• 1 Department of Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran and Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
  • 2 Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
  • 3 Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
  • 4 Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran
  • 5 Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • 6 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • 7 Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
  • 8 Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran
  • 9 Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Malays J Med Sci, 2019 May;26(3):37-48.
PMID: 31303849 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.3


Co-infection with hepatitis B and C among HIV infected patients are prevalent among high-risk populations. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV co-infections among high-risk populations in Iran. We systematically searched the national and international electronic databases until 2016. The primary outcome was the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HIV co-infections in different high-risk populations in Iran. All English and Persian studies conducted on Iranian high-risk groups were included in the study. The review was reported based on PRISMA guidelines and data were analysed at 95% confidence level using random effect models. Overall, 916 relevant papers were recognised and 14 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of HBV/HCV, HCV/HIV, HBV/HIV and HBV/HCV/HIV were 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1), 16.3% (95%CI: 1.1-31.6), 0.5% (95%CI: 0-1.4) and 0.5% (95%CI: 0.2-0.8), respectively. Based on subgroup analysis, there was a higher proportion of all co-infections from the years 2010-2016 as compared to that of the years 2003-2009. Our results highlighted that HCV/HIV co-infection in Iranian high-risk groups including injection drug users (IDUs) and prisoners is common. In addition, the increasing trend of coinfections should be considered alarming for policymakers.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.