Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 97 in total

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  1. Maniam T, Rahman MA
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):252-4.
    PMID: 7845275
    Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that is found widely in muscle tissues. Raised levels would occur when there is muscle damage. Raised levels are used as one of the diagnostic criteria for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). This study looks at CK levels in 30 psychotic inpatients without NMS and compares them with 10 patients with NMS. It was found that 67% of the patients without NMS had raised CK levels, 20% of whom had levels in excess of 1000 IU/L. The rest had a two to five-fold increase over normal limits. Raised levels were associated with the use of intramuscular injections and physical restraints, situations which are well known to result in muscle injury. All the NMS patients had raised CK levels but 40% had levels below 1000 IU/L. Our findings support the idea that CK levels, though helpful, should be interpreted with care as raised levels are nonspecific.
  2. Rahman MA, Islam MS
    Pharmacogn Rev, 2015 Jan-Jun;9(17):55-62.
    PMID: 26009694 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.156350
    Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae), is a rhizomatous perennial herb, which is commonly used in the traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. Alpinia calcarata is cultivated in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka, India, and Malaysia. Experimentally, rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata are shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, gastroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in the extract and essential oil of this plant. Essential oil and extracts from this plant have been found to possess wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. This article provides a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and the pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to the pharmacological effects of the essential oil of Alpinia calcarata in this review so that the potential use of this plant either in pharmaceutics or as an agricultural resource can be evaluated.
  3. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:828149.
    PMID: 24959591 DOI: 10.1155/2014/828149
    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.
  4. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Dec;36(6):1131-1142.
    PMID: 26514091
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share common etiology and preventive strategies. As the population of old-aged people is increasing worldwide, AD complications tend to afflict global healthcare budget and economy heavily. CVD is the prime cause of global mortality and remains a grave threat to both the developed and the developing nations. Mushroom bio-components may be promising in controlling both diseases. Based mainly on in vitro, ex vivo, cell line and animal studies, this review interprets the polypharmaceutic role of mushrooms treating AD and CVD.
  5. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015;2015:403023.
    PMID: 26180589 DOI: 10.1155/2015/403023
    Dietary polyphenolic compounds mediate polynomial actions in guarding against multiple diseases. Atherosclerosis is an oxidative stress driven pathophysiological complication where free radical induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays the ground breaking role. Mushrooms have been highly regarded for possessing an antioxidant arsenal. Polyphenolic compounds present in dietary mushrooms seem pertinent in withstanding LDL oxidation en route to controlling atherosclerosis. In this study, the antioxidative effect of five solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ) of Flammulina velutipes was evaluated. M : DCM fraction showed the most potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect with IC50 of 0.86 mg/mL and total phenolic content of 56.36 gallic acid equivalent/g fraction. In LDL oxidation inhibitory tests, M : DCM fraction at 1 µg/mL concentration mostly lengthened the lag time (125 mins) of conjugated diene formation and inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (48.71%, at 1 mg/mL concentration). LC-MS/MS analyses of M : DCM fraction identified the presence of polyphenolic substances protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric, and ellagic acid. These chain-breaking polyphenolics might impart the antioxidative effects of F. velutipes. Thus, mushroom-based dietary polyphenolic compounds might be implicated in slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis.
  6. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2018 Dec;25(8):1515-1523.
    PMID: 30581314 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.021
    Mushrooms have been highly regarded as possessing enormous nutritive and medicinal values. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-atherosclerotic potential of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using its solvent-solvent partitioned fractions that consisted of methanol:dichloromethane (M:DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction (1 mg/mL) mostly scavenged (67.38%, IC50 0.55 mg/mL) the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, contained the highest reducing capacity (60.16 mg gallic acid equivalents/g fraction), and most potently inhibited lipid peroxidation (67.07%), low density lipo-protein oxidation and the activity of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme A reductase (HMGR). GC-MS analyses of the hexane fraction identified α-tocopherol (vitamin E), oleic acid, linoleic acid, ergosterol and butyric acid as the bio-functional components present in L. edodes. Our findings suggest that L. edodes possesses anti-atherosclerotic bio-functionality that can be applied as functional food-based therapeutics against cardiovascular diseases.
  7. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2018;20(10):961-969.
    PMID: 30806268 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018028370
    Oxidative stress (OS) and hypercholesterolemia have been linked with a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of the numerous drawbacks of synthetic antioxidants and cholesterol-lowering drugs, natural antioxidative and hypocholesterolemic agents are of immense importance. This study was designed to determine both the OS-attenuating and cholesterol-lowering capacities of the hot water extract (HWE) and of five solvent-solvent-partitioned fractions of Ganoderma lucidum. In vitro antioxidative performance of G. lucidum HWE and fractions was measured through DPPH free radical scavenging, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation inhibition. In vivo antioxidative performance of G. lucidum was assessed by measuring the plasma and liver antioxidative enzymatic activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) in G. lucidum HWE-fed rats. In the CVD tests, the HWE at 200 mg/kg b.w. lowered plasma levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current findings indicate the therapeutic potentiality of G. lucidum as an OS-attenuating and hypocholesterolemic agent en route to withstanding CVD complications.
  8. Owolabi TO, Abd Rahman MA
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Aug 12;13(16).
    PMID: 34451237 DOI: 10.3390/polym13162697
    We developed particle swarm optimization-based support vector regression (PSVR) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) models for estimating the refractive index (n) and energy gap (E) of a polyvinyl alcohol composite. The n-PSVR model, which can estimate the refractive index of a polyvinyl alcohol composite using the energy gap as a descriptor, performed better than the n-OLR model in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) metrics. The E-PSVR model, which can predict the energy gap of a polyvinyl alcohol composite using its refractive index descriptor, outperformed the E-OLR model, which uses similar descriptor based on several performance measuring metrics. The n-PSVR and E-PSVR models were used to investigate the influences of sodium-based dysprosium oxide and benzoxazinone derivatives on the energy gaps of a polyvinyl alcohol polymer composite. The results agreed well with the measured values. The models had low mean absolute percentage errors after validation with external data. The precision demonstrated by these predictive models will enhance the tailoring of the optical properties of polyvinyl alcohol composites for the desired applications. Costs and experimental difficulties will be reduced.
  9. Islam A, Teo SH, Rahman MA, Taufiq-Yap YH
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144805.
    PMID: 26700479 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144805
    A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.
  10. Rahman MA, Yusoff FM, Arshad A, Uehara T
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:918028.
    PMID: 24624048 DOI: 10.1155/2014/918028
    We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea), E. mathaei (Em), Echinometra sp. C (Ec), and E. oblonga (Eo). Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis) attained metamorphic competence within 22-24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10 rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period), and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines) than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay metamorphosis.
  11. Rahman MA, Ahamed E, Faruque MRI, Islam MT
    Sci Rep, 2018 Oct 08;8(1):14948.
    PMID: 30297730 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33295-0
    Various techniques are commonly used to produce nano-crystalline NiAl2O4 materials; however, their practical applications in the microwave region remain very limited. In this work, flexible substrates for metamaterials containing two different concentrations of NiAl2O4 (labelled Ni36 and Ni42) have been synthesised using a sol-gel method. The formation of spinel structures in the synthesised materials is confirmed, and their crystalline sizes are determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The dielectric properties, conductivities, loss tangents, and other parameters of the NiAl2O4-based substrates are analysed to evaluate their applicability as dielectric materials for the microwave frequency range. The obtained results show that the fabricated Ni36 and Ni42 nickel aluminates possess dielectric constants of 4.94 and 4.97 and loss tangents of 0.01 and 0.007, respectively; in addition, they exhibit high flexibility and light weight, which make them suitable for applications as metamaterial substrates. The synthesised structures are also validated experimentally using a commercially available electromagnetic simulator; as a result, double negative behaviour of the flexible metamaterials has been observed. Furthermore, it is found that the prepared NiAl2O4 substrates can be used in the S-, C-, and X-bands of the microwave frequency region.
  12. Zamri Z, Arshad A, Amin SMN, Rahman MA, Al Khayat JA
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):677-83.
    PMID: 28779726
    The sex ratio, gonad development and fecundity of Miyakella nepa (Latreille, 1828), in the coastal waters of Pantai Remis, Perak, were investigated from February 2012 to January 2013. Sex identification was done by identifying stomatopod's genitalia organs, and the ovaries were dissected out and preserved for further analysis. Female stomatopods with mature or near spawning stages were used for fecundity estimation. A total of 951 specimens of M. nepa, with 565 females and 386 males were examined. Results showed a sex ratio of 1:1.46 (male:females). Maximum GSI was estimated to be 5.80, while lowest was 2.95. Sexual maturity for female M. nepa was observed at 100 mm total length. The mean fecundity of M. nepa was 425,657 (? 1,8701) eggs which was observed to increase with increased body length.
  13. Khan A, Khan M, Ahmed S, Abd Rahman MA, Khan M
    PLoS One, 2019;14(7):e0219459.
    PMID: 31314772 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219459
    Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) are ad-hoc networks which are deployed at rivers, seas and oceans to explore and monitor the phenomena such as pollution control, seismic activities and petroleum mining etc. The sensor nodes of UWSNs have limited charging capabilities. UWSNs networks are generally operated under two deployment mechanisms i.e localization and non-localization based. However, in both the mechanisms, balanced energy utilization is a challenging issue. Inefficient usage of energy significantly affects stability period, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, path loss and throughput of a network. To efficiently utilize and harvest energy, this paper present a novel scheme called EH-ARCUN (Energy Harvesting Analytical approach towards Reliability with Cooperation for UWSNs) based on cooperation with energy harvesting. The scheme employs Amplify-and-Forward (AF) technique at relay nodes for data forwarding and Fixed Combining Ratio (FCR) technique at destination node to select accurate signal. The proposed technique selects relay nodes among its neighbor nodes based on harvested energy level. Most cooperation-based UWSN routing techniques do not exhibit energy harvesting mechanism at the relay nodes. EH-ARCUN deploys piezoelectric energy harvesting at relay nodes to improve the working capabilities of sensors in UWSNs. The proposed scheme is an extension of our previously implemented routing scheme called ARCUN for UWSNs. Performance of the proposed scheme is compared with ARCUN and RACE (Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for efficient Underwater sensor Networks) schemes in term of stability period, packet delivery ratio, network throughput and path loss. Extensive simulation results show that EH-ARCUN performs better than both previous schemes in terms of the considered parameters.
  14. Rahman MA, Hossain S, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    AIMS neuroscience, 2019;6(4):299-315.
    PMID: 32341985 DOI: 10.3934/Neuroscience.2019.4.299
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) impairs memory and learning related behavioural performances of the affected person. Compared with the controls, memory and learning related behavioural performances of the AD model rats followed by hippocampal proteomics had been observed in the present study. In the eight armed radial maze, altered performance of the AD rats had been observed. Using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), 822 proteins had been identified with protein threshold at 95.0%, minimum peptide of 2 and peptide threshold at 0.1% FDR. Among them, 329 proteins were differentially expressed with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Among the significantly regulated (P < 0.05) 329 proteins, 289 met the criteria of fold change (LogFC of 1.5) cut off value. Number of proteins linked with AD, oxidative stress (OS) and hypercholesterolemia was 59, 20 and 12, respectively. Number of commonly expressed proteins was 361. The highest amount of proteins differentially expressed in the AD rats were those involved in metabolic processes followed by those linked with OS. Most notable was the perturbed state of the cholesterol metabolizing proteins in the AD group. Current findings suggest that proteins associated with oxidative stress, glucose and cholesterol metabolism and cellular stress response are among the mostly affected proteins in AD subjects. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches targeting these proteins could be strategized to withstand the ever increasing global AD burden.
  15. Refat N, Kassim H, Rahman MA, Razali RB
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0236862.
    PMID: 32857762 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236862
    Language learning is an emerging research area where researchers have done significant contributions by incorporating technological assistantship (i.e., computer- and mobile-assistant learning). However, it has been revealed from the recent empirical studies that little attention is given on grammar learning with the proper instructional materials design and the motivational framework for designing an efficient mobile-assisted grammar learning tool. This paper hence, reports a preliminary study that investigated learner motivation when a mobile-assisted tool for tense learning was used. This study applied the Attention-Relevance-Confidence-Satisfaction (ARCS) model. It was hypothesized that with the use of the designed mobile- assisted tense learning tool students would be motivated to learn grammar (English tense). In addition, with the increase of motivation, performance outcome in paper- based test would also be improved. With the purpose to investigate the impact of the tool, a sequential mixed-method research design was employed with the use of three research instruments; Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS), a paper-based test and an interview protocol using a semi-structured interview. Participants were 115 undergraduate students, who were enrolled in a remedial English course. The findings showed that with the effective design of instructional materials, students were motivated to learn grammar, where they were positive at improving their attitude towards learning (male 86%, female 80%). The IMMS findings revealed that students' motivation increased after using the tool. Moreover, students improved their performance level that was revealed from the outcome of paper-based instrument. Therefore, it is confirmed that the study contributed to designing an effective multimedia based instructions for a mobile-assisted tool that increased learners' motivational attitude which resulted in an improved learning performance.
  16. Rahman MA, Hossain S, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2020;22(1):93-103.
    PMID: 32464001 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020033383
    Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated as one of the pathomechanistic factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting memory and learning abilities. In the present study, ameliorative effect of hot water extract (HWE) of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum to the memory and learning related behavioral performance of hypercholesterolemic and AD rats was investigated using Morris water maze (MWM). Male Wistar rats were randomly grouped into control, extract fed control, hypercholesterolemic, extract fed hypercholesterolemic, AD, and extract fed AD groups, each group containing 8 animals. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats by adding 1% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid with the basal diet of the respective group. Alzheimer's disease model rats were prepared through infusion of amyloid β(1-42) to the right ventricle. Memory and learning related performance of all the rats was tested for 6 consecutive days that included time taken to reach the submerged platform (sec) and distance traveled (m). G. lucidum HWE fed rats took less time and traveled less distance to find the submerged platform, which indicates the spatial learning and memory related behavioral amelioration of the extract fed rats compared with their non-fed counterparts. Thus, usage of G. lucidum seems promising in withstanding hypercholesterolemia-induced Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.
  17. Alyan E, Saad NM, Kamel N, Rahman MA
    Appl Ergon, 2021 Oct;96:103497.
    PMID: 34139374 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103497
    This study aims to evaluate the effect of workstation type on the neural and vascular networks of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlying the cognitive activity involved during mental stress. Workstation design has been reported to affect the physical and mental health of employees. However, while the functional effects of ergonomic workstations have been documented, there is little research on the influence of workstation design on the executive function of the brain. In this study, 23 healthy volunteers in ergonomic and non-ergonomic workstations completed the Montreal imaging stress task, while their brain activity was recorded using the synchronized measurement of electroencephalography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed desynchronization in alpha rhythms and oxygenated hemoglobin, as well as decreased functional connectivity in the PFC networks at the non-ergonomic workstations. Additionally, a significant increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity was observed in all participants at the non-ergonomic workstations, confirming the presence of induced stress. These findings suggest that workstation design can significantly impact cognitive functioning and human capabilities at work. Therefore, the use of functional neuroimaging in workplace design can provide critical information on the causes of workplace-related stress.
  18. Rahman MA, Hossain S, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2020;22(11):1067-1078.
    PMID: 33426838 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020036354
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading neurodegenerative disorder affecting memory and learning of aged people. Hypercholesterolemia had been implicated as one of the stark hallmarks of AD. Recent AD control guidelines have suggested lifestyle modification to slow down the progression of AD. In this regard, medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum seems apt. In the present study, hot water extract of G. lucidum (200 mg/kg body weight) was fed to the hypercholesterolemic and AD model rats for 8 weeks. Nonspatial memory and learning abilities of the model animals was assessed using novel object recognition (NOR) test, rotarod test, and locomotor/open-field test. Then, the animals were sacrificed and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) view of the hippocampal neurons was assessed. In all the nonspatial memory and learning tests, the G. lucidum HWE fed rats performed better indicating improved memory and learning abilities. TEM view showed regular arrangement of the neurons in the G. lucidum HWE fed rats compared with those of the deranged arrangement of the AD rats. G. lucidum might have aided in restoring the memory and learning abilities of the AD model animals through maintaining neuronal structure and function. Thus, G. lucidum could be suggested as a medicotherapeutic agent against AD.
  19. Mansor MS, Sah SA, Koon LC, Rahman MA
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2011 Dec;22(2):65-80.
    PMID: 24575218 MyJurnal
    Bird surveys were conducted in the Padawan Limestone Area for seven days at each of two study sites, Giam and Danu, from August to December 2008. The purpose of the study was to compare the area's bird species richness and abundance of bird species in other limestone areas and in other forest types. The study also compared the species richness and relative abundance of birds in undisturbed and disturbed areas at both study sites. Twenty mist nets were deployed for 12 hours daily. During this study period, direct observations of birds were also made. In all, 80 species from 34 families were recorded at both sites. At Giam, 120 birds were mist-netted. These birds represented 31 species from 16 families. The direct observations at Giam recorded 13 species from 11 families. In the undisturbed area, 21 species from 13 families were mist-netted, whereas in the disturbed area, 21 species from 10 families were mist-netted. In Danu, a total of 48 birds, representing 25 species from 12 families, were mist-netted. The observations at Danu recorded 34 species from 19 families. Twelve species from 7 families were mist-netted in the undisturbed area, whereas 18 species from 11 families were mist-netted in the disturbed area. Statistical analysis showed that the species diversity index differed significantly between undisturbed and disturbed areas.
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