• 1 Center for Modern Languages, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Computing, IBM CoE and ERAS, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Malaysia
  • 3 Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Kuantan, Malaysia
PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0236862.
PMID: 32857762 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236862


Language learning is an emerging research area where researchers have done significant contributions by incorporating technological assistantship (i.e., computer- and mobile-assistant learning). However, it has been revealed from the recent empirical studies that little attention is given on grammar learning with the proper instructional materials design and the motivational framework for designing an efficient mobile-assisted grammar learning tool. This paper hence, reports a preliminary study that investigated learner motivation when a mobile-assisted tool for tense learning was used. This study applied the Attention-Relevance-Confidence-Satisfaction (ARCS) model. It was hypothesized that with the use of the designed mobile- assisted tense learning tool students would be motivated to learn grammar (English tense). In addition, with the increase of motivation, performance outcome in paper- based test would also be improved. With the purpose to investigate the impact of the tool, a sequential mixed-method research design was employed with the use of three research instruments; Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS), a paper-based test and an interview protocol using a semi-structured interview. Participants were 115 undergraduate students, who were enrolled in a remedial English course. The findings showed that with the effective design of instructional materials, students were motivated to learn grammar, where they were positive at improving their attitude towards learning (male 86%, female 80%). The IMMS findings revealed that students' motivation increased after using the tool. Moreover, students improved their performance level that was revealed from the outcome of paper-based instrument. Therefore, it is confirmed that the study contributed to designing an effective multimedia based instructions for a mobile-assisted tool that increased learners' motivational attitude which resulted in an improved learning performance.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.