• 1 School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 3 School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Medical University of the Americas, Nevis. R3 Education Inc, Devens, MA01434, USA
  • 4 School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Phone: +60 327317231, e-mail:
J Contemp Dent Pract, 2021 Jan 01;22(1):73-79.
PMID: 34002713


AIM: This study aimed to compare the level of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-37 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and human plasma of subjects with periodontal disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted over a 3-month period at a primary dental clinic in Malaysia, 45 participants were recruited via consecutive sampling and assigned into three groups, namely healthy periodontium group (n = 15), gingivitis group (n = 15), and periodontitis group (n = 15). Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma samples were collected from each participant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test was conducted to measure the concentration of IL-10, IL-17, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-37. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare the interleukin levels between patient groups.

RESULTS: In GCF samples, IL-17 level was the highest in the periodontitis group (p <0.05), while IL-27 was the lowest (p <0.05). Meanwhile, plasma levels of IL-27 and IL-37 were significantly lower (p <0.05) in the periodontitis group, but plasma IL-35 levels were observed to rise with increasing disease severity.

CONCLUSION: There are reduced local and systemic levels of IL-27 in periodontitis patients.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Periodontal diseases exert both local and systemic effects, resulting in the destruction of the tooth-supporting structures and contributing to the systemic inflammatory burden. Some of the cytokines that were investigated in the current study, IL-17, IL-27, IL-35, and IL-37, can be potential biomarkers that warrant further longitudinal clinical studies to determine their usefulness as prognostic/diagnostic markers.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.