• 1 Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti PETRONAS (UTP), Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan 94300, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi P.O. Box 0248, Nigeria
  • 5 Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim 35900, Malaysia
Membranes (Basel), 2021 Dec 01;11(12).
PMID: 34940457 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11120956


This research aimed to investigate the ultrafiltration of water from emulsified oily wastewater through the application of surface-functionalized ceramic membrane to enhance its water permeability based on optimized parameters using a cross-flow filtration system. The interactive effects of feed concentration (10-1000 ppm), pH (4-10), and pressure (0-3 bar) on the water flux and oil rejection were investigated. Central composite design (CCD) from response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for statistical analysis, modeling, and optimization of operating conditions. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that the oil rejection and water flux models were significant with p-values of 0.0001 and 0.0075, respectively. In addition, good correlation coefficients of 0.997 and 0.863 were obtained for the oil rejection and water flux models, respectively. The optimum conditions for pressure, pH, and feed concentration were found to be 1.5 bar, pH 8.97, and 10 ppm, respectively with water flux and oil rejection maintained at 152 L/m2·h and 98.72%, respectively. Hence, the functionalized ultrafiltration ceramic membrane enables the separation efficiency of the emulsified oil in water to be achieved.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.