Madu gelam telah didapati mempunyai kesan anti-oksidatif, anti-kanser dan antiinflamasi
terhadap banyak jenis kanser. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan
kesan madu gelam terhadap aras tekanan oksidatif sel kanser peparu manusia.
IC50 madu gelam ditentukan dengan merawat sel A549 dengan dos madu yang
berbeza (50-200 mg/ml). Sel dibahagikan kepada 4 kumpulan dan diaruh tekanan
oksidatif dengan menggunakan hidrogen peroksida (H2
) mengikut kumpulan
tertentu: kawalan, H2
, madu gelam, H2
+ madu gelam. Selepas 24 jam
rawatan, biopetanda tekanan oksidatif seperti malondialdehid (MDA) dan protein
karbonil ditentukan. Aruhan tekanan oksidatif meningkatkan aras MDA (p
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
Alpinia conchigera (lengkuas kecil) merupakan sejenis tumbuhan herba yang sering digunakan sebagai rawatan alternatif
dalam bidang perubatan tradisional. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menilai kesan sitotoksik, genotoksik serta mod kematian
sel yang disebabkan oleh ekstrak heksana A. conchigera ke atas sel hepar Chang. Asai MTT selama 24 jam telah dijalankan
untuk mengenal pasti peratus viabiliti sel hepar Chang setelah dirawat dengan ekstrak heksana A. conchigera. Keputusan
menunjukkan terdapat penurunan viabiliti sel secara signifi kan (p < 0.05) dengan nilai IC50 (8.6 μg/ml) berbanding kawalan
negatif. Berdasarkan nilai IC50 ini, pewarnaan AO/PI dilakukan untuk menentukan mod kematian sel hepar Chang iaitu sama
ada secara apoptosis atau nekrosis. Didapati bahawa terdapat perbezaan secara signifi kan (p < 0.05) bagi mod kematian
sel hepar Chang secara apoptosis berbanding kawalan negatif. Dalam kajian ini, penentuan tahap kerosakan DNA sel
hepar Chang turut dilakukan dengan menggunakan asai komet beralkali dengan nilai IC10 dan IC25 yang diperoleh daripada
asai MTT (4 μg/ml dan 6 μg/ml) masing-masing. Setelah sel hepar Chang dirawat dengan ekstrak heksana A. conchigera
selama 2 jam, didapati terdapat perbezaan secara signifi kan (p < 0.05) bagi peratus kerosakan DNA bagi kumpulan rawatan
berbanding kawalan negatif. Kesimpulannya, ekstrak heksana A. conchigera memberi kesan sitotoksik dan genotoksik
terhadap sel hepar Chang serta menyebabkan kematian sel secara apoptosis.
Kesan sitotoksik sebatian organostanum (IV) terhadap pelbagai sel kanser telah dikaji oleh para saintis di seluruh dunia.Dalam kajian ini,dua sebatian baru organostanum (IV) iaitu difenilstanum (IV) etilfenilditiokarbamat (DFEF) dan difenilstanum (IV) butilfenilditiokarbamat (DFBF) telah diuji kesan sitotoksiknya terhadap sel eritroleukemia, K562. Sel eritroleukemia, K562 merupakan sel sasaran manakala, sel hepar Chang dan sel fibroblas V79 pula digunakan untuk menilai kesan kedua-dua sebatian ini terhadap sel bukan kanser. Kesan sitotoksik sebatian DFEF dan DFBF diuji menggunakan ujian asai 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2, 5-difeniltetrazolium bromida (MTT) dengan masa pendedahan 24 jam, 48 jam dan 72 jam pada kepekatan sebatian yang berbeza. Pemerhatian terhadap perubahan morfologi juga dilakukan menggunakan nilai IC50 yang diperolehi pada masa pendedahan seperti ujian asai MTT. Ujian sitotoksisiti telah menunjukkan sebatian DFEF dan DFBF adalah sangat toksik terhadap sel K562 dengan nilai IC50 kurang daripada 10 μM untuk ketiga-tiga masa pendedahan.Indeks pemilihan juga membuktikan bahawa kedua-dua sebatian memberikan kesan sitotoksik secara memilih terhadap sel K562 pada masa 48 jam dan 72 jam, tetapi pada masa 24 jam, sebatian ini bertindak secara tidak memilih terhadap sel K562 dan sel bukan kanser. Perubahan morfologi yang diperhatikan adalah menyerupai ciri-ciri apoptosis seperti pengecutan sel dan pembentukan jasad apoptotik dan juga nekrosis seperti sel lisis. Kesimpulannya, sebatian difenilstanum (IV) alkilfenilditiokarbamat berpotensi untuk dibangunkan sebagai agen antileukemia tetapi mekanisma khusus tindakan sebatian ini terhadap sel K562 perlu dikaji pada masa akan datang untuk menjelaskan potensi sebatian ini sebagai dadah antikanser yang baru.
The extraction of phenolics from Citrus hystrix leaf was carried out using supercritical fluid extraction and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of CO2 flow rate, extraction pressure and extraction temperature on yield, total phenolic content and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl-IC50 were evaluated and compared with ethanol extraction. The extraction pressure was the most significant factor affecting the yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 of the extracts, followed by CO2 flow rate and the extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of pressure, CO2 flow rate and temperature were at 267 bars, 18 g/min and 50°C, respectively. The yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 obtained were 5.06%, 116.53 mg GAE/g extract and IC50 of 0.063 mg/ml, respectively. These values were not significantly different (p
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of stems and leaves of hexane and methanolic extracts of Pluchea indica. Methanolic extract of leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 24.45 ± 0.34 µg/ml) and total phenolic contents (573.52 ± 6.2 mg GAE/100 g crude extract), in DPPH radical scavenging and Folin-Ciocalteu assays respectively, however, it failed to inhibit acetylcholinesterase in TLC bioautographic detection. The rest of plant extracts, including methanolic extract of stems, hexane extract of both leaves and stems, were detected to have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Hexane extract of both leaves and stems exhibited lower or negligible level of antioxidant activity and phenolic contents. Pluchea indica may provide a potential natural source of bioactive compounds, and maybe beneficial to the human health.
The study was aimed to determine the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of
the stem and leaf of five different traditional medicinal plants. The studied plants exhibited
varied antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. The antioxidant activities of the
plants were determined through their free radical scavenging capabilities using DPPH assay.
The most potent antioxidant activity was demonstrated by Neptunia oleracea with an IC50 of
35.45 and 29.72 μg/mL for leaf and stem, respectively. For α-glucosidase inhibition activity,
Neptunia oleracea exhibited potential α-glucosidase inhibition activity with IC50 value of
19.09 and 19.74 μg/mL for leaf and stem, respectively. The highest total phenolic content
(TPC) was also marked in Neptunia oleracea leaf and stem with value of 40.88 and 21.21 mg
GAE/g dry weight, respectively. The results also showed that Strobilanthes crispus collected
from two different locations possessed different levels of phenolic content, antioxidant and
α-glucosidase inhibition activities. The study revealed that phenolic compounds could be the
main contributors to the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities with R values of 78.9
and 67.4%, respectively. In addition, antioxidant and α-glucosidase were positively correlated
(R = 81.9%). Neptunia oleracea could be suggested as a potential natural source of antioxidant
and antidiabetic compounds that can be used for the prevention or treatment of diabetes.
Stenochlaena palustris fronds are popular as a vegetable in Southeast Asia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anticholinesterase properties and phytochemical profiles of the young and mature fronds of this plant. Both types of fronds were found to have selective inhibitory effect against butyrylcholinesterase compared with acetylcholinesterase. However, different sets of compounds were responsible for their activity. In young fronds, an antibutyrylcholinesterase effect was observed in the hexane extract, which was comprised of a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and phytosterols. In the mature fronds, inhibitory activity was observed in the methanol extract, which contained a series of kaempferol glycosides. Our results provided novel information concerning the ability of S. palustris to inhibit cholinesterase and its phytochemical profile. Further research to investigate the potential use of this plant against Alzheimer's disease is warranted, however, young and mature fronds should be distinguished due to their phytochemical differences.
Breast cancer is considered as one of the most common cancers all over the world. A huge effort has been made to create a safe and cost effective breast cancer treatment. All of these features exist in the plants sources. In this study, the effect of local vegetable salad, Premna serratifolia (Bebuas) against MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) was determined. The optimum condition to extract breast cancer cytotoxic compound from the plant was investigated and the exact cytotoxic compound was identified as well. To determine the plant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 cells, MTT assay was used. Two important parameters in the sonication extraction method which are duration of time and temperature were optimized by carrying out a series of experiments which were designed by Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). The extraction efficiency of each experiment was determined by measuring the yield of extract and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the extract against MCF-7 cells. The results obtained from the experiments were fitted to the second order polynomial model to generate equation that was used to determine best extraction processing condition. Based on the generated equation, the best sonication processing condition to extract the cytotoxic compound is at 30oC for 67 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the duration of extraction time has great influence (p
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is usually used as an inhibitive assay for insecticides. A lesserknown
property of AChE is its inhibition by heavy metals. In this work, we evaluate an AChE
from brains of Clarias batrachus (catfish) exposed to wastes from aquaculture industry as an
inhibitive assay for heavy metals. We discovered that the AChE was inhibited completely by
Hg2+, Ag2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr6+ and Zn2+ during initial screening. When tested at various
concentrations, the heavy metals exhibited exponential decay type inhibition curves. The
calculated IC50 (mg/L) for the heavy metals Ag2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Cr6+ and Cd2+ were 0.088, 0.078,
0.071, 0.87 and 0.913, respectively. The IC50 for these heavy metals are comparable, and some
are lower than the IC50 values from the cholinesterases from previously studied fish. The assay
can be carried out in less than 30 minutes at ambient temperature.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is usually used as an inhibitive assay for insecticides. A lesser
known property of AChE is its inhibition by heavy metals. In this work we evaluate an AChE
from brains of striped snakehead (Channa striatus) wastes from aquaculture industry as an
inhibitive assay for heavy metals. We discovered that the AChE was inhibited almost completely
by Hg2+, Ag2+ and Cu2+ during an initial screening. When tested at various concentrations, the
heavy metals exhibited exponential decay type inhibition curves. The calculated IC50 for the
heavy metals Hg2+, Ag2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr6+ were 0.08432, 0.1008, 0.1255, 0.0871, and 0.1771,
respectively. The IC50 for these heavy metals are comparable and some are lower than the IC50
values from the cholinesterases from previously studied fish. The assay can be carried out in less
than 30 minutes at ambient temperature.
Thiourea derivatives (1-38) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibition potential. The synthetic compounds showed a varying degree of in vitro urease inhibition with IC50 values 5.53 ± 0.02-91.50 ± 0.08 μM, most of which are superior to the standard thiourea (IC₅₀ = 21.00 ± 0.11 μM). In order to ensure the mode of inhibition of these compounds, the kinetic study of the most active compounds has been carried out. Most of these inhibitors were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors, except compounds 13 and 30 which were competitive, while compound 19 was identified as non-competitive inhibitor with Ki values between 8.6 and 19.29 μM.
Naturally occurring anthraquinones, damnacanthal (1) and nordamnacanthal (2) were synthesized with modified reaction steps and investigated for their cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Intermediate analogues 2-bromomethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (5, IC50 = 5.70 ± 0.21 and 8.50 ± 1.18 mg/mL), 2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (6, IC50 = 12.10 ± 0.14 and 14.00 ± 2.13), 2-formyl-1,3-dimethoxyantharquinone (7, IC50 = 13.10 ± 1.02 and 14.80 ± 0.74), 1,3-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone (4, IC50 = 9.40 ± 3.51 and 28.40 ± 2.33), and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3, IC50 = 25.60 ± 0.42 and 28.40 ± 0.79) also exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Other structurally related compounds like 1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone (13a, IC50 = 19.70 ± 0.35 and 14.50 ± 1.28), 1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (13b, IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.66 and 5.90 ± 0.95) were also showed good cytotoxicity. The target compound damnacanthal (1) was found to be the most cytotoxic against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.80 ± 0.57 and 5.50 ± 1.26, respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of detailed spectroscopic techniques.
Bioassay-guided extraction of the stem bark of Knema laurina showed the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of DCM and hexane fractions. Further repeated column chromatography of hexane and DCM fractions resulted in the isolation and purification of five alkenyl phenol and salicylic acid derivatives. New compounds, (+)-2-hydroxy-6-(10'-hydroxypentadec-8'(E)-enyl)benzoic acid (1) and 3-pentadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (2), along with known 3-heptadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (3), 2-hydroxy-6-(pentadec-10'(Z)-enyl)benzoic acid (4), and 2-hydroxy-6-(10'(Z)-heptadecenyl)benzoic acid (5) were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical derivatizations. Compound 5 showed strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 0.573 ± 0.0260 μM. Docking studies of compound 5 indicated that the phenolic compound with an elongated side chain could possibly penetrate deep into the active site of the enzyme and arrange itself through π-π interaction, H-bonding, and hydrophobic contacts with some critical residues along the complex geometry of the active gorge.
A series of 4-methoxybenzoylhydrazones 1-30 was synthesized and the structures of the synthetic derivatives elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds showed a varying degree of antiglycation activity, with IC50 values ranging between 216.52 and 748.71 µM, when compared to a rutin standard (IC50=294.46±1.50 µM). Compounds 1 (IC50=216.52±4.2 µM), 3 (IC50=289.58±2.64 µM), 6 (IC50=227.75±0.53 µM), 7 (IC50=242.53±6.1) and 11 (IC50=287.79±1.59) all showed more activity that the standard, and these compounds have the potential to serve as possible leads for drugs to inhibit protein glycation in diabetic patients. A preliminary SAR study was performed.
Our continuing studies on secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri has led to the isolation of another new diprenylated xanthone, phylattrin (1), in addition to five other xanthones and two common sterols. The xanthones are soulattrin (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), brasixanthone B (5) and trapezifolixanthone (6) while the sterols are stigmasterol (7) and β-sitosterol (8). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR and UV. Compounds 1-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SNU-1, HeLa, Hep G2, NCI-H23, K562, Raji, LS174T, IMR-32 and SK-MEL-28 cells.
The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
Gamma-tocotrienol (GTT) has been shown to exhibit significant antitumor activity in a variety of tumor cells. Previous findings have demonstrated that GTT had antiprolifera-tive effects on a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) with an IC50 value of 170μM. In this study, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was used to determine changes in protein expression in HepG2 cell line following treatment with GTT. The ultimate aim is to identify the possible molecular mechanisms involved in GTT antitumor activity. This study is focused on obtaining a 2DE protein profile for HepG2 cell line with and without
GTT treatment. In the preliminary analysis of the resulting 2DE profiles, 18 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in cells treated with GTT. This observa-tion is confirmed by extending the analysis to a larger sample size. By studying the effects of GTT treatment on differential protein expression in HepG2 cells the underly-ing mechanisms involved in the antitumor activity of GTT may be elucidated.
This study aims to determine the antioxidant capacities (AC) and antidiabetic properties of
phenolic extracts (free and bound) from white Tambun pomelo peels, kaffir lime peels, lime
peels and calamansi peels. AC, total phenolic content (TPC) and antidiabetic properties of
selected citrus peels extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assay, respectively. This
study found that the methanolic extract of kaffir lime showed the best AC with the lowest
IC50 value of DPPH radical (7.51 ± 0.50 mg/ml) and highest FRAP value [369.48 ± 20.15
mM Fe (II) E/g DW]. TPC of free phenolic extracts of all citrus peels were significantly (p<
0.05) higher compared to the bound phenolic extracts with extract of calamansi showed the
highest TPC. Free- and bound phenolic extract of calamansi also had the highest α-amylase
inhibition activity (61.79 ± 4.13%; 45.30 ± 5.35%) respectively. The highest inhibitory effect in
α-glucosidase inhibition assay of free- and bound phenolic extracts were white Tambun pomelo
(41.06 ± 10.94%) and calamansi (43.99 ± 22.03%) respectively. Hence, the citrus peels could
be furthered study for their potential in management and/or prevention of diabetes.
Introduction: Curcumin, a natural compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been known to possess both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the cytotoxic activities and to determine the mode of cell death induced by curcumin towards the human mammary carcinoma cells (MDAMB-231). Methodology: Cytotoxicity of curcumin and its effect on cell viability were determined by using MTT assay and trypan blue dye exclusion method, respectively. The mode of cell death was detected by viewing under a light microscope and through DNA fragmentation analysis. Results and discussion: Curcumin was cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 cells with the IC50 of 17.25 ì g/ml. Cell viability treatment using curcumin at concentrations of 30 ì g/ml and 10 ì g/ml was significantly (p