• 1 Department of Physics, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, India
  • 2 Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 3 Université de technologie de Compiègne, ESCOM, TIMR (Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter), Centre de recherche Royallieu, Compiègne, France
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Kampus Terpadu UII, Sleman, Indonesia
  • 5 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • 6 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
  • 7 Department of Chemistry, Mutah University, Mutah, Jordan
  • 8 Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia
Artif Organs, 2021 Dec;45(12):1501-1512.
PMID: 34309044 DOI: 10.1111/aor.14045


The primary role of bone tissue engineering is to reconcile the damaged bones and facilitate the speedy recovery of the injured bones. However, some of the investigated metallic implants suffer from stress-shielding, palpability, biocompatibility, etc. Consequently, the biodegradable scaffolds fabricated from polymers have gathered much attention from researchers and thus helped the tissue engineering sector by providing many alternative materials whose functionality is similar to that of natural bones. Herein, we present the fabrication and testing of a novel composite, magnesium (Mg)-doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) glazed onto polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds where polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) used as a binder. For the composite formation, Creality Ender-3 pro High Precision 3D Printer with Shape tool 3D Technology on an FSD machine operated by Catia design software was employed. The composite has been characterized for the crystallinity (XRD), surface functionality (FTIR), morphology (FESEM), biocompatibility (hemolytic and protein absorption), and mechanical properties (stress-strain and maximum compressive strength). The powder XRD analysis confirmed the semicrystalline nature and intact structure of HAp even after doping with Mg, while FTIR studies for the successful formation of Mg-HAp/PVA@PLA composite. The FESEM provided analysis indicated for the 3D porous architecture and well-defined morphology to efficiently transport the nutrients, and the biocompatibility studies are supporting that the composite for blood compatible with the surface being suitable enough for the protein absorption. Finally, the composite's antibacterial activity (against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and the test of mechanical properties supported for the enhanced inhibition of active growth of microorganisms and maximum compressive strength, respectively. Based on the research outcomes of biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, and mechanical resistance, the fabricated Mg-HAp/PVA@PLA composite suits well as a promising biomaterial platform for orthopedic applications by functioning towards the open reduction internal fixation of bone fractures and internal repairs.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.