BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. The neurotoxicity of N. sputatrix venom is hence almost exclusively SNTX-driven, and effective neutralization of the SNTX is the key to early reversal of paralysis. Unfortunately, as shown through a toxin-specific assay, the immunological neutralization of the SNTX using the Indonesian antivenom (SABU) was extremely weak, implying that SABU has limited therapeutic efficacy in treating N. sputatrix envenomation clinically. From the practical standpoint, actions need to be taken at all levels from laboratory to production and policy making to ensure that the shortcoming is overcome.
METHODS: Using a Usp7K444R point mutation knock-in mouse strain, we performed immunohistochemistry and standard molecular biological methods to examine the organ defects of liver and kidney in this knock-in mouse strain. Mechanistic studies were performed by using deubiquitination, immunoprecipitation, and quantitative immunoprecipitations (qChIP) assays.
RESULTS: We observed multiple organ defects, including decreased liver and muscle weight, decreased tibia/fibula length, liver glycogen storage defect, and polycystic kidneys. The underlying mechanisms include the regulation of protein stability and/or modulation of transcriptional activation of several key factors, leading to decreased protein levels of Prr5l, Hnf4α, Cebpα, and Hnf1β. Repression of these crucial factors leads to the organ defects described above.
CONCLUSIONS: K63-polyubiquitinated Usp7 plays an essential role in the development of multiple organs and illustrates the importance of the process of K63-linked polyubiquitination in regulating critical protein functions.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-five ICR mice and 20 BALB/C mice were used where five animals as control and the rest were randomly divided into four time points at 5, 10, 24 and 48 hours post-dosing (hpd). They were induced with 500 mg/kg APAP intraperitoneally. Liver sections were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and histopathological changes were scored based on grading methods.
Results: Intense centrilobular damage was observed as early as 5 hpd in BALB/C as compared to ICR mice, which was observed at 10 hpd. The difference of liver injury between ICR and BALB/C mice is due to dissimilarity in the genetic line-up that related to different elimination pathways of APAP toxicity. However, at 24 hpd, the damage was markedly subsided and liver regeneration had taken place for both ICR and BALB/C groups with evidence of mitotic figures. This study showed that normal liver architecture was restored after the clearance of toxic insult.
Conclusion: AILI was exhibited earlier in BALB/C than ICR mice but both underwent liver recovery at later time points.
METHODS: hrCRP was expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami and extracted from the SDS-PAGE gel. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously at the base of their tails by 1 × 105 stationary-phase of Leishmania major promastigotes (MHRO/IR/75/ER) suspended in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Nodules and subsequently, ulcers developed 14 days post-injection. 1.5 µg of the purified protein was administered on lesions of pre-infected mice by Leishmania major in the intervention group for five consecutive days.
RESULTS: The mean area of the lesions was decreased by about seven folds in the intervention group as compared to the control group after two weeks of the treatment (p = 0.024). The results were verified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction so that the parasite burden was determined 27 times in the control group as compared to the intervention group (p = 0.02). Two weeks after treatment, the conversion of the lesions to scars in the intervention group was observed.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate a potential therapeutic role for hrCRP in improving cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in mice models. The healing was in a stage-dependent manner.