Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID(50) of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD(50). Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD(50) gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper.
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