Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1254 in total

  1. Ong CB, Annuar MSM
    J Food Biochem, 2021 10;45(10):e13924.
    PMID: 34490635 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13924
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-tannase composite was investigated as an immobilized biocatalyst on the basis of its facile preparation, low cost, and excellent aqueous dispersibility. Cross-linked tannase enzymes, obtained in the presence of glutaraldehyde, were composited with MWCNT via physical adsorption. Multiple techniques were applied to investigate, and corroborate the successful adsorption of cross-linked tannase onto the MWCNT structure. Green tea infusion extract post-treatment using the composite preparation showed elevated radical scavenging activities relative to the control. Green tea infusion extract exhibited a markedly reduced EC50 value on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals following its treatment with the enzyme composite, which represents 20%-34% enhancement in its free radical scavenging capacity. Stoichiometry and number of reduced DPPH were determined and compared. The antioxidative potential of a widely consumed, health-beneficial green tea is elevated by the treatment with MWCNT-tannase composite. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cross-linked tannase enzymes were composited with pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes via simple physical adsorption. The composite presents key advantages such as low specific volume compared to other well-known immobilization media, inert, facile enzyme composition, and ease of recovery for repeated use. The work demonstrated carbon nanotube prosthetic utility in the biotransformation of food-based health commodity sought after for its nutritional benefits. The approach is of both industrial- and agricultural importance, and is a promising and viable strategy to obtain a natural, functional food supplement for the multi-billion dollar well-being and health-related industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  2. Imam MU, Ismail M, Ooi DJ, Azmi NH, Sarega N, Chan KW, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;36(4):585-93.
    PMID: 25641328 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.995586
    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  3. Hossain MS, Urbi Z, Sule A, Hafizur Rahman KM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:274905.
    PMID: 25950015 DOI: 10.1155/2014/274905
    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  4. Tan LY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(4):4339-51.
    PMID: 22666033 DOI: 10.3390/s120404339
    Quorum sensing regulates bacterial virulence determinants, therefore making it an interesting target to attenuate pathogens. In this work, we screened edible, endemic plants in Malaysia for anti-quorum sensing properties. Extracts from Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. G. Hartley, a Malay garden salad, inhibited response of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 to N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, thus interfering with violacein production; reduced bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401], disrupted pyocyanin synthesis, swarming motility and expression of lecA::lux of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Although the chemical nature of the anti-QS compounds from M. lunu-ankenda is currently unknown, this study proves that endemic Malaysian plants could serve as leads in the search for anti-quorum sensing compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  5. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  6. Reddy BS, Rao NR, Vijeepallam K, Pandy V
    PMID: 28480421 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.11
    BACKGROUND: Tragia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which contains about 152 species. Interestingly, most of the earlier investigations have been done using only five Tragia species, namely, Tragia involucrata, Tragia cannabina, Tragia spathulata, Tragia plukenetii, and Tragia benthamii. The objective of the present review is to compile the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological studies of the selected five Tragia species reported in the literature.

    METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.

    RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  7. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  8. Zolkeflee NKZ, Isamail NA, Maulidiani M, Abdul Hamid NA, Ramli NS, Azlan A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2021 Jan;32(1):69-83.
    PMID: 31953888 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2917
    INTRODUCTION: Muntingia calabura from the Muntingiaceae family has been documented for several medicinal uses. The combinations of drying treatment and extracting solvents for a plant species need to be determined and optimised to ensure that the extracts contain adequate amounts of the bioactive metabolites.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the metabolite variations and antioxidant activity among M. calabura leaves subjected to different drying methods and extracted with different ethanol ratios using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics. Methodology The antioxidant activity of M. calabura leaves dried with three different drying methods and extracted with three different ethanol ratios was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assays. The metabolites variation among the extracts and correlation with antioxidant activity were analysed by 1 H-NMR-based metabolomics.

    RESULTS: Muntingia calabura leaves extracted with 50% and 100% ethanol from air-drying and freeze-drying methods had the highest total phenolic content and the lowest IC50 value for the DPPH scavenging activity. Meanwhile, oven-dried leaves extracted with 100% ethanol had the lowest IC50 value for the NO scavenging activity. A total of 43 metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, phytosterols, phenolics and terpene glycoside were tentatively identified. A noticeable discrimination was observed in the different ethanol ratios by the principal component analysis. The partial least-squares analysis suggested that 32 compounds out of 43 compounds identified were the contributors to the bioactivities.

    CONCLUSION: The results established set the preliminary steps towards developing this plant into a high value product for phytomedicinal preparations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  9. Sallehuddin N, Nordin A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    PMID: 32545210 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17114160
    Nigella sativa (NS) has been reported to have a therapeutic effect towards skin wound healing via its anti-inflammatory, tissue growth stimulation, and antioxidative properties. This review examines all the available studies on the association of Nigella sativa (NS) and skin wound healing. The search was performed in Medline via EBSCOhost and Scopus databases to retrieve the related papers released between 1970 and March 2020. The principal inclusion criteria were original article issued in English that stated wound healing criteria of in vivo skin model with topically applied NS. The search discovered 10 related articles that fulfilled the required inclusion criteria. Studies included comprise different types of wounds, namely excisional, burn, and diabetic wounds. Seven studies unravelled positive results associated with NS on skin wound healing. Thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties, which mainly contributed to wound healing process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  10. Shafiei SNS, Ahmad K, Ikhsan NFM, Ismail SI, Sijam K
    Braz J Biol, 2020 2 20;81(1):11-17.
    PMID: 32074168 DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.206124
    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a pathogen responsible for rice bacterial leaf blight, produces biofilm to protect viable Xoo cells from antimicrobial agents. A study was conducted to determine the potency of Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) leaf extract as a Xoo biofilm inhibitor. Four concentrations (3.13, 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL) of AMMH leaf extract were tested for their ability to inhibit Xoo biofilm formation on a 96-well microtiter plate. The results showed that the negative controls had the highest O.D. values from other treatments, indicating the intense formation of biofilm. This was followed by the positive control (Streptomycin sulfate, 0.2 mg/mL) and AMMH leaf extract at concentration 3.13 mg/mL, which showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (1.96 and 1.57, respectively). All other treatments at concentrations of 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (0.91, 0.79, and 0.53, respectively). For inhibition percentages, treatment with concentration 12.5 mg/mL gave the highest result (81.25%) followed by treatment at concentrations 6.25 and 9.38 mg/mL that showed no significant differences in their inhibition percentage (67.75% and 72.23%, respectively). Concentration 3.13 mg/mL resulted in 44.49% of biofilm inhibition and the positive control resulted in 30.75% of biofilm inhibition. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis of Xoo biofilm inhibition and breakdown showed the presence of non-viable Xoo cells and changes in aggregation size due to increase in AMMH leaf extract concentration. Control slides showed the absence of Xoo dead cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  11. Sengupta P, Agarwal A, Pogrebetskaya M, Roychoudhury S, Durairajanayagam D, Henkel R
    Reprod Biomed Online, 2018 Mar;36(3):311-326.
    PMID: 29277366 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.11.007
    To manage male infertility caused by hormonal imbalance, infections and other predicaments, multifarious treatment strategies are emerging worldwide. Contemporary treatments, such as assisted reproductive techniques, are costly with low success rates of only 10-30%; however, herbal remedies are gaining more attention as an alternative or supplementary therapeutic modality for male infertility. The beneficial effects induced by oral intake of the roots of a small evergreen shrub, Withania sominifera (Ashwagandha) on semen quality of infertile men have previously been studied. Oral intake of Ashwagandha roots has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, improve sperm count and motility, and regulate reproductive hormone levels. The molecular mechanisms of these effects, however, are yet to be unveiled. In this review, we will discuss the role of herbal medicines in male infertility; provide a detailed analysis of various human and animal studies involving Withania somnifera; describe a proposed direct oxidative mechanism involving mitigation of oxidative stress as well as an indirect mechanism consisting of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-like-mimetic pathway ameliorating hormonal balance through crosstalk among different endocrine glands to improve male fertility; and how Withania somnifera supplementation mitigates risk factor-induced male infertility as well as ameliorates male fertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Teo BSX, Gan RY, Abdul Aziz S, Sirirak T, Mohd Asmani MF, Yusuf E
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Mar;20(3):993-1001.
    PMID: 32659861 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13624
    BACKGROUND: Eucheuma Cottonii is a type of red algae obtained from Sabah with main active component, sulfated polysaccharide or k-carrageenan.

    AIMS: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and potential wound-healing properties in aqueous extraction of E cottonii in order to meet the increasing demand for halal and natural cosmeceutical products.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Aqueous extract of E cottonii was investigated for active compounds by phytochemical screening and IR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH method, and the IC50 value was 1.99 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity was examined against Staphylococcus Aureus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and showed 10.03 ± 0.06 mm zone of inhibition, achieved by 200 mg/mL of extracts. A wound was made by skin excision of area around 100 mm2 on each mouse. Test group was treated with aqueous extract gel (10% w/w); meanwhile, the mice that were treated with honey acted as the positive control group and the untreated mice as negative control group. Results showed that the wound contraction rate inclined to aqueous extracts as compared to untreated group (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Sangkanu S, Mitsuwan W, Mahabusarakam W, Jimoh TO, Wilairatana P, Girol AP, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 04 13;11(1):8053.
    PMID: 33850179 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-87381-x
    Acanthamoeba spp. can cause amoebic keratitis (AK). Chlorhexidine is effective for AK treatment as monotherapy, but with a relative failure on drug bioavailability in the deep corneal stroma. The combination of chlorhexidine and propamidine isethionate is recommended in the current AK treatment. However, the effectiveness of treatment depends on the parasite and virulence strains. This study aims to determine the potential of Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract and α-mangostin against Acanthamoeba triangularis, as well as the combination with chlorhexidine in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and α-mangostin were assessed in trophozoites with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL, for cysts with 4 and 1 mg/mL, respectively. The MIC of the extract and α-mangostin inhibited the growth of A. triangularis trophozoites and cysts for up to 72 h. The extract and α-mangostin combined with chlorhexidine demonstrated good synergism, resulting in a reduction of 1/4-1/16 of the MIC. The SEM results showed that Acanthamoeba cells treated with a single drug and its combination caused damage to the cell membrane and irregular cell shapes. A good combination displayed by the extract or α-mangostin and chlorhexidine, described for the first time. Therefore, this approach is promising as an alternative method for the management of Acanthamoeba infection in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  14. Pandy V, Khan Y, Yarlagadda DP, Tatinada SP
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 2021;81(4):328-334.
    PMID: 35014982
    Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia unripe fruit (MMC) was tested against heroin addiction using a mouse modified runway model of drug‑seeking. Habituation sessions were carried out for 10 min/d for 3 days. On day 0, the total run time of each mouse was noted (the start box to goal box) during the preconditioning test. This was followed by the conditioning session (30 min), in which the animals were conditioned with escalating doses of heroin hydrochloride (5, 10, 20, 40 and 40 mg/kg) for 5 days upon entry into the goal box. On day 6, the run time of each mouse, from start to goal box, was recorded during the post conditioning test. Extinction trials were performed for the next 5 days, in which no drug/saline was injected upon goal box entry. On day 13, a priming dose of heroin (8 mg/kg) was given to reinstate drug seeking in the mice. MMC given as oral doses (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) dose‑dependently prolonged the run time to reach the goal box, indicating MMC attenuated heroin reinforcement. Moreover, MMC (5 g/kg) was found to reverse the heroin‑seeking on extinction trial 1 and 2. MMC was also found to reverse heroin‑induced reinstatement in mice. This study demonstrates that MMC attenuated heroin seeking at different phases of drug self‑administration in a mouse modified runway model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  15. Afzal K, Uzair M, Chaudhary BA, Ahmad A, Afzal S, Saadullah M
    Acta Pol Pharm, 2015 Sep-Oct;72(5):821-7.
    PMID: 26665388
    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Gul S, Ahmed S, Kifli N, Uddin QT, Batool Tahir N, Hussain A, et al.
    J Transl Med, 2014;12:316.
    PMID: 25428431 DOI: 10.1186/s12967-014-0316-9
    Hordeum vulgare L. (HV or barley) is used by traditional healers to treat various inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, without the knowledge of pharmacologic rationale behind its actions. This study was designed to explore the potential scientific mechanism(s) that could explain the use of Hordeum vulgare in traditional medicine as a treatment for various inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  17. Bachok MF, Yusof BN, Ismail A, Hamid AA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2014;23(3):369-76.
    PMID: 25164446 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.01
    Ulam refers to a group of traditional Malaysian plants commonly consumed as a part of a meal, either in the raw form or after a short blanching process. Many types of ulam are thought to possess blood glucose-lowering properties, but relatively little is known on the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. This review aims to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of ulam in modulating blood glucose levels in humans. A literature review was conducted using multiple databases with no time restriction. Eleven studies were retrieved based on a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these 11 studies, only Momordica charantia, locally known as "peria katak", was extensively studied, followed by Centella asiatica, locally known as "daun pegaga", and Alternanthera sessilis, locally known as "kermak putih". Of the 11 studies, 9 evaluated the effectiveness of M. charantia on blood glucose parameters, and 7 of which showed significant improvement in at least one parameter of blood glucose concentration. The remaining 2 studies reported nonsignificant improvements in blood glucose parameters, despite having high-quality study design according to Jadad scale. None of the studies related to C. asiatica and A. sessilis showed significant improvement in blood glucose-related parameters. Current clinical evidence does not support the popular claim that ulam has glucose-lowering effects, not even for M. charantia. Hence, further clinical investigation is needed to verify the glucose modulation effect of M. charantia, C. asiatica, and A. sessilis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  18. Hussain AI, Rathore HA, Sattar MZ, Chatha SA, Sarker SD, Gilani AH
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Aug 8;155(1):54-66.
    PMID: 24936768 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.011
    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad is a valuable cucurbit plant, widely distributed in the desert areas of the world. Citrullus colocynthis fruits are usually recognized for its wide range of medicinal uses as well as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical potential. This review aims to appraise the published information on the ethnobotanical knowledge, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, nutraceutical potential and safety studies of Citrullus colocynthis (bitter apple) fruit, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  19. Zia-Ul-Haq M, Riaz M, De Feo V, Jaafar HZ, Moga M
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 28;19(8):10998-1029.
    PMID: 25072202 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
    Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  20. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
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