Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Kositprapa C, Wimalratna O, Chomchey P, Chareonwai S, Benjavongkulchai M, Khawplod P, et al.
    J Travel Med, 1998 Mar;5(1):30-2.
    PMID: 9772313
    Rabies is still a major public health problem in Asia. The incidence of known annual human cases in India alone has recently been revised from 20,000 to 30,000, and over 500,000 patients are given some form of postexposure rabies treatment. Only China, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand are reporting a significant decrease in the prevalence of this disease in humans. Over 150,000 courses of postexposure treatment (PET) are given in Thailand every year. To determine remaining barriers to further reduction of the number of human rabies deaths, we carried out a questionnaire study of government hospitals throughout the Kingdom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  2. Gordon Smith CE, Turner LH, Armitage P
    Bull World Health Organ, 1962;27:717-27.
    PMID: 13993152
    Because of the risk of introduction of yellow fever to South-East Asia, comparative studies were made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayans who had a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. The proportions of positive neutralizing antibody responses to subcutaneous vaccination with 17D vaccine were not significantly different between volunteers with and without heterologous antibody but the degree of antibody response was greater in those without. The ID(50) of 17D in both groups was about 5 mouse intracerebral LD(50). Multiple puncture vaccination with 17D gave a much lower response rate than subcutaneous vaccination in volunteers with heterologous antibody. In both groups subcutaneous doses of about 50 mouse intracerebral LD(50) gave larger antibody responses than higher doses. The neutralizing indices and analysis of results were calculated by a method based on the survival time of the mice. This method, which has advantages over that of Reed & Muench, is fully described in an annex to this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous*
  3. Aziz HA, Peh KK, Tan YT
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2011 Oct-Dec;5(4):e267-360.
    PMID: 24331133 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2011.03.008
    Obesity is one of the most important problems worldwide. Khat (Catha edulis), an evergreen shrub, is thought to reduce body-weight. Its effect is more prominent when khat leaves are chewed. Thus, anti-obesity effects of khat and its associated side effects may depend on the release rate of its active constituents. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a selected low dose of dried-khat, extracted, formulated as controlled release delivery systems on the body weight (BW), food intake (FI), cholesterol (CS) and triglyceride (TG) levels in rats. Khat extract (KE) was microencapsulated (KE235) and formulated into a parenteral implant (InjKE235). The effects of KE, KE235 and InjKE235 on BW, FI, CS and TG in rats were investigated. The results showed that microcapsules sustained the khat alkaloid release with T50% 1.58 h for KE235 and 14.41 days for InjKE235. KE and KE235 caused maximum reduction in BW, FI, CS and TG during the first to third weeks but rebound gradually thereafter. On the contrary, InjKE235 exhibited a sustained reduction in BW, FI, CS and TG levels for 2 months. The T50% of KE, KE235 and InjKE235 correlated with the reduction in BW, CS and TG but not with FI. In conclusion, the subcutaneous injection and sustained release rate of khat extract play an important role in enhancing the anti-obesity effect in SD rats.:
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  4. Siti Norashikin MT, Ghosh S, Chatterjee R, Rajikin MH, Chatterjee A
    Reprod. Med. Biol., 2014 Jul;13(3):135-141.
    PMID: 29699157 DOI: 10.1007/s12522-013-0174-9
    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effects of nicotine on the endometrial decidual growth and levels of estrogen and progesterone in pseudopregnant rats.

    Methods: Pseudopregnancy (pc) was induced in cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats by sterile mating. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pc. In another group of pseudopregnant rats, concomitant treatment of nicotine tartrate concurrently with progesterone (2 mg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 9 pc. Control groups received subcutaneous injections of vehicle only. Endometrial decidualization was induced on day 5 pc. On day 10 pc, animals were sacrificed.The degree of decidual growth and circulating levels of estrogen and progesterone were measured.

    Results: The decidual growth in all the first three nicotine-treated groups of animals was significantly reduced, particularly in the animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly elevated in animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Conversely, levels of plasma progesterone were found to be significantly attenuated in the same group of nicotine-treated animals compared to controls. Exogenous replacement of progesterone, however, caused a higher degree of endometrial decidualization compared to the nicotine-treated group but it was slightly less than when compared to control.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, nicotine-induced progesterone deficiency with a corresponding elevation of estrogen may possibly attenuate the degree of endometrial decidualization in pseudopregnant rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  5. Abdul Razak S, Makmor Bakry M, Mohamed Said MS, Tan CE, Md Redzuan A
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:572260.
    PMID: 33240088 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.572260
    Background: The biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are currently incorporated as part of the pharmacotherapy management of inflammatory arthritis (IA). Adherence to bDMARDs is crucial to ensure treatment success in IA. However, most of the recent studies evaluated adherence level in patients using subcutaneous injections of bDMARDs utilized the indirect methods adapted from adherence assessment for oral medication. Aim: This study aimed to develop a questionnaire to assess adherence to the self-injectable subcutaneous bDMARDs. Methods: The development of the Subcutaneous bDMARDs Adherence Score (SCADS) involved evaluation of content validity. Literature reviews provide the basis for domain identification and item formation. Four experts evaluated the instrument by using a four-point ordinal scale with a rubric scoring on relevance, importance, and clarity of each item in measuring the overarching construct. The item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and the scale-level content validity index (S-CVI) were calculated. The factor structure and internal consistency reliability of SCADS were estimated using principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Results: Both S-CVI/UA (universal agreement) and the average item-level content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) (average) for the entire instrument showed excellent criteria with a value of >0.90. Cronbach's alpha coefficient value for SCADS was 0.707 indicating good internal consistency. All items showed corrected item-total correlation coefficients above 0.244. Questionnaire items with a factor loading of 0.30 or above were considered in the final factor solution. The factor analysis resulted in 3-factor solutions, which corresponded to 66.62% of the total variance. Conclusion: The SCADS is a consistent and reliable instrument for evaluating adherence among IA patients using the subcutaneous bDMARDs. It is simple to use, yet comprehensive but still requiring further clinical and international validation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  6. Turner L, Ly LP, Desai R, Singh GKS, Handelsman TD, Savkovic S, et al.
    J Endocr Soc, 2019 Aug 01;3(8):1531-1540.
    PMID: 31384715 DOI: 10.1210/js.2019-00134
    Context: Can injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) be administered effectively and acceptably by the subcutaneous (SC) route?

    Objective: To investigate the acceptability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of SC injection of TU.

    Design: Randomized sequence, crossover clinical study of SC vs IM TU injections.

    Setting: Ambulatory clinic of an academic andrology center.

    Participants: Twenty men (11 hypogonadal, 9 transgender men) who were long-term users of TU. injections. Intervention: Injection of 1000 mg TU (in 4 mL castor oil vehicle) by SC or IM route. Main Outcome Measures: Patient-reported pain, acceptability, and preference scales. PK by measurement of serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (E2) concentrations with application of population PK methods and dried blood spot (DBS) sampling.

    Results: Pain was greater after SC compared with IM injection 24 hours (but not immediately) after injection but both routes were equally acceptable. Ultimately 11 preferred IM, 6 preferred SC, and 3 had no preference. The DBS-based PK analysis of serum testosterone revealed a later time of peak testosterone concentration after SC vs IM injection (8.0 vs 3.3 days) but no significant route differences in model-predicted peak testosterone concentration (8.4 vs 9.6 ng/mL) or mean resident time (183 vs 110 days). The PK of venous serum testosterone, DHT, and E2 did not differ according to route of injection.

    Conclusions: We conclude that SC TU injection is acceptable but produces greater pain 24 hours after injection that may contribute to the overall majority preference for the IM injection. The PK of testosterone, DHT, or E2 did not differ substantially between SC and IM routes. Hence whereas further studies are required, the SC route represents an alternative to IM injections without a need to change dose for men for whom IM injection is not desired or recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  7. Siti Norashikin Mohd Tambeh, Sumitabha Ghosh, Mohd Hamim Rajikin
    Introduction: The present study aims to investigate the effects of nicotine on foetal loss,
    postnatal growth and corresponding levels of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnant rats.
    Methods: Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was administered to
    groups of pregnant rats; with treatment scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through
    day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pregnancy. On day 10 of pregnancy, laparotomy was
    performed to count the number of blastocyst implantation sites. During parturition, the
    number of viable pups was recounted and statistically compared with the controls. One
    group of rats which received nicotine from day 1 through day 9 of pregnancy was sacrificed
    on day 16 of pregnancy, and circulating levels of oestrogen and progesterone were
    measured. Upon delivery, the birth weight of the pups was measured, and their weights were
    recorded until weaning. Results: There was a significant increase in foetal loss particularly in
    rats which received nicotine from day 5 through day 9 and from day 1 through day 9 of
    pregnancy. There was also significantly lower birth weight of pups in all groups; however,
    this pattern did not continue until weaning. Plasma oestrogen level was significantly elevated
    with a significant decrease in the plasma progesterone level. Conclusions: Nicotine
    administration during pregnancy showed an increase in foetal loss with a corresponding
    increase in oestrogen and decrease in progesterone levels. Although the birth weight of the
    pups was low, there was catch-up growth in the pups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  8. Gordon Smith CE, McMahon DA, Turner LH
    Bull World Health Organ, 1963;29:75-80.
    PMID: 14043754
    In view of the risk of introduction of yellow fever into South-East Asia, comparative studies have been made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayan volunteers with a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. In a previous paper the neutralizing antibody responses of these volunteers were reported. The present paper describes the haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibody responses of the same groups of volunteers and discusses the relationship of these responses to the neutralizing antibody responses.The HI responses to yellow fever following vaccination closely paralleled the neutralizing antibody responses whether vaccination was subcutaneous or by multiple puncture. Volunteers with a high level of YF HI antibody due to infection with other group B viruses were found to be less likely to show a significant YF HI response than those without antibody. 90% of HI responses could be detected by the 21st day after vaccination.As with neutralizing antibody responses, volunteers given vaccine doses of 50-500 mouse intracerebral LD(50) subcutaneously gave greater responses than those given higher doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous*
  9. Buhari S, Hashim K, Yong Meng G, Mustapha NM, Gan SH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:564939.
    PMID: 22778699 DOI: 10.1100/2012/564939
    Subcutaneous (SC) administration of tramadol was compared with intravenous (IV) administration to evaluate analgesia following canine ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Healthy female dogs (n = 12) between 1 and 3 years of age (1.95 ± 0.65 years), weighing between 10.5 and 17.1 kg (13.12 ± 1.95 kg), were used. Pain was assessed at baseline before surgery and then hourly for 8 hr after surgery. Tramadol was administered both SC and IV at a dose of 3 mg/kg and provided significant postoperative analgesia, as indicated by analgesiometry, β-endorphin levels, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. The respiratory rates and rectal temperatures remained normal and were not significantly different between or within the groups. A significant increase in heart rate was observed at 4 hr for dogs in both groups relative to the baseline, but there was no significant difference in heart rates between the groups at any time point. A significant decrease in mechanical pain threshold was observed within each group after surgery, but both groups responded similarly, suggesting that SC administration of tramadol is as effective as IV administration. Increased serum levels of both IL-6 and β-endorphin 3 hr postoperatively further indicate that both routes of administration achieve similar pain control. Thus, the relative analgesic efficacy of SC tramadol is comparable to that of IV administration and can be used to achieve similar effects for postsurgical pain management in dogs undergoing OHE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous/veterinary
  10. Capeding MR, Tran NH, Hadinegoro SR, Ismail HI, Chotpitayasunondh T, Chua MN, et al.
    Lancet, 2014 Oct 11;384(9951):1358-65.
    PMID: 25018116 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61060-6
    An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the first report of a phase 3 vaccine efficacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  11. Vijayan R, Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):385-400.
    PMID: 7545779
    An Acute Pain Service (APS) was started in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur by the Department of Anaesthesiology in October 1992 for more effective control of postoperative pain. The main modalities of treatment included patient controlled analgesia (PCA) using morphine or pethidine with PCA devises, epidural opiate analgesia (EOA) using tramadol or fentanyl/bupivacaine mixture and subcutaneous administration of morphine or pethidine. Five hundred and fifty-one patients were managed in the first year, with an overall patient satisfaction score of 83%. The majority (98.5%) of them were after abdominal or major orthopaedic surgery. Eighty per cent of patients scored < 3 on the verbal numeric pain scale, where 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst imaginable pain, on the first postoperative day. Nausea and vomiting was an unpleasant side effect in 20% of patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  12. Mak JW, Lam PL, Rain AN, Suresh K
    Parasitol Res, 1988;74(4):383-5.
    PMID: 3387410
    Ivermectin at single doses of 0.2-1.0 mg/kg body weight reduced the microfilarial counts of subperiodic Brugia malayi in Presbytis cristata by 59.9%-89.6% of initial counts, 4 weeks after treatment. Adult filaricidal activity was poor, live adult worms being recovered from all animals at autopsy. There was no serious side effect at these doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  13. Ben Hameid AS, Al-Sindi TA, Allow AK, Nafie EM, Alahmad BE, Faisal GG
    Oman Med J, 2019 May;34(3):238-243.
    PMID: 31110632 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2019.45
    Objectives: Estradiol (E2) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed aqueous (FSA) extract on serum E2 levels in a rat model of OHSS.

    Methods: A total of 34 female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 18 days old, weighing 40 to 45 g, were randomly divided into negative control, positive control, and treatment groups. A daily dose of 1500 mg/kg per body weight of FSA extract was administrated orally to rats in the treatment group for 13 days. On day eight of the study, OHSS was induced in both positive control and treated groups by subcutaneous injection of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin 50 IU for four consecutive days, followed by human chorionic gonadotropin 25 IU on the fifth day. The effect of FSA extract was evaluated by measuring the concentration of serum E2 using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Results: FSA extract reduced serum E2 level significantly in the treated OHSS model (p-value < 0.050) compared to the positive control group.

    Conclusions: The finding has important implications on the development of female infertility adjuvant drugs for safe assisted reproduction technology cycles in terms of OHSS prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  14. Low, Qin Jian, Hong, Eric Qiu Weng, Cheo Seng Wee
    Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune disorder where vitamin B12 deficiency is caused by autoantibodies that interfere with vitamin B12 absorption by targeting intrinsic factor or parietal cells or both. It is commonly associated with anaemia, rarely pancytopenia. Here we reported two cases of pancytopenia due to undiagnosed pernicious anaemia. First case was a 26-year-old man presented with lethargy and reduced effort tolerance, associated with postural giddiness and palpitation. Clinically, he was pale with no other findings. On blood investigations, the patient was diagnosed pancytopenia secondary to pernicious anaemia. He was treated with daily subcutaneous injection of vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin 1 mg for one week followed by weekly injection for a month and subsequently with lifelong monthly subcutaneous injection. After receiving 2 weeks of B12 replacement, his full blood count had normalized and his symptoms resolved. Second case was a 65-year-old man presented with yellowish discolouration of the eyes with lethargy. On examination, he was pale with jaundice. On blood investigations, the patient was diagnosed pancytopenia secondary to pernicious anaemia. He was started with intramuscular injection of 1000 mcg vitamin B12 replacement daily for one week followed by monthly for 6 months. After one week of B12 replacement, his full blood count had normalized. He was started on lifelong 3 monthly injections of vitamin B12 replacement and he remained symptom free. Patients with pernicious anaemia often present with general signs and symptoms which occur insidiously. It is important that early diagnosis is made to avoid harmful complications such as neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  15. Osman AY, Saharee AA, Jesse FF, Kadir AA
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Mar;116:318-327.
    PMID: 29412161 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.01.007
    Brucella melitensis is a major zoonotic pathogen in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is believed to play a major role in the diseases pathogenesis. To study the immunopathophysiological aspects, we established a mouse model experimentally infected with whole cell of B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide via subcutaneous route of exposure. Eighty four mice, BALB/c, both sexes with equal gender distribution and 6-8 weeks-old were randomly assigned into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 36) were subcutaneoulsy inoculated with 0.4 mL 109 of B. melitensis while group 2 (n = 36) were subcutaneously challenged with 0.4 mL 109 of LPS. Group 3 (n = 12) was challenged subcuatneously with phosphate buffered saline and served as a control group. Animals were observed for clinical signs, haematological and histopathological analysis for a period of 24 days post-inoculation. Our results revealed that B. melitensis infected group demonstrated significant clinical signs and histopathological evidence than LPS infected group. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of interleukins (IL-1β & IL6), antibody levels (IgM & IgG) as early as 3 days post-infection with predominance in LPS infected group. For hormone analysis, low levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were observed in both B. melitensis and LPS challenged groups throughout the study period. Moreover, in B. melitensis infected groups, the organism was re-isolated from the organs and tissues of gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems; thereby confirming the possible transmission of the disease dynamics. Moreover, LPS stimulated significantly the innate and acquired immune system without significant systemic dysfunction suggesting the potentiality of the protective properties of this component as an alternative vaccine for brucellosis infection. This report is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in relation to the immunopathophysiological aspects in mouse model after subcutaneous inoculation with B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  16. Ezeasor CK, Emikpe BO, Shoyinka SV, Sabri MY
    J Immunoassay Immunochem, 2021 Jul 04;42(4):424-443.
    PMID: 33724901 DOI: 10.1080/15321819.2021.1895216
    This study reports the influence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination on the clinico-pathological outcomes of PPR in the face of an outbreak. Twenty-two West African dwarf goats procured for a different study started showing early signs of PPR during acclimatization. In response, PPR vaccine was administered either intranasally with phytogenic mucoadhesive gum (Group A; n = 6) or without gum (Group B; n = 6); subcutaneously (Group C; n = 6) or not vaccinated (Group D; n = 4) and studied for 21 days. The clinical scores, hematology, serology and pathology scores were evaluated. Clinical signs of PPR were present in all groups, presenting a percentage mortality of 33%; 33%; 64% and 100% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. Polycythemia and mild leukopenia were observed in all groups, and all animals were seropositive by day 7 post-vaccination. The lung consolidation scores were low in Groups A and B, compared to Group C. Histopathological lesions consistent with PPR was observed in the lymphoid organs, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs with the presence of PPR antigen as detected by immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that intranasal vaccination with or without mucoadhesive gum may influence the outcome of PPR infection more than the subcutaneous route in the face of an outbreak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  17. Theron KE, Penny CB, Hosie MJ
    Reprod Biol, 2014 Sep;14(3):224-33.
    PMID: 25152521 DOI: 10.1016/j.repbio.2014.04.005
    RU486 is a partial progesterone and estrogen receptor antagonist, functioning to actively silence progesterone receptor gene-associated transcription. For this reason, it has been used as both a contraceptive and an abortive agent. In the present study, cellular and gene specific effects of RU486 were investigated in a rat model of early pregnancy, including key phases of the window of receptivity and early implantation. As these stages are hormonally regulated by progesterone and estrogens, the focus here was to elucidate the mechanism of action of a single dose of RU486, used as a postcoital contraceptive, to successfully prevent implantation of a viable blastocyst. Immunofluorescent techniques were used to examine the change in protein levels of PR in RU486-treated endometria at days 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 of pregnancy. Changes in the Pgr gene expression level as a consequence of RU486 administration was evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The progesterone receptor gene and protein expression was ubiquitously decreased throughout pregnancy as a direct consequence of RU486 administration. The overall effects of postcoital RU486 administration during early pregnancy indicate highly effective inhibition of progesterone and estrogen effects on the endometrium, mediated by their receptors. More specifically, the expression and localization of the progesterone receptor mirrors that described in ovariectomized animal models, suggesting a hormonally under-stimulated endometrium. Clearly from the present study, the precise priming of the endometrium by progesterone, in preparation for blastocyst implantation, is severely impaired by RU486, thus predisposing the uterus to pregnancy failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
  18. Singh GK, Turner L, Desai R, Jimenez M, Handelsman DJ
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2014 Jul;99(7):2592-8.
    PMID: 24684468 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-1243
    Testosterone (T) and nandrolone (N) esters require deep im injections by medical personnel but these often deposit injectate into sc fat so that more convenient sc self-administration may be feasible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Injections, Subcutaneous
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