HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether BA isolated from bark of Walsura pinnata Hassk (Meliaceae) has pro-apoptotic effects on LSC in in vitro and in vivo models.
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: The population of high purity LSC was isolated from the Kasumi-1 cell line using magnetic sorting and characterised by flow cytometry. Cell viability was assessed using the MTS assay to examine dose- and time-dependent effects. The colony formation assay was performed in MethoCult® H4435 enriched media. Apoptosis was analysed using Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was studied using JC-1 staining, and expression of apoptosis related genes (BAX, Bcl-2 and survivin) was evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Caspase 3/7 and 9 activities were monitored through Promega Caspase-Glo® over a period of 24h. The in vivo antileukaemia activity was evaluated using LSC xenotransplanted zebrafish, observed for DNA fragmentation from apoptosis by TUNEL assay.
RESULTS: BA maintained its potency against the LSC population in comparison to parental Kasumi-1 cells (fold differences ≤ 1.94) over various treatment time points and significantly inhibited the formation of colonies by LSC. Apoptosis was triggered by BA through the upregulation of BAX and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin genes with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, leading to the activation of caspase 9 followed by downstream caspase 3/7. BA was able to suppressed leukaemia formation and induced apoptosis in LSC xenotransplanted zebrafish.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that BA inhibited the proliferative and colonogenic properties of LSC. BA induced apoptosis in LSC through the mitochondria pathway and was effective in the in vivo zebrafish model. Therefore, BA could be a lead compound for further development into a chemotherapy agent against LSC.
PURPOSE: The concomitant use of therapeutic drugs may cause potential drug-drug interactions by decreasing or increasing plasma levels of the administered drugs, leading to a suboptimal clinical efficacy or a higher risk of toxicity. Thus, evaluating the inhibitory potential of a new chemical entity, and to clarify the mechanism of inhibition and kinetics in the various CYP enzymes is an important step to predict drug-drug interactions.
STUDY DESIGN: This study was designed to assess the potential inhibitory effects of Alpinia conchigera Griff. rhizomes extract and its active constituent, ACA, on nine c-DNA expressed human cytochrome P450s (CYPs) enzymes using fluorescent CYP inhibition assay.
METHODS/RESULTS: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Alpinia conchigera Griff. rhizomes extract and ACA was determined for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. A. conchigera extract only moderately inhibits on CYP3A4 (IC50 = 6.76 ± 1.88µg/ml) whereas ACA moderately inhibits the activities of CYP1A2 (IC50 = 4.50 ± 0.10µM), CYP2D6 (IC50 = 7.50 ± 0.17µM) and CYP3A4 (IC50 = 9.50 ± 0.57µM) while other isoenzymes are weakly inhibited. In addition, mechanism-based inhibition studies reveal that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 exhibited non-mechanism based inhibition whereas CYP2D6 showed mechanism-based inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots depict that ACA competitively inhibited both CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, with a Ki values of 2.36 ± 0.03 µM and 5.55 ± 0.06µM, respectively, and mixed inhibition towards CYP2D6 with a Ki value of 4.50 ± 0.08µM. Further, molecular docking studies show that ACA is bound to a few key amino acid residues in the active sites of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, while one amino residue of CYP2D6 through predominantly Pi-Pi interactions.
CONCLUSION: Overall, ACA may demonstrate drug-drug interactions when co-administered with other therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 enzymes. Further in vivo studies, however, are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these interactions.