BACKGROUND: The compound, 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the rhizomes of a Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant, Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), was previously shown to have potential in vivo antitumour activities. In the development of a new drug entity, potential interactions of the compound with the cytochrome P450 superfamily metabolizing enzymes need to be ascertain.
PURPOSE: The concomitant use of therapeutic drugs may cause potential drug-drug interactions by decreasing or increasing plasma levels of the administered drugs, leading to a suboptimal clinical efficacy or a higher risk of toxicity. Thus, evaluating the inhibitory potential of a new chemical entity, and to clarify the mechanism of inhibition and kinetics in the various CYP enzymes is an important step to predict drug-drug interactions.
STUDY DESIGN: This study was designed to assess the potential inhibitory effects of Alpinia conchigera Griff. rhizomes extract and its active constituent, ACA, on nine c-DNA expressed human cytochrome P450s (CYPs) enzymes using fluorescent CYP inhibition assay.
METHODS/RESULTS: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Alpinia conchigera Griff. rhizomes extract and ACA was determined for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. A. conchigera extract only moderately inhibits on CYP3A4 (IC50 = 6.76 ± 1.88µg/ml) whereas ACA moderately inhibits the activities of CYP1A2 (IC50 = 4.50 ± 0.10µM), CYP2D6 (IC50 = 7.50 ± 0.17µM) and CYP3A4 (IC50 = 9.50 ± 0.57µM) while other isoenzymes are weakly inhibited. In addition, mechanism-based inhibition studies reveal that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 exhibited non-mechanism based inhibition whereas CYP2D6 showed mechanism-based inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots depict that ACA competitively inhibited both CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, with a Ki values of 2.36 ± 0.03 µM and 5.55 ± 0.06µM, respectively, and mixed inhibition towards CYP2D6 with a Ki value of 4.50 ± 0.08µM. Further, molecular docking studies show that ACA is bound to a few key amino acid residues in the active sites of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, while one amino residue of CYP2D6 through predominantly Pi-Pi interactions.
CONCLUSION: Overall, ACA may demonstrate drug-drug interactions when co-administered with other therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 enzymes. Further in vivo studies, however, are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these interactions.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.