The use of gelatin microspheres (GMs) as a cell carrier has been extensively researched. One of its limitations is that it dissolves rapidly in aqueous settings, precluding its use for long-term cell propagation. This circumstance necessitates the use of crosslinking agents to circumvent the constraint. Thus, this study examines two different methods of crosslinking and their effect on the microsphere's physicochemical and cartilage tissue regeneration capacity. Crosslinking was accomplished by physical (dehydrothermal [DHT]) and natural (genipin) crosslinking of the three-dimensional (3D) GM. We begin by comparing the microstructures of the scaffolds and their long-term resistance to degradation under physiological conditions (in an isotonic solution, at 37°C, pH = 7.4). Infrared spectroscopy indicated that the gelatin structure was preserved after the crosslinking treatments. The crosslinked GM demonstrated good cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and widespread 3D scaffold colonization when seeded with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the crosslinked microspheres enhanced chondrogenesis, as demonstrated by the data. It was discovered that crosslinked GM increased the expression of cartilage-related genes and the biosynthesis of a glycosaminoglycan-positive matrix as compared with non-crosslinked GM. In comparison, DHT-crosslinked results were significantly enhanced. To summarize, DHT treatment was found to be a superior approach for crosslinking the GM to promote better cartilage tissue regeneration.
This paper aims to investigate the dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant (ε'), dielectric loss factor (ε″), dielectric tangent loss (tan δ), electrical conductivity (σ), and penetration depth (Dp), of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/starch composites in the function of starch proportion, pore size, and porosity over a broad band frequency range of 5 MHz-12 GHz. The porous nanohydroxyapatite/starch composites were fabricated using different starch proportions ranging from 30 to 90 wt%. The results reveal that the dielectric properties and the microstructural features of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/starch composites can be enhanced by the increment in the starch proportion. Nevertheless, the composite with 80 wt% of starch proportion exhibit low dielectric properties (ε', ε″, tan δ, and σ) and a high penetration depth because of its highly interconnected porous microstructures. The dielectric properties of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/starch composites are highly dependent on starch proportion, average pore size, and porosity. The regression models are developed to express the dielectric properties of the porous nanohydroxyapatite/starch composites (R2 > 0.96) in the function of starch proportion, pore size, and porosity from 1 to 11 GHz. This dielectric study can facilitate the assessment of bone scaffold design in bone tissue engineering applications.
Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.
The potential of electrospinning process to fabricate ultrafine fibers as building blocks for tissue engineering scaffolds is well recognized. The scaffold construct produced by electrospinning process depends on the quality of the fibers. In electrospinning, material selection and parameter setting are among many factors that contribute to the quality of the ultrafine fibers, which eventually determine the performance of the tissue engineering scaffolds. The major challenge of conventional electrospun scaffolds is the nature of electrospinning process which can only produce two-dimensional electrospun mats, hence limiting their applications. Researchers have started to focus on overcoming this limitation by combining electrospinning with other techniques to fabricate three-dimensional scaffold constructs. This article reviews various polymeric materials and their composites/blends that have been successfully electrospun for tissue engineering scaffolds, their mechanical properties, and the various parameters settings that influence the fiber morphology. This review also highlights the secondary processes to electrospinning that have been used to develop three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds as well as the steps undertaken to overcome electrospinning limitations.
The four heart valves represented in the mammalian hearts are responsible for maintaining unidirectional, non-hinder blood flow. The heart valve leaflets synchronically open and close approximately 4 million times a year and more than 3 billion times during the life. Valvular heart dysfunction is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. When one of the valves malfunctions, the medical choice is may be to replace the original valves with an artificial one. Currently, the mechanical and biological artificial valves are clinically used with some drawbacks. Tissue engineering heart valve concept represents a new technique to enhance the current model. In tissue engineering method, a three-dimensional scaffold is fabricated as the template for neo-tissue development. Appropriate cells are seeded to the matrix in vitro. Various approaches have been investigated either in scaffold biomaterials and fabrication techniques or cell source and cultivation methods. The available results of ongoing experiments indicate a promising future in this area (particularly in combination of bone marrow stem cells with synthetic scaffold), which can eliminate the need for lifelong anti-coagulation medication, durability and reoperation problems.
Supramolecular hydrogels, formed by noncovalent crosslinking of polymeric chains in water, constitute an interesting class of materials that can be developed specifically for drug delivery and biomedical applications. The biocompatibility, stimuli responsiveness to various external factors, and powerful functionalization capacity of these polymeric networks make them attractive candidates for novel advanced dosage form design.
A comparative study on the in vitro osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-L-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/HA/Col, PLLA/HA, and PLLA/Col) scaffolds was conducted. The morphology, chemical composition, and surface roughness of the fibrous scaffolds were examined. Furthermore, cell attachment, distribution, morphology, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) differentiated on the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA were also analyzed. The electrospun scaffolds with a diameter of 200-950 nm demonstrated well-formed interconnected fibrous network structure, which supported the growth of hMSCs. When compared with PLLA/H%A and PLLA/Col scaffolds, PLLA/Col/HA scaffolds presented a higher density of viable cells and significant upregulation of genes associated with osteogenic lineage, which were achieved without the use of specific medium or growth factors. These results were supported by the elevated levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and mineralization (P<0.05) observed at different time points (0, 7, 14, and 21 days). Furthermore, electron microscopic observations and fibronectin localization revealed that PLLA/Col/HA scaffolds exhibited superior osteoinductivity, when compared with PLLA/Col or PLLA/HA scaffolds. These findings indicated that the fibrous structure and synergistic action of Col and nano-HA with high-molecular-weight PLLA played a vital role in inducing osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The data obtained in this study demonstrated that the developed fibrous PLLA/Col/HA biocomposite scaffold may be supportive for stem cell based therapies for bone repair, when compared with the other two scaffolds.
Regenerative medicine has rapidly evolved over the past decade owing to its potential applications to improve human health. Targeted differentiations of stem cells promise to regenerate a variety of tissues and/or organs despite significant challenges. Recent studies have demonstrated the vital role of the physical microenvironment in regulating stem cell fate and improving differentiation efficiency. In this review, we summarize the main physical cues that are crucial for controlling stem cell differentiation. Recent advances in the technologies for the construction of physical microenvironment and their implications in controlling stem cell fate are also highlighted.
Hydroxyapatite is a biocompatible material that is extensively used in the replacement and regeneration of bone material. In nature, nanostructured hydroxyapatite is the main component present in hard body tissues. Hence, the state of the art in nanotechnology can be exploited to synthesize nanophase hydroxyapatite that has similar properties with natural hydroxyapatite. Sustainable methods to mass-produce synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are being developed to meet the increasing demand for these materials and to further develop the progress made in hard tissue regeneration, especially for orthopedic and dental applications. This article reviews the current developments in nanophase hydroxyapatite through various manufacturing techniques and modifications.
The guidance of endothelial cell organization into a capillary network has been a long-standing challenge in tissue engineering. Some research efforts have been made to develop methods to promote capillary networks inside engineered tissue constructs. Capillary and vascular networks that would mimic blood microvessel function can be used to subsequently facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer as well as waste removal. Vascularization of engineering tissue construct is one of the most favorable strategies to overpass nutrient and oxygen supply limitation, which is often the major hurdle in developing thick and complex tissue and artificial organ. This paper addresses recent advances and future challenges in developing three-dimensional culture systems to promote tissue construct vascularization allowing mimicking blood microvessel development and function encountered in vivo. Bioreactors systems that have been used to create fully vascularized functional tissue constructs will also be outlined.
Spinal fusion using autologous bone graft is performed in an increasing rate for many spinal disorders. However, graft harvesting procedure is associated with prolonged operation time and potential donor site morbidity. We produced an engineered 'bone graft' substitute by using porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold seeded with autologous bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) and fibrin. This obviates bone graft harvesting, thus eliminates donor site morbidity and shortens the operation time. The aim of this study is to evaluate Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics as scaffold for autologous tissue engineered bone construct for spinal fusion in a sheep model. The sheep's marrow was aspirated from iliac crest. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were cultured for several passages in the presence of growth and differentiation factors to increase the number of OPCs. After the cultures reached confluence, they were trypsinized and seeded on Hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA). Approximately 5 million cells were generated after 3 weeks of culture. Microscopically, very tight Colony Forming Units (CFU-Fs) were seen on monolayer culture. The Von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining of monolayer culture showed positive mineralization areas; indicating the presence of OPCs. Sheep underwent a posterolateral spinal fusion in which scaffolds with or without OPCs seeded were implanted on both sides of the lumbar spine (L1-L2). Intended fusion segments were immobilized using wires. At the end of third month, the fusion constructs were harvested for histological examination. Fibrous tissue infiltration found in the inter-connecting pores of plain HA ceramics indicates inefficient new bone regeneration. New bone was found surrounding the HA ceramics seeded with autologous cells. The new bone is probably formed by the sheep BMMSCs that were initially encapsulating HA while it remained intact. The new bone is naturally fused with the vertebrae. In conclusion, the incorporation of autologous bone marrow cells improved the effectiveness of HA ceramics as 'bone graft' substitute for spinal fusion.
Tissue engineering embraces the potential of recreating and replacing defective body parts by advancements in the medical field. Being a biocompatible nanomaterial with outstanding physical, chemical, optical, and biological properties, graphene-based materials were successfully employed in creating the perfect scaffold for a range of organs, starting from the skin through to the brain. Investigations on 2D and 3D tissue culture scaffolds incorporated with graphene or its derivatives have revealed the capability of this carbon material in mimicking in vivo environment. The porous morphology, great surface area, selective permeability of gases, excellent mechanical strength, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good optical properties, and biodegradability enable graphene materials to be the best component for scaffold engineering. Along with the apt microenvironment, this material was found to be efficient in differentiating stem cells into specific cell types. Furthermore, the scope of graphene nanomaterials in liver tissue engineering as a promising biomaterial is also discussed. This review critically looks into the unlimited potential of graphene-based nanomaterials in future tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.
Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition, the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
Joint cartilage has been a significant focus on the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) since its inception in the 1980s. Represented by only one cell type, cartilage has been a simple tissue that is thought to be straightforward to deal with. After three decades, engineering cartilage has proven to be anything but easy. With the demographic shift in the distribution of world population towards ageing, it is expected that there is a growing need for more effective options for joint restoration and repair. Despite the increasing understanding of the factors governing cartilage development, there is still a lot to do to bridge the gap from bench to bedside. Dedicated methods to regenerate reliable articular cartilage that would be equivalent to the original tissue are still lacking. The use of cells, scaffolds and signalling factors has always been central to the TERM. However, without denying the importance of cells and signalling factors, the question posed in this chapter is whether the answer would come from the methods to use or not to use scaffold for cartilage TERM. This paper presents some efforts in TERM area and proposes a solution that will transpire from the ongoing attempts to understand certain aspects of cartilage development, degeneration and regeneration. While an ideal formulation for cartilage regeneration has yet to be resolved, it is felt that scaffold is still needed for cartilage TERM for years to come.
Oral mucosa is a mucous membrane lining the oral cavity. Its main function is to protect the deeper structures against the external factors; thermal, chemical, mechanical and biological stimuli. Apart from that, it also plays a significant role during mastication, deglutition and speech. Some oral diseases or injuries to oral mucosa lead to impairment of the oral functions and aesthetics which eventually result in permanent defect of oral mucosa. In order to overcome this defect, different approaches for the development of reconstructed oral mucosa models have been employed including skin/autologous grafts, guided tissue replacement, vestibuloplasty etc. However, the finding of an acceptable source for the transplantations or autologous grafts seems a bit challenging. To overcome this problem, the development of oral mucosa using tissue engineering approach has been widely studied involving various cell lines from different sources. This paper aims to highlight various cell sources used in the development of tissueengineered oral mucosa models based on articles retrieved from PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "oral mucosa tissue engineering", regardless of time when published.
Porous structure, biocompatibility and biodegradability, large surface area, and drug-loading ability are some remarkable properties of zeolite structure, making it a great possible option for bone tissue engineering. Herein, we evaluated the potential application of the ZSM-5 scaffold encapsulated GEN with high porosity structure and significant antibacterial properties. The space holder process has been employed as a new fabrication method with interconnected pores and suitable mechanical properties. In this study, for the first time, ZSM-5 scaffolds with GEN drug-loading were fabricated with the space holder method. The results showed excellent open porosity in the range of 70-78% for different GEN concentrations and appropriate mechanical properties. Apatite formation on the scaffold surface was determined with Simulation body fluid (SBF), and a new bone-like apatite layer shaping on all samples confirmed the in vitro bioactivity of ZSM-5-GEN scaffolds. Also, antibacterial properties were investigated against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of various amounts of GEN increased the inhibition zone from 24 to 28 (for E. coli) and 26 to 37 (for S. aureus). In the culture with MG63 cells, great cell viability and high cell proliferation after 7 days of culture were determined.
Current immunological issues in bone grafting regarding the transfer of xenogeneic donor bone cells into the recipient are challenging the industry to produce safer acellular natural matrices for bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel decellularization technique for producing bovine cancellous bone scaffold and compare its physicochemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics with demineralized cancellous bone scaffold in an in-vitro study. Cancellous bone blocks were harvested from a bovine femoral head (18-24 months old) subjected to physical cleansing and chemical defatting, and further processed in two ways. Group I was subjected to demineralization, while Group II underwent decellularization through physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments. Both were then freeze-dried, and gamma radiated, finally producing a demineralized bovine cancellous bone (DMB) scaffold and decellularized bovine cancellous bone (DCC) scaffold. Both DMB and DCC scaffolds were subjected to histological evaluation, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), quantification of lipid, collagen, and residual nucleic acid content, and mechanical testing. The osteogenic potential was investigated through the recellularization of scaffolds with human osteoblast cell seeding and examined for cell attachment, proliferation, and mineralization by Alizarin staining and gene expression. DCC produced a complete acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) with the absence of nucleic acid content, wider pores with extensive interconnectivity and partially retaining collagen fibrils. DCC demonstrated a higher cell proliferation rate, upregulation of osteogenic differentiation markers, and substantial mineralized nodules production. Our findings suggest that the decellularization technique produced an acellular DCC scaffold with minimal damage to ECM and possesses osteogenic potential through the mechanisms of osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osteogenesis in-vitro.
Magnetic nanofibers are composed of good dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles along an organic material. Magnetic nanofibers are potentially useful for composite reinforcement, bio-medical and tissue engineering. Nanofibers with the thinner diameter have to result in higher rigidity and tensile strength due to better alignments of lamellae along the fiber axis. In this study, the performance of electrospinning process was explained using response surface methodology (RSM) during fabrication of magnetic nanofibers using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a shelter for (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles where the parameters investigated were flow rate, applied voltage, distance between needle and collector and collector rotating speed. The response variable was diameter distribution. The two parameters flow rate and applied voltage in primary evaluation were distinguished as significant factors. Central composite design was applied to optimize the variable of diameter distribution. Quadratic estimated model developed for diameter distribution indicated the optimum conditions to be flow rate of 0.25 ml/h at voltage of 45 kV while the distance and rotating speed are at 8 cm and 1500 rps respectively. The obtained model was verified successfully by the confirmation experiments.
Cardiovascular biomaterials (CB) dominate the category of biomaterials based on the demand and investments in this field. This review article classifies the CB into three major classes, namely, metals, polymers, and biological materials and collates the information about the CB. Blood compatibility is one of the major criteria which limit the use of biomaterials for cardiovascular application. Several key players are associated with blood compatibility and they are discussed in this paper. To enhance the compatibility of the CB, several surface modification strategies were in use currently. Some recent applications of surface modification technology on the materials for cardiovascular devices were also discussed for better understanding. Finally, the current trend of the CB, endothelization of the cardiac implants and utilization of induced human pluripotent stem cells (ihPSCs), is also presented in this review. The field of CB is growing constantly and many new investigators and researchers are developing interest in this domain. This review will serve as a one stop arrangement to quickly grasp the basic research in the field of CB.