Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Dzinun H, Othman MHD, Ismail AF
    Chemosphere, 2019 Aug;228:241-248.
    PMID: 31035161 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.118
    Comparison studies in suspension and hybrid photocatalytic membrane reactor (HPMR) system was investigated by using Reactive Black 5 (RB5) as target pollutant under UVA light irradiation. To achieve this aim, hybrid TiO2/clinoptilolite (TCP) photocatalyst powder was prepared by solid-state dispersion (SSD) methods and embedded at the outer layer of dual layer hollow fiber (DLHF) membranes fabricated via single step co-spinning process. TiO2 and CP photocatalyst were also used as control samples. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion of X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The result shows that TCP was actively functioned as photocatalyst in suspension system and 86% of RB5 photocatalytic degradation achieved within 60 min; however the additional step is required to separate the catalyst with treated water. In the HPMR system, even though the RB5 photocatalytic degradation exhibits lower efficiency however the rejection of RB5 was achieved up to 95% under UV irradiation due to the properties of photocatalytic membranes. The well dispersed of TCP at the outer layer of DLHF membrane have improved the surface affinity of DL-TCP membrane towards water, exhibit the highest pure water flux of 41.72 L/m2.h compared to DL-TiO2 membrane. In general, CP can help on improving photocatalytic activity of TiO2 in suspension, increased the RB5 removal and the permeability of DLHF membrane in HPMR system as well.
  2. Goh PS, Othman MHD, Matsuura T
    Membranes (Basel), 2021 Oct 12;11(10).
    PMID: 34677548 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11100782
    In parallel to the rapid growth in economic and social activities, there has been an undesirable increase in environmental degradation due to the massively produced and disposed waste. The need to manage waste in a more innovative manner has become an urgent matter. In response to the call for circular economy, some solid wastes can offer plenty of opportunities to be reutilized as raw materials for the fabrication of functional, high-value products. In the context of solid waste-derived polymeric membrane development, this strategy can pave a way to reduce the consumption of conventional feedstock for the production of synthetic polymers and simultaneously to dampen the negative environmental impacts resulting from the improper management of these solid wastes. The review aims to offer a platform for overviewing the potentials of reutilizing solid waste in liquid separation membrane fabrication by covering the important aspects, including waste pretreatment and raw material extraction, membrane fabrication and characterizations, as well as the separation performance evaluation of the resultant membranes. Three major types of waste-derived polymeric raw materials, namely keratin, cellulose, and plastics, are discussed based on the waste origins, limitations in the waste processing, and their conversion into polymeric membranes. With the promising material properties and viability of processing facilities, recycling and reutilization of waste resources for membrane fabrication are deemed to be a promising strategy that can bring about huge benefits in multiple ways, especially to make a step closer to sustainable and green membrane production.
  3. Mengting Z, Kurniawan TA, Fei S, Ouyang T, Othman MHD, Rezakazemi M, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2019 Dec;255(Pt 1):113182.
    PMID: 31541840 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113182
    Methylene blue (MB) is a dye pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. We investigate and critically evaluate the applicability of BaTiO3/GO composite for photodegradation of MB in synthetic wastewater under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its performance, the BaTiO3/GO composite is varied based on the BaTiO3 weight. To compare and evaluate any changes in their morphologies and crystalline structures before and after treatment, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tests are conducted, while the effects of reaction time, pH, dose of photocatalyst and initial MB concentration on its photodegradation by the composite are also investigated under identical conditions. The degradation pathways and removal mechanisms of MB by the BaTiO3/GO are elaborated. It is evident from this study that the BaTiO3/GO composite is promising for MB photodegradation through ·OH. Under optimized conditions (0.5 g/L of dose, pH 9.0, and 5 mg/L of MB concentration), the composite with 1:2 dose ratio of BaTiO3/GO has the highest MB degradation rate (95%) after 3 h of UV vis irradiation. However, its treated effluents still could not comply with the discharge standard limit of less than 0.2 mg/L imposed by national environmental legislation. This suggests that additional biological treatments are still required to deal with the remaining oxidation by-products of MB, still present in the wastewater samples such as 3,7-bis (dimethyl-amino)-10H-phenothiazine 5-oxide.
  4. Raharjo Y, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Malek NANN, Santoso D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109722.
    PMID: 31349515 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.05.007
    In this work, the novel imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized, and its properties and performance in terms of adsorption of p-Cresol, which represent the protein-bounded uremic toxins in aqueous phase under phosphate buffer saline, were studied and compared with the synthesized zeolite-Y (ZeoY-S) and commercial CBV 100 zeolite-Y (ZeoY-C). The ZeoY-S was synthesized from sodium aluminate, NaOH, H2O and SiO2 under aging for 24 h at room temperature and hydrothermal condition for 24 h at 100 °C, with an initial composition of 10SiO2:Al2O3:4Na2O:180H2O. The ZeoY-S has been modified by using the imprinting technology to produce the IZ via the use of p-Cresol as a template. The p-Cresol successfully imprinted on the zeolite-Y was proved through the multipoint Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and the performance of IZ that was compared to ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C. Based on the BET results, it proves that the pore size of IZ is in accordance with the target compound, which is p-Cresol at 0.79 nm. This modification was able to adsorb p-Cresol 2.5 and 3.5 times higher than ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C can, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, together with the pseudo-first and -second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics models, were used to investigate the adsorption behavior of p-Cresol on the zeolites. The IZ has 4.30 times greater competitive molecules than ZeoY-S and the properties of IZ were not influenced by the content of other phenolic group uremic toxins as competitive molecules. It can be concluded that the micropores of zeolite as adsorbent can be modified using the imprinting technology in order to increase its sensitivity and selectivity towards p-Cresol.
  5. Fu D, Kurniawan TA, Avtar R, Xu P, Othman MHD
    Chemosphere, 2021 May;271:129861.
    PMID: 33736203 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129861
    This work incorporated technological values into Zn2Cr-layered double hydroxide (LDH), synthesized from unused resources, for removal of pyrophosphate (PP) in electroplating wastewater. To adopt a resource recovery for the remediation of the aquatic environment, the Zn2Cr-LDH was fabricated by co-precipitation from concentrated metals of plating waste that remained as industrial by-products from metal finishing processes. To examine its applicability for water treatment, batch experiments were conducted at optimum M2+/M3+, pH, reaction time, and temperature. To understand the adsorption mechanisms of the PP by the adsorbent, the Zn2Cr-LDH was characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses before and after adsorption treatment. An almost complete PP removal was attained by the Zn2Cr-LDH at optimized conditions: 50 mg/L of PP, 1 g/L of adsorbent, pH 6, and 6 h of reaction. Ion exchange controlled the PP removal by the adsorbent at acidic conditions. The PP removal well fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetics and/or the Langmuir isotherm model with 79 mg/g of PP adsorption capacity. The spent Zn2Cr-LDH was regenerated with NaOH with 86% of efficiency for the first cycle. The treated effluents could comply with the discharge limit of <1 mg/L. Overall, the use of the Zn2Cr-LDH as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment has contributed to national policy that promotes a zero-waste approach for a circular economy (CE) through a resource recovery paradigm.
  6. Raza A, Farrukh S, Hussain A, Khan I, Othman MHD, Ahsan M
    Membranes (Basel), 2021 Mar 29;11(4).
    PMID: 33805339 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11040245
    The separation and capture of CO2 have become an urgent and important agenda because of the CO2-induced global warming and the requirement of industrial products. Membrane-based technologies have proven to be a promising alternative for CO2 separations. To make the gas-separation membrane process more competitive, productive membrane with high gas permeability and high selectivity is crucial. Herein, we developed new cellulose triacetate (CTA) and cellulose diacetate (CDA) blended membranes for CO2 separations. The CTA and CDA blends were chosen because they have similar chemical structures, good separation performance, and its economical and green nature. The best position in Robeson's upper bound curve at 5 bar was obtained with the membrane containing 80 wt.% CTA and 20 wt.% CDA, which shows the CO2 permeability of 17.32 barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 18.55. The membrane exhibits 98% enhancement in CO2/CH4 selectivity compared to neat membrane with only a slight reduction in CO2 permeability. The optimal membrane displays a plasticization pressure of 10.48 bar. The newly developed blended membranes show great potential for CO2 separations in the natural gas industry.
  7. Kurniawan TA, Mengting Z, Fu D, Yeap SK, Othman MHD, Avtar R, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Sep 15;270:110871.
    PMID: 32721315 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110871
    Methylene blue is a refractory pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. This study tests the feasibility of TiO2/graphene oxide (GO) composite in enhancing photocatalytic degradation of MB in synthetic wastewater with respect to scientific and engineering aspects. To enhance its removal, we vary the composition of the composite based on the TiO2 weight. Under UV-vis irradiation, the effects of photocatalyst's dose, pH, and reaction time on MB removal by the composites are evaluated under optimum conditions, while any changes in their physico-chemical properties before and after treatment are analyzed by using TEM, SEM, XRD, FTIR and BET. The photodegradation pathways of the target pollutant by the composite and its removal mechanisms are also elaborated. It is found that the same composite with a 1:2 wt ratio of GO/TiO2 has the largest surface area of 104.51 m2/g. Under optimum reactions (0.2 g/L of dose, pH 10, and 5 mg/L of pollutant's concentration), an almost complete MB removal could be attained within 4 h. This result is higher than that of the TiO2 alone (30%) under the same conditions. Since the treated effluents could meet the strict discharge standard limit of ≤0.2 μg/L set by China's regulation, subsequent biological treatments are unnecessary for completing biodegradation of remaining oxidation by-products in the wastewater effluents.
  8. Mengting Z, Kurniawan TA, Yanping Y, Avtar R, Othman MHD
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Mar;108:110420.
    PMID: 31924000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110420
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
  9. Samavati A, Samavati Z, Velashjerdi M, Fauzi Ismail A, Othman MHD, Eisaabadi B G, et al.
    Chem Eng J, 2021 Sep 15;420:127655.
    PMID: 33199974 DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2020.127655
    Monitoring the COVID-19 virus through patients' saliva is a favorable non-invasive specimen for diagnosis and infection control. In this study, salivary samples of COVID-19 patients collected from 6 patients with the median age of 58.5 years, ranging from 34 to 72 years (2 females and 4 males) were analyzed using an Au/fiber Bragg grating (FBG) probe decorated with GO. The probe measures the prevalence of positivity in saliva and the association between the virus density and changes to sensing elements. When the probe is immersed in patients' saliva, deviation of the detected light wavelength and intensity from healthy saliva indicate the presence of the virus and confirms infection. For a patient in the hyperinflammatory phase of desease, who has virus density of 1.2 × 108 copies/mL in saliva, the maximum wavelength shift and intensity changes after 1600 s were shown to be 1.12 nm and 2.01 dB, respectively. While for a patient in the early infection phase with 1.6 × 103 copies/mL, these values were 0.98 nm and 1.32 dB. The precise and highly sensitive FBG probe proposed in this study was found a reliable tool for quick detection of the COVID-19 virus within 10 s after exposure to patients' saliva in any stage of the disease.
  10. Sniatala B, Kurniawan TA, Sobotka D, Makinia J, Othman MHD
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Jan 15;856(Pt 2):159283.
    PMID: 36208738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159283
    Global food security, which has emerged as one of the sustainability challenges, impacts every country. As food cannot be generated without involving nutrients, research has intensified recently to recover unused nutrients from waste streams. As a finite resource, phosphorus (P) is largely wasted. This work critically reviews the technical applicability of various water technologies to recover macro-nutrients such as P, N, and K from wastewater. Struvite precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration are applied for nutrient recovery. Technological strengths and drawbacks in their applications are evaluated and compared. Their operational conditions such as pH, dose required, initial nutrient concentration, and treatment performance are presented. Cost-effectiveness of the technologies for P or N recovery is also elaborated. It is evident from a literature survey of 310 published studies (1985-2022) that no single technique can effectively and universally recover target macro-nutrients from liquid waste. Struvite precipitation is commonly used to recover over 95 % of P from sludge digestate with its concentration ranging from 200 to 4000 mg/L. The recovered precipitate can be reused as a fertilizer due to its high content of P and N. Phosphate removal of higher than 80 % can be achieved by struvite precipitation when the molar ratio of Mg2+/PO43- ranges between 1.1 and 1.3. The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to collect data on critical parameters control optimization, improve treatment effectiveness, and facilitate water utilities to upscale water treatment plants. Such infrastructure in the plants could enable the recovered materials to be reused to sustain food security. As nutrient recovery is crucial in wastewater treatment, water treatment plant operators need to consider (1) the costs of nutrient recovery techniques; (2) their applicability; (3) their benefits and implications. It is essential to note that the treatment cost of P and/or N-laden wastewater depends on the process applied and local conditions.
  11. Ayub M, Othman MHD, Khan IU, Yusop MZM, Kurniawan TA
    Surf Interfaces, 2021 Dec;27:101460.
    PMID: 34957347 DOI: 10.1016/j.surfin.2021.101460
    The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant and topmost global health challenge of today. SARS-CoV-2 can propagate through several direct or indirect means resulting in its exponential spread in short times. Consequently, finding new research based real-world and feasible solutions to interrupt the spread of pathogenic microorganisms is indispensable. It has been established that this virus can survive on a variety of available surfaces ranging from a few hours to a few days, which has increased the risk of COVID-19 spread to large populations. Currently, available surface disinfectant chemicals provide only a temporary solution and are not recommended to be used in the long run due to their toxicity and irritation. Apart from the urgent development of vaccine and antiviral drugs, there is also a need to design and develop surface disinfectant antiviral coatings for long-term applications even for new variants. The unique physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) have been widely investigated for antimicrobial applications. However, the research work for their use in antimicrobial surface coatings is minimal. This perspective enlightens the scope of using GBNs as antimicrobial/antiviral surface coatings to reduce the spread of transmittable microorganisms, precisely, SARS-CoV-2. This study attempts to demonstrate the synergistic effect of GBNs and metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), for their potential antiviral applications in the development of surface disinfectant coatings. Some proposed mechanisms for the antiviral activity of the graphene family against SARS-CoV-2 has also been explained. It is anticipated that this study will potentially lead to new insights and future trends to develop a framework for further investigation on this research area of pivotal importance to minimize the transmission of current and any future viral outbreaks.
  12. Yogarathinam LT, Usman J, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Goh PS, Gangasalam A, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 02 15;424(Pt A):127298.
    PMID: 34571470 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127298
    In this study, an economic silica based ceramic hollow fiber (HF) microporous membrane was fabricated from guinea cornhusk ash (GCHA). A silica interlayer was coated to form a defect free silica membrane which serves as a support for the formation of thin film composite (TFC) ceramic hollow fiber (HF) membrane for the removal of microplastics (MPs) from aqueous solutions. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyvinyl-chloride (PVC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are the selected MPs The effects of amine monomer concentration (0.5 wt% and 1 wt%) on the formation of poly (piperazine-amide) layer via interfacial polymerization over the GCHA ceramic support were also investigated. The morphology analysis of TFC GCHA HF membranes revealed the formation of a poly (piperazine-amide) layer with narrow pore arrangement. The pore size of TFC GCHA membrane declined with the formation of poly (piperazine-amide) layer, as evidenced from porosimetry analysis. The increase of amine concentration reduced the porosity and water flux of TFC GCHA HF membranes. During MPs filtration, 1 wt% (piperazine) based TFC GCHA membrane showed a lower transmission percentage of PVP (2.7%) and other suspended MPs also displayed lower transmission. The impact of humic acid and sodium alginate on MPs filtration and seawater pretreatment were also analyzed.
  13. Kurniawan TA, Lo W, Othman MHD, Liang X, Goh HH, Chew KW
    J Environ Manage, 2023 Mar 01;329:117047.
    PMID: 36563449 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.117047
    This study investigated physico-chemical interactions among Cu(II), biogenic materials, and Fe2O3 in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor system under a well-controlled environment. The effects of Fe2O3 and bacterial biofilms on the distribution of Cu(II) in a simulated aquatic environment were studied. To control biological and abiotic elements in the marine environment, a biofilm reactor was designed to understand the metal speciation of Cu(II) and its distribution. The reactor consisted of a biofilm chamber equipped with glass slides for biofilms attachment. Due to its ability to grow as biofilm in the medium, Pseudomonas atlantica was cultivated to adsorb trace Cu(II) to attached and suspended cells. It was found that biofilms with 170-285 mequiv chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration/m2 of total oxidizable materials accelerated the Cu(II) adsorption to the surface of the reactor significantly by a factor of five. A significant inhibition to the bacterial growth took place (p ≤ 0.05; t-test) when Cu(II) concentration was higher than 0.5 mg/L. In the absence of Cu(II), bacterial cells grew normally to 0.075 of optical density (OD). However, at the Cu(II) concentration of 0.2 mg/L, the cells grew to a lower OD of 0.58. The presence of glycine and EDTA substantially reduced the toxicity of Cu(II) on bacterial growth (p ≤ 0.05; paired t-test). Their complexation with Cu(II) rendered the metal ions less available to bacterial cells. This implies that the Fe2O3 and bacterial biofilm affected Cu(II) distribution and speciation in the aquatic environment.
  14. Kurniawan TA, Othman MHD, Liang X, Goh HH, Gikas P, Chong KK, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2023 Apr 15;332:117429.
    PMID: 36773474 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.117429
    Biochar, derived from unused biomass, is widely considered for its potential to deal with climate change problems. Global interest in biochar is attributed to its ability to sequester carbon in soil and to remediate aquatic environment from water pollution. As soil conditioner and/or adsorbent, biochar offers opportunity through a circular economy (CE) paradigm. While energy transition continues, progress toward low-emissions materials accelerates their advance towards net-zero emissions. However, none of existing works addresses CE-based biochar management to achieve carbon neutrality. To reflect its novelty, this work provides a critical overview of challenges and opportunities for biochar to promote CE and carbon neutrality. This article also offers seminal perspectives about strengthening biomass management through CE and resource recovery paradigms, while exploring how the unused biomass can promote net zero emissions in its applications. By consolidating scattered knowledge in the body of literature into one place, this work uncovers new research directions to close the loops by implementing the circularity of biomass resources in various fields. It is conclusive from a literature survey of 113 articles (2003-2023) that biomass conversion into biochar can promote net zero emissions and CE in the framework of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Depending on their physico-chemical properties, biochar can become a suitable feedstock for CE. Biochar application as soil enrichment offsets 12% of CO2 emissions by land use annually. Adding biochar to soil can improve its health and agricultural productivity, while minimizing about 1/8 of CO2 emissions. Biochar can also sequester CO2 in the long-term and prevent the release of carbon back into the atmosphere after its decomposition. This practice could sequester 2.5 gigatons (Gt) of CO2 annually. With the global biochar market reaching USD 368.85 million by 2028, this work facilitates biochar with its versatile characteristics to promote carbon neutrality and CE applications.
  15. Yusof MSM, Othman MHD, Mustafa A, Rahman MA, Jaafar J, Ismail AF
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Aug;25(22):21644-21655.
    PMID: 29785602 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2286-6
    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is an agricultural waste which was employed in this study to produce novel adsorptive ceramic hollow fibre membranes. The membranes were fabricated using phase inversion-based extrusion technique and sintered at 1150 °C. The membranes were then evaluated on their ability to adsorb cadmium (Cd(II)). These membranes were characterised using (nitrogen) N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) mapping, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses while adsorptivity activity was examined by batch adsorption studies. The adsorption test results show that the quantity of hollow fibre used and water pH level significantly affected the adsorption performance with the 3-fibre membrane yielding 96.4% Cd(II) removal in 30 min equilibrium time at pH 7. These results are comparable to those reported by other studies, and hence demonstrate a promising alternative of low-cost hollow fibre adsorbent membrane. Graphical abstract Figure of FESEM image of the hollow fibre, proposed mechanism and the graph of percentage removal of Cd(II) using POFA.
  16. Makhtar SNNM, Rahman MA, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Jaafar J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15918-15928.
    PMID: 28589281 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9405-7
    This work discusses the preparation and characterizations of glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using zeolite-5A as a starting material. Zeolite was formed into a hollow fiber configuration using the phase inversion technique. It was later sintered at high temperatures to burn off organic materials and change the zeolite into glass membrane. A preliminary study, that used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), confirmed that zeolite used in this study changed to glass at temperatures above 1000 °C. The glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using the phase inversion technique has three different microstructures, namely (i) sandwich-like structure that originates from inner layer, (ii) sandwich-like that originates from outer layer, and (iii) symmetric sponge like. These variations were influenced by zeolite weight loading and the flow rate of water used to form the lumen. The separation performances of the glass hollow fiber membrane were studied using the pure water permeability and the rejection test of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The glass hollow fiber membrane prepared from using 48 wt% zeolite loading and bore fluid with 9 mL min(-1) flow rate has the highest BSA rejection of 85% with the water permeability of 0.7 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). The results showed that the separation performance of glass hollow fiber membranes was in the ultrafiltration range, enabled the retention of solutes with molecular sizes larger than 67 kDa such as milk proteins, endotoxin pyrogen, virus, and colloidal silica.
  17. Mohtor NH, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Rahman MA, Jaafar J, Hashim NA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15905-15917.
    PMID: 28620856 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9341-6
    Despite its extraordinary price, ceramic membrane can still be able to surpass polymeric membrane in the applications that require high temperature and pressure conditions, as well as harsh chemical environment. In order to alleviate the high cost of ceramic material that still becomes one of the major factors that contributes to the high production cost of ceramic membrane, various attempts have been made to use low cost ceramic materials as alternatives to well-known expensive ceramic materials such as alumina, silica, and zirconia in the fabrication of ceramic membrane. Thus, local Malaysian kaolin has been chosen as the ceramic material in this study for the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane since it is inexpensive and naturally abundant in Malaysia. Due to the fact that the sintering process plays a prominent role in obtaining the desired morphology, properties, and performances of prepared ceramic membrane, the aim of this work was to study the effect of different sintering temperatures applied (ranging from 1200 to 1500 °C) in the preparation of kaolin hollow fibre membrane via dry/wet phase inversion-based spinning technique and sintering process. The morphology and properties of membrane were then characterised by SEM, AFM, FTIR, XRD, and three-point bending test, while the performances of membrane were investigated by conducting water permeation and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye rejection tests. From the experimental results obtained, the sintering temperature of 1400 °C could be selected as the optimum sintering temperature in preparing the kaolin hollow fibre membrane with the dense sponge-like structure of separation layer that resulted in the good mechanical strength of 70 MPa with the appreciable water permeation of 75 L/h m(2) bar and RB5 rejection of 68%.
  18. Kamaludin R, Othman MHD, Kadir SHSA, Khan J, Ismail AF, Rahman MA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Jan;30(1):259-273.
    PMID: 35902521 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-22121-w
    Various treatments of choice are available to overcome contamination of bisphenol A (BPA) in the environment including membrane technologies; however, the treatment still releases contaminants that threaten the human being. Therefore, the present study is conducted to investigate the degradation of BPA by recently developed visible-light-driven photocatalytic nitrogen-doping titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2) dual-layer hollow fibre (DLHF) membrane and its efficiency in reducing the level of BPA in contaminated water. Fabricated with suitable polymer/photocatalyst (15/7.5 wt.%) via co-extrusion spinning method, the DLHF was characterized morphologically, evaluated for BPA degradation by using submerged photocatalytic membrane reactor under visible light irradiations followed by the investigation of intermediates formed. BPA exposure effects were accessed by immunohistochemistry staining of gastrointestinal sample obtained from animal model. BPA has been successfully degraded up to 72.5% with 2 intermediate products, B1 and B2, being identified followed by total degradation of BPA. BPA exposure leads to the high-intensity IHC staining of Claudin family which indicated the disruption of small intestinal barrier (SIB) integrity. Low IHC staining intensity of Claudin family in treated BPA group demonstrated that reducing the level of BPA by N-doped TiO2 DLHF is capable of protecting the important component of SIB. Altogether, the fabricated photocatalytic DLHF membrane is expected to have an outstanding potential in removing BPA and its health effect for household water treatment to fulfil the public focus on the safety of their household water and their need to consume clean water.
  19. Kurniawan TA, Lo W, Singh D, Othman MHD, Avtar R, Hwang GH, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 May 15;277:116741.
    PMID: 33652179 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116741
    Recently Xiamen (China) has encountered various challenges of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) such as lack of a complete garbage sorting and recycling system, the absence of waste segregation between organic and dry waste at source, and a shortage of complete and clear information about the MSW generated. This article critically analyzes the existing bottlenecks in its waste management system and discusses the way forward for the city to enhance its MSWM by drawing lessons from Hong Kong's effectiveness in dealing with the same problems over the past decades. Solutions to the MSWM problem are not only limited to technological options, but also integrate environmental, legal, and institutional perspectives. The solutions include (1) enhancing source separation and improving recycling system; (2) improving the legislation system of the MSWM; (3) improvement of terminal disposal facilities in the city; (4) incorporating digitization into MSWM; and (5) establishing standards and definitions for recycled products and/or recyclable materials. We also evaluate and compare different aspects of MSWM in Xiamen and Hong Kong SAR (special administrative region) under the framework of 'One Country, Two Systems' concerning environmental policies, generation, composition, characteristics, treatment, and disposal of their MSW. The nexus of society, economics of the MSW, and the environment in the sustainability sphere are established by promoting local recycling industries and the standardization of recycled products and/or recyclable materials. The roles of digitization technologies in the 4th Industrial Revolution for waste reduction in the framework of circular economy (CE) are also elaborated. This technological solution may improve the city's MSWM in terms of public participation in MSW separation through reduction, recycle, reuse, recovery, and repair (5Rs) schemes. To meet top-down policy goals such as a 35% recycling rate for the generated waste by 2030, incorporating digitization into the MSWM provides the city with technology-driven waste solutions.
  20. Kurniawan TA, Singh D, Xue W, Avtar R, Othman MHD, Hwang GH, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jun 01;287:112265.
    PMID: 33730674 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112265
    This study investigated the feasibility of integrated ammonium stripping and/or coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in treating leachate samples. To valorize unused biomass for water treatment application, the adsorbent originated from coconut shell waste. To enhance its performance for target pollutants, the adsorbent was pretreated with ozone and NaOH. The effects of pH, temperature, and airflow rate on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants were studied during stripping alone. The removal performances of refractory compounds in this study were compared to those of other treatments previously reported. To contribute new knowledge to the field of study, perspectives on nutrients removal and recovery like phosphorus and nitrogen are presented. It was found that the ammonium stripping and adsorption treatment using the ozonated CSWAC attained an almost complete removal (99%) of NH3-N and 90% of COD with initial NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2500 mg/L and 20,000 mg/L, respectively, at optimized conditions. With the COD of treated effluents higher than 200 mg/L, the combined treatments were not satisfactory enough to remove target refractory compounds. Therefore, further biological processes are required to complete their biodegradation to meet the effluent limit set by environmental legislation. As this work has contributed to resource recovery as the driving force of landfill management, it is important to note the investment and operational expenses, engineering applicability of the technologies, and their environmental concerns and benefits. If properly managed, nutrient recovery from waste streams offers environmental and socio-economic benefits that would improve public health and create jobs for the local community.
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