Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1936 in total

  1. Tan NH, Wong KY, Tan CH
    J Proteomics, 2017 03 22;157:18-32.
    PMID: 28159706 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.018
    The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes. At subproteome, the 3FTx is dominated by cytotoxins (48.08%), while short neurotoxins (7.89%) predominate over the long neurotoxins (0.48%) among other neurotoxins of lesser toxicity (muscarinic toxin-like proteins, 5.51% and weak neurotoxins, 2.26%). The major SNTX, CTX and PLA2 toxins were isolated with intravenous median lethal doses determined as 0.13, 1.06 and 0.50μg/g in mice, respectively. SABU, the Indonesia manufactured homologous tri-specific antivenom could neutralize the CTX and PLA2 fraction with moderate potency (potency=0.14-0.16mg toxin per ml antivenom). The SNTX, however, was very poorly neutralized with a potency level of 0.034mg/ml, indicating SNTX as the main limiting factor in antivenom neutralization. The finding helps elucidate the inferior efficacy of SABU reported in neutralizing N. sputatrix venom, and supports the call for antivenom improvement.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. The neurotoxicity of N. sputatrix venom is hence almost exclusively SNTX-driven, and effective neutralization of the SNTX is the key to early reversal of paralysis. Unfortunately, as shown through a toxin-specific assay, the immunological neutralization of the SNTX using the Indonesian antivenom (SABU) was extremely weak, implying that SABU has limited therapeutic efficacy in treating N. sputatrix envenomation clinically. From the practical standpoint, actions need to be taken at all levels from laboratory to production and policy making to ensure that the shortcoming is overcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  2. Shamshuddin NSS, Mohd Zohdi R
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jan;8(1):39-45.
    PMID: 29321987 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.08.009
    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the pulmonary airways. Gelam honey has been proven to possess anti-inflammatory property with great potential to treat an inflammatory condition. However, the effect of ingestion of Gelam honey on allergic asthma has never been studied. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Gelam honey on the histopathological changes in the lungs of a mice model of allergic asthma. Forty-two Balb/c mice were divided into seven groups: control, I, II, III, IV, V and VI group. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Mice in groups I, II, III, IV, and V were given honey at a dose of 10% (v/v), 40% (v/v) and 80% (v/v), dexamethasone 3 mg/kg, and phosphate buffered saline (vehicle) respectively, orally once a day for 5 days of the challenged period. Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last OVA challenged and the lungs were evaluated for histopathological changes by light microscopy. All histopathological parameters such as epithelium thickness, the number of mast cell and mucus expression in Group III significantly improved when compared to Group VI except for subepithelial smooth muscle thickness (p mice model of allergic asthma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  3. Prom-In S, Kaewsrichan J, Wangpradit N, Kien Hui C, Yahaya MF, Kamisah Y, et al.
    PMID: 32751614 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17155513
    Okra peel exhibits numerous therapeutic effects. This study explores the potential ameliorative effects of okra peel powder on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hypercholesterolemia and cognitive deficits. Thirty-six C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): (i) control, mice fed with a normal diet; (ii) HFD, mice fed with HFD; (iii) HFD-SIM, mice fed with HFD and given simvastatin (20 mg/kg/day); (iv) HFD-OP1; (v) HFD-OP2; (vi) HFD-OP3, mice fed with HFD and okra peel (200, 400, or 800 mg/kg/day, respectively). Following 10 weeks of treatments, the mice were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM). Parameters such as weekly average body weight, food intake, and blood lipid profiles were also recorded. The HFD group showed a profound increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentration compared to the control group. All okra-treated and HFD-SIM groups performed better than the HFD group during acquisition trials, whereas only the HFD-OP1 produced a significantly higher number of entries into the platform zone during the probe trial. In sum, all three okra doses improved the learning ability of the mice. However, only the lowest dose of okra significantly improved the spatial reference memory retention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
  4. Lee MHP, Tan CW, Tee HK, Ong KC, Sam IC, Chan YF
    Vaccine, 2021 03 19;39(12):1708-1720.
    PMID: 33640144 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.02.024
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is associated with severe neurological complications and death. This study aims to develop a live-attenuated vaccine by codon deoptimization (CD) and codon-pair deoptimization (CPD) of EV-A71. CD is generated by introducing the least preferred codons for amino acids while CPD increases the presence of underrepresented codon pairs in the specific genes. CD and CPD chimeras were generated by synonymous mutations at the VP2, VP3, VP1 and 2A gene regions, designated as XYZ. All twelve deoptimized viruses were viable with similar replication kinetics, but the plaque sizes were inversely proportional to the level of deoptimization. All the deoptimized viruses showed attenuated growth in vitro with reduced viral protein expression at 48 h and lower viral RNA at 39 °C. Six-week-old ICR mice were immunized intraperitoneally with selected CD and CPD X and XY vaccine candidates covering the VP2-VP3 and VP2-VP3-VP1 genes, respectively. All vaccine candidates elicited high anti-EV-A71 IgG levels similar to wild-type (WT) EV-A71. The CD X and CPD X vaccines produced robust neutralizing antibodies but not the CD XY and CPD XY. On lethal challenge, offspring of mice immunized with WT, CD X and CPD X were fully protected, but the CD XY- and CPD XY-vaccinated mice had delayed symptoms and eventually died. Similarly, active immunization of 1-day-old suckling mice with CD X, CPD X and CD XY vaccine candidates provided complete immune protection but CPD XY only protected 40% of the challenged mice. Histology of the muscles from CD X- and CPD X-vaccinated mice showed minimal pathology compared to extensive inflammation in the post-challenged mock-vaccinated mice. Overall, we demonstrated that the CD X and CPD X elicited good neutralizing antibodies, conferred immune protection and are promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates for EV-A71.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  5. Nassar I, Pasupati T, Judson JP, Segarra I
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2009 Aug;41(4):167-72.
    PMID: 20523867 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.56071
    PURPOSE: Imatinib is an efficacious drug against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) due to selective inhibition of c-KIT and BCR-ABL kinases. It presents almost complete bioavailability, is eliminated via P450-mediated metabolism and is well tolerated. However, a few severe drug-drug interactions have been reported in cancer patients taking acetaminophen.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male ICR mice were given 100 mg/kg single dose of imatinib orally or imatinib 100 mg/kg (orally) coadministered with acetaminophen intraperitoneally (700 mg/kg). Mice were euthanized at predetermined time points, blood samples collected, and imatinib plasma concentration measured by HPLC.
    RESULTS: Imatinib AUC(0-12) was 27.04 +/- 0.38 mg.h/ml, C(max) was 7.21 +/- 0.99 mg/ml and elimination half-life was 2.3 hours. Acetaminophen affected the imatinib disposition profile: AUC(0-12) and C(max) decreased 56% and 59%, respectively and a longer half-life was observed (5.6 hours).
    CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a pharmacokinetic interaction between acetaminophen and imatinib which may render further human studies necessary if both drugs are administered concurrently to cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Dec;14:99-105.
    PMID: 13842715
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice
  7. Abd Razak N, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB, Ho WY, Yong CY, Tan SW, et al.
    Integr Cancer Ther, 2020 8 25;19:1534735420935625.
    PMID: 32830560 DOI: 10.1177/1534735420935625
    Eupatorin is a polymethoxy flavone extracted from Orthosiphon stamineus and was reported to exhibit cytotoxic effects on several cancer cell lines. However, its effect as an anti-breast cancer agent in vivo has yet to be determined. This study aims to elucidate the potential of eupatorin as an anti-breast cancer agent in vivo using 4T1 challenged BALB/c mice model. In this article, BALB/c mice (20-22 g) challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg eupatorin, while the untreated and healthy mice were fed with olive oil (vehicle) via oral gavage. After 28 days of experiment, the mice were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum cytokine assay, while tumors were harvested to extract RNA and protein for gene expression assay and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Organs such as spleen and lung were harvested for immune suppression and clonogenic assay, respectively. Eupatorin (20 mg/kg) was effective in delaying the tumor development and reducing metastasis to the lung compared with the untreated mice. Eupatorin (20 mg/kg) also enhanced the immunity as the population of NK1.1+ and CD8+ in the splenocytes and the serum interferon-γ were increased. Concurrently, eupatorin treatment also has downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory and metastatic related genes (IL-1β. MMP9, TNF-α, and NF-κB). Thus, this study demonstrated that eupatorin at the highest dosage of 20 mg/kg body weight was effective in delaying the 4T1-induced breast tumor growth in the animal model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  8. Anada RP, Wong KT, Malicdan MC, Goh KJ, Hayashi Y, Nishino I, et al.
    Amyloid, 2014 Jun;21(2):138-9.
    PMID: 24601867 DOI: 10.3109/13506129.2014.889675
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Transgenic; Mice, Knockout; Mice
  9. Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Ky H, Liew NWC, Beh BK, Boo SY, et al.
    PMID: 33029159 DOI: 10.1155/2020/1257962
    Obesity is a pandemic metabolic syndrome with increasing incidences every year. Among the significant factors that lead to obesity, overconsumption of high-fat food in daily intake is always the main contributor. Functional foods have shown a positive effect on disease prevention and provide health benefits, including counteracting obesity problem. Vinegar is one of the fermented functional beverages that have been consumed for many years, and different types of vinegar showed different bioactivities and efficacies. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of pineapple vinegar as an antiobesity agent on a high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced C57BL/6 obese mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with pineapple vinegar (1 mL/kg BW and 0.08 mL/kg BW) for 12 weeks after 24 weeks of HFD incubation. Serum biochemistry profiles, antioxidant assays, qPCR, proteome profiler, and 16S metagenomic were done posttreatment. Our data showed that a high concentration of pineapple vinegar (1 mL/kg BW) treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bodyweight (∼20%), restored lipid profiles, increased the antioxidant activities, and reduced the oxidative stress. Besides, significant (p < 0.05) regulation of several adipokines and inflammatory-related genes was recorded. Through the regulation of gut microbiota, we found a higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a microbiota reported to be associated with obesity in the high concentration of pineapple vinegar treatment. Collectively, these data established the mechanism of pineapple vinegar as antiobesity in mice and revealed the potential of pineapple vinegar as a functional food for obesity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Obese; Mice
  10. Muhammad-Azam F, Nur-Fazila SH, Ain-Fatin R, Mustapha Noordin M, Yimer N
    Vet World, 2019 Nov;12(11):1682-1688.
    PMID: 32009746 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1682-1688
    Background and Aim: Laboratory mice are widely used as a research model to provide insights into toxicological studies of various xenobiotic. Acetaminophen (APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that is commonly known as paracetamol, an ideal hepatotoxicant to exhibit centrilobular necrosis in laboratory mice to resemble humans. However, assessment of histopathological changes between mouse strains is important to decide the optimal mouse model used in APAP toxicity study. Therefore, we aim to assess the histomorphological features of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI) in BALB/C and Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice.

    Materials and Methods: Twenty-five ICR mice and 20 BALB/C mice were used where five animals as control and the rest were randomly divided into four time points at 5, 10, 24 and 48 hours post-dosing (hpd). They were induced with 500 mg/kg APAP intraperitoneally. Liver sections were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and histopathological changes were scored based on grading methods.

    Results: Intense centrilobular damage was observed as early as 5 hpd in BALB/C as compared to ICR mice, which was observed at 10 hpd. The difference of liver injury between ICR and BALB/C mice is due to dissimilarity in the genetic line-up that related to different elimination pathways of APAP toxicity. However, at 24 hpd, the damage was markedly subsided and liver regeneration had taken place for both ICR and BALB/C groups with evidence of mitotic figures. This study showed that normal liver architecture was restored after the clearance of toxic insult.

    Conclusion: AILI was exhibited earlier in BALB/C than ICR mice but both underwent liver recovery at later time points.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  11. Brandt JR, Sewell MM
    Vet Res Commun, 1981 Dec;5(2):187-91.
    PMID: 7345726
    Strains of Taenia taeniaeformis were shown to possess markedly differing infectivities for Sprague-Dawley rats and CFI mice. Strains from Scotland, Belgium and Iraq were more infective for mice than rats while this situation was reversed with a Malaysian strain. There were also differences in their ability to infect hosts of different ages within the range 3-12 weeks of age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred Strains/parasitology*; Mice
  12. Low VL, Chen CD, Lee HL, Lim PE, Leong CS, Sofian-Azirun M
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Jan;50(1):103-11.
    PMID: 23427658
    A nationwide investigation was carried out to determine the current susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say populations against four active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, propoxur, malathion, and permethrin. Across 14 study sites, both larval and adult bioassays exhibited dissimilar trends in susceptibility. A correlation between propoxur and malathion resistance and between propoxur and permethrin resistance in larval bioassays was found. The results obtained from this study provide baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of this mosquito should be monitored from time to time to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control operations in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  13. Azuma H, Okamoto M, Oku Y, Kamiya M
    Parasitol Res, 1995;81(2):103-8.
    PMID: 7731915
    The intraspecific variation of four laboratory-reared isolates of Taenia taeniaformis the SRN and KRN isolates from Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, captured in Japan and Malaysia, respectively; the BMM isolated from a house mouse, Mus musculus, captured in Belgium; and the ACR isolate from a gray red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, captured in Japan was examined by various criteria. Eggs of each of the four isolates were orally inoculated into several species of intermediate host. They were most infective to the rodent species from which the original metacestode of each isolate had been isolated in the field, and only the ACR isolate was infective to the gray red-backed vole. Although little difference was found between the SRN, KRN, and BMM isolates by the other criteria, including the morphology of rostellar hooks, the protein composition of the metacestode, and restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA, the ACR isolate was clearly different from the others. It was considered that the ACR isolate was independent as a strain distinct from the other three isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred AKR/parasitology; Mice, Inbred BALB C/parasitology; Mice, Inbred C57BL/parasitology; Mice/parasitology*
  14. Ahmed, QU, Radhiyah I, Siti Zaiton MS
    Leaves of Thottea dependens have been used as folk medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of
    several conditions involving pain and inflammation with accompanying pyrexia. However, there is no scientific
    evidence for its effectiveness to treat fever. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-pyretic
    activity of methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (Aq) extracts of T. dependens leaves in albino mice (ICR strain).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR; Mice
  15. Yahya M.D., Lung C, Pinnas YL
    Sains Malaysiana, 1996;25(1):77-86.
    The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-specific antibodies in lupus-prone MRL/ lpr mice of different ages were compared to those against DNA. These mice elicited anti-MDA antibodies earlier and in higher levels that anti-DNA antibodies. The levels of immune complexes containing MDA adducts were also higher in these mice when compared to 3 other non-lupus strains. MDA binding to a 100 kDa serum protein was observed in 3 and 5 month old mice. Immune complexes involving anti-MDA antibodies and MDA adducts may represent an additional mechanism that contributes to disease pathogenesis in these mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred MRL lpr; Mice
  16. Zahedi SN, Hejazi SH, Boshtam M, Amini F, Fazeli H, Sarmadi M, et al.
    Acta Parasitol, 2021 Mar;66(1):53-59.
    PMID: 32676917 DOI: 10.1007/s11686-020-00251-w
    PURPOSE: Leishmaniasis, a widespread parasitic disease, is a public health concern that is endemic in more than 90 countries. Owing to the drug resistance and also undesirable complications, designing new therapeutic methods are essential. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein of plasma with several immune modulatory functions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of human recombinant CRP (hrCRP) on treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice models.

    METHODS: hrCRP was expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami and extracted from the SDS-PAGE gel. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously at the base of their tails by 1 × 105 stationary-phase of Leishmania major promastigotes (MHRO/IR/75/ER) suspended in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Nodules and subsequently, ulcers developed 14 days post-injection. 1.5 µg of the purified protein was administered on lesions of pre-infected mice by Leishmania major in the intervention group for five consecutive days.

    RESULTS: The mean area of the lesions was decreased by about seven folds in the intervention group as compared to the control group after two weeks of the treatment (p = 0.024). The results were verified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction so that the parasite burden was determined 27 times in the control group as compared to the intervention group (p = 0.02). Two weeks after treatment, the conversion of the lesions to scars in the intervention group was observed.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate a potential therapeutic role for hrCRP in improving cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in mice models. The healing was in a stage-dependent manner.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  17. Tiong V, Loong SK, Mohamad Wali HA, Tan KK, Jee PF, Lim FS, et al.
    J Vet Med Sci, 2021 Mar 05;83(2):280-284.
    PMID: 33441499 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.20-0070
    Corneal lesions appearing as white mass beneath intact epithelium, with ocular discharge in one mouse, was observed in a batch of laboratory-raised BALB/c mice (n=9 of 56). The affected mice remained active, well-groomed and had normal appetite. Isolates recovered from swab cultures of the external and internal contents of the eye had partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of 99.1% similarity to Streptococcus cuniculi. No previous report of S. cuniculi infection in laboratory rodents has been presented. The isolate was susceptible to all antibiotics tested. We suggest S. cuniculi is an opportunistic bacteria in laboratory mice but are uncertain of its source. Our findings revealed that S. cuniculi is able to colonize laboratory mice and should be considered when mice present with eye lesion or ocular discharge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred BALB C; Mice
  18. Yu WS, Aquili L, Wong KH, Lo ACY, Chan LLH, Chan YS, et al.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2022 09;1515(1):249-265.
    PMID: 35751874 DOI: 10.1111/nyas.14850
    Dementia is a major burden on global health for which there are no effective treatments. The use of noninvasive visual stimulation to ameliorate cognitive deficits is a novel concept that may be applicable for treating dementia. In this study, we investigated the effects of transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) on memory enhancement using two mouse models, in aged mice and in the 5XFAD model of Alzheimer's disease. After 3 weeks of TES treatment, mice were subjected to Y-maze and Morris water maze tests to assess hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Immunostaining of the hippocampus of 5XFAD mice was also performed to examine the effects of TES on amyloid plaque pathology. The results showed that TES improved the performance of both aged and 5XFAD mice in memory tests. TES also reduced hippocampal plaque deposition in male, but not female, 5XFAD mice. Moreover, TES significantly reversed the downregulated level of postsynaptic protein 95 in the hippocampus of male 5XFAD mice, suggesting the effects of TES involve a postsynaptic mechanism. Overall, these findings support further investigation of TES as a potential treatment for cognitive dysfunction and mechanistic studies of TES effects in other dementia models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Transgenic; Mice
  19. Tang W, Liu H, Li X, Ooi TC, Rajab NF, Cao H, et al.
    Aging (Albany NY), 2022 Nov 14;14(21):8688-8699.
    PMID: 36375474 DOI: 10.18632/aging.204380
    BACKGROUND: A complex of Zn and carnosine, called Zinc-L-carnosine (ZnC), enjoys a wide application as part of a Zn supplement therapeutic method as well as in treating peptic ulcers. However, researches fail to confirm the biological functions possessed by ZnC as well as tumor immune microenvironment in colorectal cancer (CRC).

    METHODS: Cell counting kit 8(CCK8), 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), transwell and wound healing assays were conducted to study the influence of ZnC in the proliferating, invading and migrating processes of CRC cell lines (HCT116, LOVO) in vitro. The antitumor activity ZnC as well as its effects on tumor immune microenvironment were then assessed using CRC subcutaneous tumors in the C57BL/6 mouse model.

    RESULTS: According to CCK8, EdU, transwell and wound healing assays, ZnC inhibited CRC cell lines in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration. ZnC could inhibit miR-570 for up-regulating PD-L1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that gavage (100 mg/kg, once every day) of ZnC inhibited the tumor growth of CRC, and the combination of ZnC and anti-PD1 therapy significantly improved the efficacy exhibited by anti-PD1 in treating CRC. In addition, mass cytometry results showed that immunosuppressive cells including regulatory T cells (tregs), bone marrow-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and M2 macrophages decreased whereas CD8+ T cells elevated after adding ZnC.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that ZnC slows the progression of CRC by inhibiting CRC cells in terms of proliferation, invasion and migration, meanwhile up-regulating PD-L1 expression via inhibiting miR-570. The ZnC-anti-PD1 co-treatment assists in synergically increasing anti-tumor efficacy in CRC therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice
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