Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1015 in total

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  1. Imam MU, Ismail M, Ooi DJ, Azmi NH, Sarega N, Chan KW, et al.
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2016 Aug;36(4):585-93.
    PMID: 25641328 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.995586
    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  2. Hossain MS, Urbi Z, Sule A, Hafizur Rahman KM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:274905.
    PMID: 25950015 DOI: 10.1155/2014/274905
    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  3. Reddy BS, Rao NR, Vijeepallam K, Pandy V
    PMID: 28480421 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.11
    BACKGROUND: Tragia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which contains about 152 species. Interestingly, most of the earlier investigations have been done using only five Tragia species, namely, Tragia involucrata, Tragia cannabina, Tragia spathulata, Tragia plukenetii, and Tragia benthamii. The objective of the present review is to compile the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological studies of the selected five Tragia species reported in the literature.

    METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.

    RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  4. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. Tan LY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(4):4339-51.
    PMID: 22666033 DOI: 10.3390/s120404339
    Quorum sensing regulates bacterial virulence determinants, therefore making it an interesting target to attenuate pathogens. In this work, we screened edible, endemic plants in Malaysia for anti-quorum sensing properties. Extracts from Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. G. Hartley, a Malay garden salad, inhibited response of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 to N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, thus interfering with violacein production; reduced bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401], disrupted pyocyanin synthesis, swarming motility and expression of lecA::lux of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Although the chemical nature of the anti-QS compounds from M. lunu-ankenda is currently unknown, this study proves that endemic Malaysian plants could serve as leads in the search for anti-quorum sensing compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  6. Sengupta P, Agarwal A, Pogrebetskaya M, Roychoudhury S, Durairajanayagam D, Henkel R
    Reprod. Biomed. Online, 2018 Mar;36(3):311-326.
    PMID: 29277366 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.11.007
    To manage male infertility caused by hormonal imbalance, infections and other predicaments, multifarious treatment strategies are emerging worldwide. Contemporary treatments, such as assisted reproductive techniques, are costly with low success rates of only 10-30%; however, herbal remedies are gaining more attention as an alternative or supplementary therapeutic modality for male infertility. The beneficial effects induced by oral intake of the roots of a small evergreen shrub, Withania sominifera (Ashwagandha) on semen quality of infertile men have previously been studied. Oral intake of Ashwagandha roots has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, improve sperm count and motility, and regulate reproductive hormone levels. The molecular mechanisms of these effects, however, are yet to be unveiled. In this review, we will discuss the role of herbal medicines in male infertility; provide a detailed analysis of various human and animal studies involving Withania somnifera; describe a proposed direct oxidative mechanism involving mitigation of oxidative stress as well as an indirect mechanism consisting of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-like-mimetic pathway ameliorating hormonal balance through crosstalk among different endocrine glands to improve male fertility; and how Withania somnifera supplementation mitigates risk factor-induced male infertility as well as ameliorates male fertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  7. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  8. Ilangkovan M, Jantan I, Mesaik MA, Bukhari SN
    Phytother Res, 2016 Aug;30(8):1330-8.
    PMID: 27137750 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5633
    Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to have strong inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils and on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of daily treatment of standardized extract of P. amarus at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 14 days in Balb/C mice by measuring the myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, macrophage phagocytosis, swelling of footpad in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), and serum immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the extract using validated reversed-phase HPLC methods identified phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin and geraniin as the biomarkers. Significant dose-dependent inhibitions of MPO activity and NO release were observed in treated mice. The extract also inhibited E. coli phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophages of treated mice and inhibited the sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in the DTH. There was also a significant decrease in non-specific humoral immunity including ceruloplasmin and lysozyme levels in the extract-fed groups as well as the release of serum level immunoglobulins. The strong inhibitory effects of the extract on the cellular and humoral immune responses suggest the potential of the plant to be developed as an effective immunosuppressive agent. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  9. Wan Zainulddin WN, Zabidi Z, Kamisan FH, Yahya F, Ismail NA, Nor Shamsahal Din NS, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Jan;29(1):35-8.
    PMID: 26826818
    Melastoma malabathricum L. Smith (Melastomaceae) has been used in the Malay traditional culture to treat ulcer-based ailments.The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-ulcer effect of aqueous extract of M. malabathricum leaves (AEMM) using ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Rats were divided into ten groups (n=6) and received DMSO (10%; negative group), ranitidine (100mg/kg; positive group) or AEMM (50, 250 and 500mg/kg) orally for 7 days and on the 8(th) day subjected to the respective gastric ulcer models. The stomachs were collected and subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. At all groups tested, the AEMM exerted significant (p<0.05) anti-ulcer effect only against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The percentage of anti-ulcer for the 50-500mg/kg AEMM ranging between 50-82%, respectively. The macroscopic observations were supported by histological findings. In conclusion, AEMM exhibits potential anti-ulcer activity attributed to its previously proven high flavonoids content and antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Chan EW, Wong SK
    J Integr Med, 2015 Nov;13(6):368-79.
    PMID: 26559362 DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60208-4
    In this review, the phytochemistry and pharmacology of two ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium (butterfly ginger) and Alpinia purpurata (red ginger), are updated, and their botany and uses are described. Flowers of H. coronarium are large, showy, white, yellow or white with a yellow centre and highly fragrant. Inflorescences of A. purpurata are erect spikes with attractive red or pink bracts. Phytochemical investigations on the rhizomes of H. coronarium generated research interest globally. This resulted in the isolation of 53 labdane-type diterpenes, with little work done on the leaves and flowers. Pharmacological properties of H. coronarium included antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, anti-allergic, larvicidal, anthelminthic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-urolithiatic, anti-angiogenic, neuro-pharmacological, fibrinogenolytic, coagulant and hepatoprotective activities. On the contrary, little is known on the phytochemistry of A. purpurata with pharmacological properties of antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, cytotoxic and vasodilator activities reported in the leaves and rhizomes. There is much disparity in terms of research effort within and between these two ornamental gingers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  11. Hadi H, Razali SN, Awadh AI
    Nat Prod Commun, 2015 Aug;10(8):1483-8.
    PMID: 26434147
    Orchidaceae is the largest family of flowering plants with over 35,000 species and 850 genera. About 3300 species of orchids are found in Malaysia and the diversity is highest in the Main, Keledang, Bintang and Tahan Ranges. Apart from being prized for their beauty, orchids have long been used by humans for medicinal purposes. Today the uses of orchids have been expanded to the food and cosmetics industries. Many cosmeceutical companies use orchid extracts as an active ingredient in their products. Previous studies provide riveting insights into the potential uses of orchid extracts as an active agent in cosmetics. This paper describes the cosmeceutical potential of orchids as an anti-aging, and skin moisturizing agent. Orchid extracts from Vanda coerulea and V. teres delay aging caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) following LV irradiation through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These extracts also show anti-aging properties by stimulating cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), which is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Stimulation of cytochrome c oxidase improves the respiratory function of mitochondria in keratinocytes. The presence of mucilage in orchids enables them to maintain skin hydration. Mucilage functions as a moisturizer and emollient due to its high water binding capacity. Additionally, orchid extracts provide skin hydration by stimulating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and LEKTI protein expression. The presence of AQP3 leads to a five-fold increase in water permeability, which subsequently increases stratum corneum hydration. Increased LEKTI protein expression mediated by orchid extracts reduces the degradation of desmoglein-1 and enhances the structural function of desmosomes, which play important roles in preventing water evaporation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  12. Afzal K, Uzair M, Chaudhary BA, Ahmad A, Afzal S, Saadullah M
    Acta Pol Pharm, 2015 Sep-Oct;72(5):821-7.
    PMID: 26665388
    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  13. Mohammed A, Chiruvella KK, Rao YK, Geethangili M, Raghavan SC, Ghanta RG
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(10):e0141154.
    PMID: 26488879 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141154
    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  14. Gul S, Ahmed S, Kifli N, Uddin QT, Batool Tahir N, Hussain A, et al.
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:316.
    PMID: 25428431 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0316-9
    Hordeum vulgare L. (HV or barley) is used by traditional healers to treat various inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, without the knowledge of pharmacologic rationale behind its actions. This study was designed to explore the potential scientific mechanism(s) that could explain the use of Hordeum vulgare in traditional medicine as a treatment for various inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  15. Asif M, Jabeen Q, Abdul-Majid AM, Atif M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1811-7.
    PMID: 25362605
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Mayakrishnan V, Kannappan P, Shanmugasundaram K, Abdullah N
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1911-7.
    PMID: 25362615
    Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume herbs are commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory and pain in Nigeria. The objective of the present study was to assess the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume in mice model. The treatment of Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor by the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata was determined at concentration of 100 mg/ kg body weight given orally for 11 days, antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, body weight, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathological evidence. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata increased the survival period of animals, decreased the body weight and also altered many hematological markers and also restored the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. These findings indicate that the methanolic extract of C. prostrata has anti-tumor activity by preventing the lipid peroxidation and thereby promoting the antioxidant systems in Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced mice. So, these extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  17. Bachok MF, Yusof BN, Ismail A, Hamid AA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(3):369-76.
    PMID: 25164446 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.01
    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  18. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  19. Mahmood ND, Nasir NL, Rofiee MS, Tohid SF, Ching SM, Teh LK, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2014 Dec;52(12):1598-623.
    PMID: 25068675 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.908397
    Different parts of Muntingia calabura L. (Elaeocarpaceae), or "kerukup siam" in Malay, have been reported to possess medicinal value, supported by a number of scientific studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Ho LH, Bhat R
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 1;168:80-9.
    PMID: 25172686 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.020
    This review focuses on providing informations on potential uses of durian, an exotic tropical fruit as a source of food, as well as a potential therapeutic agent. Apart from disseminating details on the traditional value, in this review we have focussed on the nutritional composition, presence of bioactive compounds, volatiles, antimicrobials, as well as on the toxicological effects of durian fruit consumption. Durian fruits are enjoyed for their unique taste and organoleptic qualities, but there is also a need to ensure that their potential is exploited for the international market. In addition, in the present socio-economic scenario, tapping the potential of exotic tropical fruit such as durian could benefit the health of consumers as well as support the local population who depend on farming for a livelihood. Overall, it is envisaged that identifying the nutraceutical potential of the edible and non-edible parts of durian fruits can benefit food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
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