• 1 Department of Economics, Ghazi University, DG Khan, Pakistan
  • 2 College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 3 College of Information Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
  • 4 Department of Business Administration, Putra Business School, University Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan, Malaysia
  • 5 College of Economics and Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Dec;27(36):45476-45486.
PMID: 32794094 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10413-y


Economic integration in the form of Belt and Road Initiative project opens many opportunities and hazards, especially of the participating nations' environment. The current study attempted to empirically test the economic and energy usage (renewable and non-renewable) impact on some selected countries of belt and road projects. For this purpose, the panel data set of twenty-four emerging economies of belt and road projects was selected from 1995 to 2014. The autoregressive distributed lags technique of econometric applied to determine the effect of renewable and non-renewable energy, GDP and GDP2 for EKC, and gross fixed capital formation on carbon emission in the selected countries of Belt and Road Initiative project. The outcomes of this study confirm the existence of EKC in these underlined countries. Here, fossil fuel-based energy consumption is a source of environmental degradation, while renewable and clean energy usage can help sustain environmental conditions without affecting economic growth progress. Capital fixed formation in these economies can enhance economic growth and help to sustainable environmental conditions in the belt and road countries. Thus, based on these empirical outcomes, this study suggests economic and financial assistance in green renewable energy sources and clean technological innovation to enhance economic benefits of Belt and Road Initiative project without compromising the environmental conditions of the region.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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