BACKGROUND: Family-centered care (FCC) involves holistic care and requires cooperation with the family in planning, intervention, and the evolution of the care that is being provided. Many previous studies have provided results that indicate the importance of the family's involvement in pediatric care, but there is still resistance in doing so within the organizational culture of the hospitals in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of FCC on the satisfaction of parents of children hospitalized in 2012 in the pediatric ward at Razi Hospital in Chaloos, Iran.
METHODS: This Quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2012 in the pediatric ward at Razi Hospital in Chaloos, Iran. Seventy hospitalized children between the ages of 1 and 3 who suffered from diarrhea, vomiting, or pneumonia were selected through convenience sampling. They were divided randomly into two equal groups, a control group (routine care) and an experimental group (family-centered care). SPSS Statistics 14 software was used to analyze the data, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant.
RESULTS: In the FCC group, the mean score of satisfaction among the parents of the children was 20 out of 90 before the intervention, but, after the FCC method was used, it increased to 83.2 out of 90. In addition, a significant difference was found between the scores of satisfaction for the control and experimental groups (p<0.001), and all parents of children in the experimental group expressed high satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the practice of FCC in caring for the sick children can increase the satisfaction of their parents significantly. The role of the family's involvement is critical in every component of the intervention efforts, as shown by the constructs of participatory support, educational support, and psychological support. Thus, a notable implication here is that FCC may lead to increased quality of care and should be included in the educational programs of the nursing staff in pediatric ward.
KEYWORDS: Family-centered care; Iran; Nursing; Parents; Pediatric
Land filling is the most common disposal method in most parts of the world and landfill site has always been the final destination in solid waste management hierarchy. Thus, the selection of landfill site is always an essential part in the management of solid waste. Selecting an appropriate site for landfill minimizes any unwarranted ecological and socio-economic effects. Hence, landfill site selection requires a detailed analysis of the area that must be able to meet the local authority requirement and criteria. The present study presents a feasibility assessment of landfill establishment for Khomeynishahr city in Isfahan, applying a multi criteria evaluation (MCE) method using GIS technique. Information layers related to topography, soil, water table, sensitive habitats, land use and geology maps were prepared and superposed using Boolean logic in GIS environment. Essential analysis and regulation, criteria and site selection assessment showed that because of many limitations khomeynishahr city doesn’t have adequate conditions for landfill site establishment. Khomeynishahr city has a dense population and limited area and is not suitable for landfill establishment. In this case consideration of adjacent cities and finding a common landfill site between two or more cities could be a viable solution of solving this problem.
BACKGROUND: A student's lifestyle can change notably in a foreign country. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with the body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) 2009.
METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 210 Iranian postgraduate students at UPM. Anthropometric factors also were measured using standard procedures. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) also were calculated. The chi-squared test, Spearman's rho, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were used to determine the associations between the variables that were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to measure the amount of influence a predictor variable had on a outcome variable.
RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between nutritional knowledge (P > 0.05), weight-management knowledge (P > 0.05), and smoking (P > 0.05) and BMI. There were statistically significant correlations between gender (P < 0.01), physical activity (P < 0.05), protein (P < 0.01), carbohydrate (P < 0.01), fat (P < 0.01), fiber (P < 0.01), vitamin C (P < 0.05), calcium (P < 0.01), and iron (P < 0.01) and BMI. There were also relationships between body fat (P < 0.01), waist circumference (P < 0.01), hip circumference (P < 0.01) and WHR (P < 0.01) and BMI.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed the need for a nutrition promotion program for the Iranian students to help them change their negative food habits and improve their lifestyles.
KEYWORDS: Body weight; Dietary intake; Iran; Life style; Malaysia
Background: Stroke is a major global health problem that contributes to a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. The association of several foods and nutrients with stroke has been well-established. However, the effect of the whole diet on stroke is poorly understood. In this work, we aimed to examine the association between the quality of whole diet, as measured using Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and risk of stroke in Iranian adults. Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, 193 stroke patients (diagnosed based on clinical and brain CT findings) and 193 controls with no history of cerebrovascular diseases or neurologic disorders were included. The participants' dietary intakes were examined using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. AHEI-2010 was constructed based on earlier studies. Participants were classified according to tertiles of AHEI-2010 scores and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between whole diet quality and risk of stroke. Results: Individuals with greater adherence to AHEI-2010 had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains and carbohydrate, and a lower intake of trans-fatty acids, sugar-sweetened beverages, total energy and fat (P
In addition to polioviruses, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are frequently isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) worldwide. In polio-free countries, there have been expectations that with disappearing wild poliovirus from the community, the rate of AFP would decrease, but the increasing number of AFP cases proved this notion to be wrong. There are speculations that NPEVs might be the cause of increasing AFP rate. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency, genetic diversity, circulation patterns of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases in Iran from 2015 to 2018. Fifty-three NPEVs were isolated from stool specimens of AFP cases during four years of AFP surveillance. Nested PCR and VP1 sequencing revealed 20 NPEV types in which Echovirus 3 (13.2%), Echovirus 6 (13.2%), Echovirus 7 (7.5%), Echovirus 13 (7.5%) and Echovirus 21 (7.5%) were the most frequent. Coxsackie B viruses were isolated for the first time in AFP cases in Iran. The phylogenetic analysis of Echovirus 3 and Echovirus 6 revealed that Iranian echovirus strains belonged to the same cluster, indicating these viruses have been circulating in Iran for a long time. Compared to global Echovirus 3 and Echovirus 6 references, Echovirus 3 and Echovirus 6 strains detected in this study were closely related to Indian and Malaysia strains, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated a wide variety of NPEV types in Iranian patients, some of which had not been reported in previous studies. Moreover, this study highlights the need for NPEV surveillance in AFP cases.
Background: Several studies indicate a high prevalence of depression around the world during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a valid instrument to capture the depression of an individual in this situation is both important and timely. The present study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) among the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Method: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in the Iranian population (n = 600) from April to July 2020. A two-part online form was used: sociodemographic characteristics and depression items (CES-D). The construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the scale were evaluated. Result: The results of the exploratory factor analysis illustrated two factors with 43.35% of the total variance of the depression were explained. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this model fits well. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated, and it was acceptable. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that, in the Iranian sample, this depression scale yielded two factors (somatic and positive affects) solutions with suitable psychometric properties.
OBJECTIVE: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning.
METHODS: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist.
FINDINGS: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications.
CONCLUSION: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning.
KEYWORDS: Methadone; overdose; poisoning; toxicity
Primary dysmenorrhea is a womanhood problem around the world and negatively affects quality of life. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea and to determine the factors associated with its intensity. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 311 undergraduate female students aged 18 to 27 years in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Socio-demographic characteristics and menstrual factors were obtained through interviews with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was 89.1%. Residing at home, younger age, lower number of years of formal education for the mother, positive family history of dysmenorrhea, higher severity of bleeding, and shorter menstrual period intervals were significantly associated with the higher intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a common health concern among young women. Being aware of the factors that are associated with its intensity makes it possible for health professionals to organize better focused programs to reduce the adverse effects of dysmenorrhea.
BACKGROUND: Given that happiness is an important construct to enable adolescents to cope better with difficulties and stress of life, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the possible etiology of happiness in adolescents.
OBJECTIVES:The present study sought to investigate the relationships of emotional intelligence, depressive symptoms, and happiness in a sample of male students in Tehran, Iran.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of high school students in Tehran in 2012. The participants comprised of 188 male students (aged 16 to 19 years old) selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method. For gathering the data, the students filled out assessing emotions scale, Beck depression inventory-II, and Oxford happiness inventory. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive and analytical statistics in statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software.
RESULTS: The findings showed that a significant positive association existed between high ability of emotional intelligence and happiness (P < 0.01). Conversely, the low ability of emotional intelligence was associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01), there was a positive association between non-depression symptoms and happiness (P < 0.05), and severe depressive symptoms were positively associated with unhappiness (P < 0.01). High ability of emotional intelligence (P < 0.01) and non-depression symptoms (P < 0.05) were the strongest predictors of happiness.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforced the importance of emotional intelligence as a facilitating factor for happiness in adolescences. In addition, the findings suggested that depression symptoms may be harmful for happiness in adolescents.
INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
Eshtehard aquifer located in southwest of Tehran province, Iran, provides a large amount of water requirement for inhabitants of Eshtehard district. Monitoring and analyzing of groundwater quality are important for protecting groundwater as sustainable water resource. One of the most advanced techniques for groundwater quality interpolation and mapping is geostatistics methods. The purposes of this study are (1) to investigate major ions concentration and their relative abundance to provide an overview of present groundwater chemistry and (2) to map the groundwater quality in the study area using geostatistics techniques. In this investigation, ArcGIS 9.2 was used for predicting spatial distribution of some groundwater characteristics such as: Chloride, Sulfate, pH, and Conductivity. These methods are applied for data from 44 wells within the study area. The final maps show that the south parts of the Eshtehard aquifer have suitable groundwater quality for human consumption and in general, the groundwater quality degrades south to north and west to east of the Eshtehard plain along the groundwater flow path.
This research focuses on the ASTER DEM generation for visual and mathematical analysis of topography, landscapes and landforms, as well as modeling of surface processes of Central Alborz, Iran. ASTER DEM 15 m generated using tie points over the Central Alborz and Damavand volcano with 5671 m height from ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite data using PCI Geomatica 9.1. Geomorphic parameters are useful to identify and describe geomorphologic forms and processes, which were extracted from ASTER DEM in GIS environment such as elevation, aspect, slope angle, vertical curvature, and tangential curvature. Although the elevation values are slightly low in altitudes above 5500 m asl., the ASTER DEM is useful in interpretation of the macro- and meso-relief, and provides the opportunity for mapping especially at medium scales (1:100,000 and 1:50,000). ASTER DEM has potential to be a best tool to study 3D model for to geomorphologic mapping and processes of glacial and per glacial forms above 4300 m asl.
Introduction: Water pipe use is becoming increasingly common among Iranian adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of water pipe use among public high schoolchildren aged 14-17 in Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade public high schoolchildren in Sanadaj City, capital of Kurdistan province of Iran during the academic year 2012-2013. Cluster sampling was used to select a sample from 8 public high schools. The data were collected using validated self-administrated questionnaire that included questions on water pipe use, socio-demographic characteristics, smoking-related knowledge, attitude toward smoking, normative believes regards perceived prevalence water pipe use among peer and adults, perception of harm, self-esteem and refusal skill. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of water pipe use.
Results: A total of 1837 students participated in this study. Students’ ages ranged from 14 to 17 years (mean age±15.09; SD±0.82 years). The overall prevalence of ever water pipe use was 36.2% (43.1% in male and 29.2% in female, (p<0.001). Age, gender, living arrangement, pocket money, academic grade, parental history of smoking, attitude, and normative believes regards perceived prevalence water pipe use among peer and adults were predictors of water pipe use among study participants.
Conclusions: The overall prevalence of water pipe is high among high school children in Sanandaj. Age, gender, pocket money, academic grade, parents smoking, attitude toward smoking and normative believes were identified as the most important predictors increasing the risk of water pipe use in the studied students.
Keywords: Water pipe use, Prevalence, Predictors of Water Pipe, High school children
BACKGROUND: This study examined the impacts of an Emotional Focused Intervention on emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction among the elderly married couples.
METHODS: This randomized controlled trial study was carried out in Shiraz-Iran, during September 2013-2014. The elderly couples were invited to join an emotional focused intervention, following the advertisement and announcement on bulletin boards in the elderly day clinic centers and all governmental primary health care centers. Then, 57 couples (114 participants) who were eligible for study were assigned in two groups by block randomization (29 in the experimental and 28 in the control group(.The couples in the experimental group received intervention twice a week for four weeks. Each session lasted 90 minutes. The control group didn't receive any intervention and the subjects were put in the waiting list. The outcome measures were evaluated by Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (MMEAQ) and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire for Older People (MSQFOP). Repeated measurement ANOVA was used to detect any significant changes between groups in their mean scores of emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction from pre- to post-test, and 3 months after the intervention. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS, version 19, and P≤0.05 was measured as significant.
RESULTS: The mean duration of marriage was 39.56±9.64 years. In the experimental group, the abusive behaviors decreased significantly (P<0.001) at times 2 and 3 compared with time 1, and marital satisfaction improved significantly only at time 3 (P<0.001). These differences were not significant in the control group.
CONCLUSION: Emotion-focused couple-based interventions are helpful in reducing the spousal emotional abuse and improving marital satisfaction in among the elderly couples. Trial Registration Number: 2013111715426N1.
Self-perception is found to be a central predictive factor in experiencing successful aging. The aim of this study was to explore the role of sex, socioeconomic status, and emotional support in elders' aging perception. A cross-sectional design was used with 300 older aged participants recruited from 23 clinics and health centers in Qazvin, Iran. Data were collected included questions to elicit demographic information and Barker's aging perception questionnaire. Exploratory multiple linear regression showed that the level of emotional support (β: -12.10; 95% CI: [-20.72, -3.48]), socioeconomic status (β: 2.84; 95% CI: [0.25, 5.43]), and women (β: -4.34; 95% CI: [-6.91, -1.77]) were associated with aging perception among elders. Educational level and marital status did not significantly contribute to the variance of AP. Findings revealed that aging perception was related to individual differences as well as social and emotional factors. Researchers, health-care professionals, and elders may benefit from thinking about old age as an inevitable life stage.
There is a need to develop an accurate and reliable model for predicting suspended sediment load (SSL) because of its complexity and difficulty in practice. This is due to the fact that sediment transportation is extremely nonlinear and is directed by numerous parameters such as rainfall, sediment supply, and strength of flow. Thus, this study examined two scenarios to investigate the effectiveness of the artificial neural network (ANN) models and determine the sensitivity of the predictive accuracy of the model to specific input parameters. The first scenario proposed three advanced optimisers-whale algorithm (WA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and bat algorithm (BA)-for the optimisation of the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) in accurately predicting the suspended sediment load rate at the Goorganrood basin, Iran. In total, 5 different input combinations were examined in various lag days of up to 5 days to make a 1-day-ahead SSL prediction. Scenario 2 introduced a multi-objective (MO) optimisation algorithm that utilises the same inputs from scenario 1 as a way of determining the best combination of inputs. Results from scenario 1 revealed that high accuracy levels were achieved upon utilisation of a hybrid ANN-WA model over the ANN-BA with an RMSE value ranging from 1 to 6%. Furthermore, the ANN-WA model performed better than the ANN-PSO with an accuracy improvement value of 5-20%. Scenario 2 achieved the highest R2 when ANN-MOWA was introduced which shows that hybridisation of the multi-objective algorithm with WA and ANN model significantly improves the accuracy of ANN in predicting the daily suspended sediment load.
Suspended sediment load (SSL) estimation is a required exercise in water resource management. This article proposes the use of hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) models, for the prediction of SSL, based on previous SSL values. Different input scenarios of daily SSL were used to evaluate the capacity of the ANN-ant lion optimization (ALO), ANN-bat algorithm (BA) and ANN-particle swarm optimization (PSO). The Goorganrood basin in Iran was selected for this study. First, the lagged SSL data were used as the inputs to the models. Next, the rainfall and temperature data were used. Optimization algorithms were used to fine-tune the parameters of the ANN model. Three statistical indexes were used to evaluate the accuracy of the models: the root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). An uncertainty analysis of the predicting models was performed to evaluate the capability of the hybrid ANN models. A comparison of models indicated that the ANN-ALO improved the RMSE accuracy of the ANN-BA and ANN-PSO models by 18% and 26%, respectively. Based on the uncertainty analysis, it can be surmised that the ANN-ALO has an acceptable degree of uncertainty in predicting daily SSL. Generally, the results indicate that the ANN-ALO is applicable for a variety of water resource management operations.
Security cooperation has increasingly come to prominence in the realm of relations between the European Union (EU) and China as a policy area primed for fostering deeper bilateral strategic convergence. Where leaders on both sides have talked up security cooperation particularly by pointing to recent successes (on counter-piracy, Iran), EU-China scholars have largely qualified these as exceptions to the rule. The rule being that the gulf between Brussels and Beijing continues to be too wide on norms, geopolitics and trust for them to live up to their ambitious rhetoric on security cooperation. Taking this into consideration, this paper sets out to examine whether the Belt-and-Road Initiative (BRI) - given its magnitude and high stakes - can change the dynamics of bilateral security cooperation. Looking at this through the lens of three distinct theories applicable to the study of EU-China relations, it would appear that even bilateral security overlap pertaining to the BRI cannot reverse these deeply entrenched behavioural patterns.
Regular optimization techniques have been widely used in landslide-related problems. This paper outlines two novel optimizations of artificial neural network (ANN) using grey wolf optimization (GWO) and biogeography-based optimization (BBO) metaheuristic algorithms in the Ardabil province, Iran. To this end, these algorithms are synthesized with a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for optimizing its computational parameters. The used spatial database consists of fourteen landslide conditioning factors, namely elevation, slope aspect, land use, plan curvature, profile curvature, soil type, distance to river, distance to road, distance to fault, rainfall, slope degree, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI) and lithology. 70% of the identified landslides are randomly selected to train the proposed models and the remaining 30% is used to evaluate the accuracy of them. Also, the frequency ratio theory is used to analyze the spatial interaction between the landslide and conditioning factors. Obtained values of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, as well as mean square error and mean absolute error showed that both GWO and BBO hybrid algorithms could efficiently improve the learning capability of the MLP. Besides, the BBO-based ensemble surpasses other implemented models.