-hydroxycoumarin) formed was subsequently measured in order to obtain IC50 values. The results indicated that only eupatorin and sinensetin moderately inhibited CYP1A2 with IC50 values of 50.8 and 40.2 μM, while the other active compounds did not significantly affect CYP1A2 activity with IC50 values more than 100 μM. Ki values further determined for eupatorin and sinensetin were 46.4 and 35.2 μM, respectively. Our data indicated that most of the investigated herbal constituents have negligible CYP1A2 inhibitory effect. In vivo studies however may be warranted to ascertain the inhibitory effect of eupatorin and sinensetin on CYP1A2 activity in clinical situations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology*
  17. Fu X, Sévenet T, Remy F, Païs M, Hamid A, Hadi A, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 1993 Jul;56(7):1153-63.
    PMID: 8377019
    Four complex flavanones, kurziflavolactones A [2], B [3], C [4], and D [5] and a complex chalcone 6 with an unprecedented carbon side chain on the flavanone or chalcone A ring have been isolated from a Malaysian plant, Cryptocarya kurzii (Lauraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D nmr experiments. Compounds 3 and 6 showed slight cytotoxicity against KB cells, with IC50 values of 4 and 15 micrograms/ml, respectively. A biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these compounds is suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  18. Hamzah AS, Lajis NH, Sargent MV
    Planta Med., 1994 Aug;60(4):388-9.
    PMID: 7938277
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
  19. Teo LE, Pachiaper G, Chan KC, Hadi HA, Weber JF, Deverre JR, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1990 Feb;28(1):63-101.
    PMID: 2314111
    A large phytochemical survey of the flora of the Malaysian Peninsula and Sabah is described, covering the systematic search for alkaloids, and partly, for saponins and flavonoids. Details of some chemical studies are reported. This emphasizes the great interest of such a study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flavonoids/pharmacology
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