Several methods have been used to measure the impact force absorption capacities of mouthguard materials; however, the relationships among these measurement systems have not been clearly determined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact force-absorbing capability of materials using a drop-ball system with film sensors and load cells to clarify the relationship between these two sensor systems.
Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.
Iron-bioceramic composites have been developed as biodegradable implant materials with tailored degradation behavior and bioactive features. In the current work, in vivo bioactivity of the composites was comprehensively studied by using sheep animal model. Five groups of specimens (Fe-HA, Fe-TCP, Fe-BCP composites, and pure-Fe and SS316L as controls) were surgically implanted into medio proximal region of the radial bones. Real-time ultrasound analysis showed a decreased echo pattern at the peri-implant biodegradation site of the composites indicating minimal tissue response during the wound healing process. Peripheral whole blood biomarkers monitoring showed a normal dynamic change of blood cellular responses and no stress effect was observed. Meanwhile, the released Fe ion concentration was increasing along the implantation period. Histological analysis showed that the composites corresponded with a lower inflammatory giant cell count than that of SS316L. Analysis of the retrieved implants showed a thicker degradation layer on the composites compared with pure-Fe. It can be concluded that the iron-bioceramic composites are bioactive and induce a preferable wound healing process.
A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).
Microleakage testing has been used to determine the possible clinical performance of a restorative material. Many microleakage testing materials have been developed and performed through the years. There has been no agreement as to which testing methodology would give the most accurate results. Attempts have been made to simulate the oral conditions and to give a more quantitative representation of micro leakage. The different micro leakage testing methodologies are presented in this paper.
The sustainability of nitrile glove production process is essential both in the financial and energy perspective. Nitrile glove has the lowest material cost with positive mechanical and chemical performance quality for the disposable glove market. Nitrile glove also holds a major market in disposable gloves sector, and nitrile rubber compounds may contribute to the huge reduction of the capital cost for a pair of surgical gloves due to the inexpensive raw material compares with other synthetic polyisoprene or neoprene. Hence, blending of bio-additive into the nitrile latex might support the 3 pillars of sustainability for environmental, societal, and financial sector. Bio-additives helps increase the degradation rate of gloves under natural conditions. Bio-based substances could be derived from food waste, natural plants, and aquatic plants like micro- and macro algae. Furthermore, antimicrobial agent (e.g. brilliant green and cyclohexadiene) is the trend in surgical glove for coated as protecting layer, due to the capability to remove pathogens or bacterial on the surgeon hands during operation period. Besides, the section in energy recovery is a proposing gateway for reducing the financial cost and makes the process sustainable.
In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.
The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.
Good prosthetic suspension system secures the residual limb inside the prosthetic socket and enables easy donning and doffing. This study aimed to introduce, evaluate and compare a newly designed prosthetic suspension system (HOLO) with the current suspension systems (suction, pin/lock and magnetic systems).
The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.
The mechanical properties of high-strength ductile concrete (HSDC) have been investigated using Metakaolin (MK) as the cement replacing material and PVA fibers. Total twenty-seven (27) mixes of concrete have been examined with varying content of MK and PVA fibers. It has been found that the coarser type PVA fibers provide strengths competitive to control or higher than control. Concrete with coarser type PVA fibers has also refined microstructure, but the microstructure has been undergone with the increase in aspect ratio of fibers. The microstructure of concrete with MK has also more refined and packing of material is much better with MK. PVA fibers not only give higher stiffness but also showed the deflection hardening response. Toughness Index of HSDC reflects the improvement in flexural toughness over the plain concrete and the maximum toughness indices have been observed with 10% MK and 2% volume fraction of PVA fibers.
A new class of biocomposites based on oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), which is a biodegradable aliphatic aromatic co-polyester, were prepared using melt blending technique. The composites were prepared at various fiber contents of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% and characterized. Chemical treatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber was successfully done by grafting succinic anhydride (SAH) onto the EFB fiber surface, and the modified fibers were obtained in two levels of grafting (low and high weight percentage gain, WPG) after 5 and 6 h of grafting. The FTIR characterization showed evidence of successful fiber esterification. The results showed that 40 wt% of fiber loading improved the tensile properties of the biocomposite. The effects of EFB fiber chemical treatments and various organic initiators content on mechanical and thermal properties and water absorption of PBAT/EFB 60/40 wt% biocomposites were also examined. The SAH-g-EFB fiber at low WPG in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) initiator was found to significantly enhance the tensile and flexural properties as well as water resistance of biocomposite (up to 24%) compared with those of untreated fiber reinforced composites. The thermal behavior of the composites was evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric (DTG) thermograms. It was observed that, the chemical treatment has marginally improved the biocomposites' thermal stability in presence of 1 wt% of dicumyl peroxide at the low WPG level of grafting. The improved fiber-matrix surface enhancement in the chemically treated biocomposite was confirmed by SEM analysis of the tensile fractured specimens.
This finite element analysis is aimed at comparing relative stiffness of three different posterior instrumentation constructs: the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Spinal Instrumentation System (HUKM-SIS), the Cotrell-Dubousset Instrumentation (CDI) and Harrington Instrumentation System (HIS), used in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The constructs were tested under various loads using MSC Patran 2001 r2a. Under increasing flexion loads, there was a linearly corresponding increase in deflection magnitudes for all constructs on the load-deflection curve. The CDI was the stiffest construct under axial, forward flexion and extension loads, followed by the HUKM-SIS and HIS. Under lateral bending loads, the HUKM-SIS construct was the stiffest followed by CDI and HIS. The HUKM-SIS construct was stiffer than HIS under torsional loads. We conclude that multiple pedicle screws increase the stiffness of posterior instrumentation constructs under all loads and inter-segmental spinous processes wiring increase the stiffness against lateral bending.
Metal implants such as titanium, stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo are used for load bearing purposes such as hip joint prostheses, fixing plates and dental root implants. For practical application, plasma-sprayed coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA) on metal implants are applied to promote early formation of strong bonds between metal implant and living bone. Plasma spray coating involves heating of HA material to a semi-molten or molten state and then propels its to a metal substrate. The plasma flame temperature is in the range of 6,000 degrees C to 16,000 degrees C but the surface temperature of the substrate rarely exceeds 150 degrees C. The HA materials are feed into the spray gun in the form of powders. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the processes of plasma-sprayed coating of HA on various types of metal implants.
The mean strength that has traditionally been taken as a measurement of the strength of a material does not reflect the true strength, and therefore it cannot be used as a design parameter. This explains why many brittle materials fail at unpredictable stress, either below or above the mean strength. By using Weibull statistics, the prediction and assessment of strength can be made more sensibly. The performance of a material can be predicted by considering a stress at a lower level of failure probability.
Bio-composites are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly, could reduce the overall cost and provide lightweight due to the low density of the natural fibers. In a bid to compete with the synthetic fiber reinforced composites, a single natural fiber composite may not be a good choice to obtain optimal properties. Hence, hybrid composites are produced by adding two or more natural fibers together to obtain improved properties, such as mechanical, physical, thermal, water absorption, acoustic and dynamic, among others. Regarding thermal stability, the composites showed a significant change by varying the individual fiber compositions, fiber surface treatments, addition of fillers and coupling agents. The glass transition temperature and melting point obtained from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are not the same values for several hybrid composites, since the volume variation was not always parallel with the enthalpy change. However, the difference between the temperature calculated from the thermomechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry was lower. Significantly, this critical reviewed study has a potential of guiding all composite designers, manufacturers and users on right selection of composite materials for thermal applications, such as engine components (covers), heat shields and brake ducts, among others.
Polymer blends is a well-established and suitable method to produced new polymeric materials as compared to synthesis of a new polymer. The combination of two different types of polymers will produce a new and unique material, which has the attribute of both polymers. The aim of this work is to analyze mechanical and morphological properties of bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends to find the best formulation for future study. Bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends were fabricated using the hand lay-up method at different loading of bio-phenolic (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%, and 25 wt%) in the epoxy matrix whereas neat bio-phenolic and epoxy samples were also fabricated for comparison. Results indicated that mechanical properties were improved for bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends compared to neat epoxy and phenolic. In addition, there is no sign of phase separation in polymer blends. The highest tensile, flexural, and impact strength was shown by P-20(biophenolic-20 wt% and Epoxy-80 wt%) whereas P-25 (biophenolic-25 wt% and Epoxy-75 wt%) has the highest tensile and flexural modulus. Based on the finding, it is concluded that P-20 shows better overall mechanical properties among the polymer blends. Based on this finding, the bio-phenolic/epoxy blend with 20 wt% will be used for further study on flax-reinforced bio-phenolic/epoxy polymer blends.
Damage assessment is a key element in structural health monitoring of various industrial applications to understand well and predict the response of the material. The big uncertainty in carbon fiber composite materials response is because of variability in the initiation and propagation of damage. Developing advanced tools to design with composite materials, methods for characterizing several damage modes during operation are required. While there is a significant amount of work on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) from different composite materials and many loading cases, this research focuses on applying an unsupervised clustering method for separating AE data into several groups with distinct evolution. In this paper, we develop an adaptive sampling and unsupervised bivariate data clustering techniques to characterize the several damage initiations of a composite structure in different lay-ups. An adaptive sampling technique pre-processes the AE features and eliminates redundant AE data samples. The reduction of unnecessary AE data depends on the requirements of the proposed bivariate data clustering technique. The bivariate data clustering technique groups the AE data (dependent variable) with respect to the mechanical data (independent variable) to assess the damage of the composite structure. Tensile experiments on carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP) in different orientations are carried out to collect mechanical and AE data and demonstrate the damage modes. Based on the mechanical stress-strain data, the results show the dominant damage regions in different lay-ups of specimens and the definition of the different states of damage. In addition, the states of the damage are observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Based on the AE data, the results show that the strong linear correlation between AE and mechanical energy, and the classification of various modes of damage in all lay-ups of specimens forming clusters of AE energy with respect to the mechanical energy. Furthermore, the validation of the cluster-based characterization and improvement of the sensitivity of the damage modes classification are observed by the combined knowledge of AE and mechanical energy and time-frequency spectrum analysis.
Materials with low-strength and low-impedance properties, such as elastomers and polymeric foams are major contributors to prosthetic liner design. Polyethylene-Light (Pelite™) is a foam liner that is the most frequently used in prosthetics but it does not cater to all amputees' limb and skin conditions. The study aims to investigate the newly modified Foam Liner, a combination of two different types of foams (EVA + PU + EVA) as the newly modified Foam Liner in terms of compressive and tensile properties in comparison to Pelite™, polyurethane (PU) foam, and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. Universal testing machine (AGS-X, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) has been used to measure the tensile and compressive stress. Pelite™ had the highest compressive stress at 566.63 kPa and tensile stress at 1145 kPa. Foam Liner fell between EVA and Pelite™ with 551.83 kPa at compression and 715.40 kPa at tension. PU foam had the lowest compressive stress at 2.80 kPa and tensile stress at 33.93 kPa. Foam Liner has intermediate compressive elasticity but has high tensile elasticity compared to EVA and Pelite™. Pelite™ remains the highest in compressive and tensile stiffness. Although it is good for amputees with bony prominence, constant pressure might result in skin breakdown or ulcer. Foam Liner would be the best for amputees with soft tissues on the residual limbs to accommodate movement.
Bioactive glasses have been used as coatings for biomedical implants because they can be formulated to promote osseointegration, antibacterial behavior, bone formation, and tissue healing through the incorporation and subsequent release of certain ions. However, shear loading on coated implants has been reported to cause the delamination and loosening of such coatings. This work uses a recently developed fracture mechanics testing methodology to quantify the critical strain energy release rate under nearly pure mode II conditions, GIIC, of a series of borate-based glass coating/Ti6Al4V alloy substrate systems. Incorporating increasing amounts of SrCO3in the glass composition was found to increase the GIICalmost twofold, from 25.3 to 46.9J/m2. The magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the coating were quantified, and it was found that the residual stresses in all cases distributed uniformly over the cross section of the coating. The crack was driven towards, but not into, the glass/Ti6Al4V substrate interface due to the shear loading. This implied that the interface had a higher fracture toughness than the coating itself.