We present an algorithm to reduce the number of slices from 2D contour cross sections. The main aim of the algorithm is to filter less significant slices while preserving an acceptable level of output quality and keeping the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s) at a minimal level. This research is motivated mainly by two factors; first 2D cross sections data is often huge in size and high in precisions – the computational cost to reconstruct surface(s) from them is closely related to the size and complexity of this data. Second, we can trades visual fidelity with speed of computations if we can remove visually insignificant data from the original dataset which may contains redundant information. In our algorithm we use the number of contour points on a pair of slices to calculate the distance between them. Selection to retain/reject a slice is based on the value of distance compared against a threshold value. Optimal threshold value is derived to produce set of slices that collectively represent the feature of the dataset. We tested our algorithm over six different set of data, varying in complexities and sizes. The results show slice reduction rate depends on the complexity of the dataset, where highest reduction percentage is achieved for objects with lots of constant local variations. Our derived optimal thresholds seem to be able to produce the right set of slices with the potential of creating surface(s) that traded off the accuracy and speed requirements.
To present several key factors that motivated Malaysian registered nurses to undertake a post-registration degree through an Australian university. The overall research study, from which this paper is drawn, looked at the professional learning of Malaysian registered nurses and the subsequent impact on their careers.
Stress has a negative effect on student nurses well-being and can impede learning or motivate them and is conducive to learning. This study examined the perceived stress and factors that influenced daily students’ life among both the Diploma and Bachelor of Nursing students. A total of 241 nursing students were involved in this research project. Findings of this study indicated that junior nursing students (
The nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) methods have widely been used in solving unconstrained optimization problems. They are well-suited for large-scale optimization problems due to their low memory requirements and least computational costs. In this paper, a new diagonal preconditioned conjugate gradient (PRECG) algorithm is designed, and this is motivated by the fact that a pre-conditioner can greatly enhance the performance of the CG method. Under mild conditions, it is shown that the algorithm is globally convergent for strongly convex functions. Numerical results are presented to show that the new diagonal PRECG method works better than the standard CG method.
There are two main reasons that motivate people to detect outliers; the first is the researchers' intention; see the example of Mr Haldum's cases in Barnett and Lewis. The second is the effect of outliers on analyses. This article does not differentiate between the various justifications for outlier detection. The aim was to advise the analyst about observations that are isolated from the other observations in the data set. In this article, we introduce the eigenstructure based angle for outlier detection. This method is simple and effective in dealing with masking and swamping problems. The method proposed is illustrated and compared with Mahalanobis distance by using several data sets.
The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."
This research predicted the effectiveness of variety game design elements in enhancing the intrinsic motivation of users on energy conservation behaviour prior to its actual implementation to ensure cost-effective. Face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted at the five recognized Malaysian research universities and obtained a total of 1500 valid survey data. The collected data was run with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis using SmartPLS 3 software. The results predicted the positive effect of gamification on intrinsically motivate the users based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The identified nine core game design elements were found to be useful in satisfying users' autonomy, competence and relatedness need satisfactions specified by SDT. This research is useful to guide the campaign organizer in designing a gamified design energy-saving campaign and provide understanding on the causal relationships between game design elements and users' intrinsic motivation to engage on energy conservation. A game-like campaign environment is believed to be created to users by implementing the game design elements in energy-saving campaign, and subsequently users' intrinsic motivation to engage on energy conservation behaviour can be enhanced.
BACKGROUND: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions.
RESULTS: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores.
CONCLUSION: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.
KEYWORDS: Anxiety; motivation; psychological distress
As the debate on accepting financial incentives persists, more and more findings linked to its success as well as to its foreseeable backlash continue to unravel. Specifically out to enhance perceptions on financial incentives, this paper reviews important aspects of the financial incentives and provides a diverse range of empirical findings at a glance. Through a review of several empirical findings and literature, this paper argues that several basic practices of the financial incentives are indeed instrumental to enhancing organ donation. However, more experimentation is necessary to unearth the best mode that is best responsive to a society and subsequently, rejects the overly generalization that labels it as unethical.
The current issue of JUMMEC touches on many diverse topics and in many ways reflects the evolution of modern medicine from the practice of acupuncture to epidemics facilitated by modern travel to the subject of ethics including controversies surrounding financial incentives given in promoting organ donation.(Copied from article).
Background: In Malaysia the percentage of diploma registered nurses outnumber the percentage of degree registered nurses. Internationally, most registered nurses earn associate degrees or bachelor’s degrees in nursing. Malaysia is in the pipeline of ensuring that its registered nurses are professionally qualified with nursing degree by year 2020. Registered nurses with diploma qualification are feeling the pressure to upgrade their qualification to degree. There are concerns as to why these nurses are not pursuing their post registration nursing degree. Objective: To determine factors that are deterring the registered nurses of a private hospital in Penang from pursuing the post registered nursing degree. Methods: This descriptive study utilised a convenient sample of 150 registered nurses from Lam Wah Ee Hospital in Penang. The instrument of this study was developed based on literature search and the conceptual framework of Force Fields Analysis developed by Kurt Lewin in 1952. Results: The deterring factors for registered nurses not pursuing post registration nursing degree from this hospital were determined through negative mean score, which was valued at less than 2.5. The top 3 deterring factors identified were: high educational cost, with a score of 1.92; financial commitment, with a score of 2.22 and time constraints and high workload, with a score of 2.27. Conclusions: High educational cost, financial commitment, time constraint and high workload were the main factors deterring the registered nurses from this hospital from pursuing their post registration nursing degree. Thus it is timely for the organisational management to consider workable measures to assist and motivate their nurses to upgrade themselves with nursing degree in line with Malaysia’s vision to meet the increasing challenges and complex needs in the care of clients in health services.
The radiotracer injector is meant for transferring liquid radiotracer in the system for industrial radiotracer application with minimal radiation exposure to the operator. The motivation of its invention is coming from the experience of the workers who are very concern about the radiation safety while handling with the radioactive source. The idea ensuring the operation while handling the radioactive source is fast and safe without interrupting the efficiency and efficacy of the process. Thus, semi automated device assisting with pneumatic technology is applied for its invention.
Bakery products become a regular food in most part of the world and are essential commodities today. There is a high potential for business growth in selling bakery products. In the business world, Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are primarily engaged in the bakery business, but cannot compete with the branded bakery Industry. The SMEs in Malaysia are striving hard to achieve growth in the business of bakery products. The present case study deals with the issues faced by SMEs and provided some valid recommendations to resolve the existing problems in the bakery business. The case analysis and its findings reveal that SMEs have unstructured marketing strategies and needs enhancements in the areas of packaging, value add to the bakery products, focus on promotion and appropriate advertising strategies. Further, the analysis reveals that more coverage of selling points for bakery products, the increased number of distribution centers and proper incentives to the agents may definitely improve the marketing of bakery products.
Crowdsourcing is an initiative implemented by the Malaysian government to support its National Key Result Area (NKRA) agenda to improve the lives of citizens with low household income in the B40 group. Crowdsourcing activities are done on mobile crowdsourcing platforms that enable workers to perform micro tasks at any time for a fixed payment. However, without active and constant participation from the crowd, this initiative might not be successful. This paper describes a preliminary study in identifying motivation factors for participating in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. This study identified intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors that can attract crowds to participate in mobile crowdsourcing platforms. Technology efficacy factors that interlink with motivation factors were also identified in this study. The preliminary study employed the qualitative method where in-depth interviews were conducted among 30 crowdsourcing participants in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of this study are the basis for a motivation model that can attract crowdworkers from among the B40 group of household-income earners to participate in crowdsourcing to procure and perform available micro-tasks. The findings will also help improvise mobile platforms for crowdsourcing.
Crowdsourcing introduces new perspectives in innovation, allowing for new products and services to shift away from the traditional manufacture-centric model to a more user-centric one. In order for businesses to reap the benefits of open innovation, it is necessary to understand the factors that motivate ideators to contribute valuable ideas. Equally, there is an urgency to identify the challenges faced by ideators in crowdsourcing for open innovation to retain the participants of crowdsourcing communities. This paper presents a structured review to address the aforementioned issues. Our findings reveal that the intrinsic factors that drive participation in open innovation are related to the learning experience that results from sharing ideas. Extrinsic factors like social motivation are frequently mentioned in different studies. This study also highlights the need for organisations to develop strategies for interacting with their contributors in order to sustain their participation and idea contribution. In conclusion, this paper can serve as a guideline for practitioners to improve crowdsourcing platforms with the inclusion of important motivational features. It can also serve as reference for organisations for formulating policies to regulate idea contribution.
Concrete durability determines service life of structures. It can though, be weakened by aggressive environmental conditions. For instance, bio-corrosion process is due to the presence and activity of microorganisms which produce sulphuric acid to form sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The problems related to durability and repair systems are due to lack of suitable concrete materials. The use bacteria for concrete repairing and plugging of pores and cracking in concrete has been recently explored. Previous studies had proved the possibility of using specific bacteria via bio concrete as a sustainable method for improving concrete properties. Thus, lack of information on the application of bio concrete exposed to extreme condition was the motivation for this research.
Small accommodation providers are challenged to grow their business due to their limited resources. Although social networking is suggested to assist organization growth, few studies have focused on how owner-managers in the Malaysian hospi-tality industry network and the value they attach to it. This paper presents findings of 10 in-depth interviews of social networking motivation and barrier of owner-managers of small accommodation in Kuching, Malaysia. The findings show that the owner-managers were motivated by the perceived organizational and personal bene-fits of networking with others. However, issues such as social competence and busi-ness concerns were identified as barriers that may limit their participation in network-ing. To overcome these issues, it is suggested that educators, policymakers, and trade associations work together with the owner-managers to address their specific devel-opment and resource needs.
The use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in modern precision agriculture to monitor climate conditions and to provide agriculturalists with a considerable amount of useful information is currently being widely considered. However, WSNs exhibit several limitations when deployed in real-world applications. One of the challenges faced by WSNs is prolonging the life of sensor nodes. This challenge is the primary motivation for this work, in which we aim to further minimize the energy consumption of a wireless agriculture system (WAS), which includes air temperature, air humidity, and soil moisture. Two power reduction schemes are proposed to decrease the power consumption of the sensor and router nodes. First, a sleep/wake scheme based on duty cycling is presented. Second, the sleep/wake scheme is merged with redundant data about soil moisture, thereby resulting in a new algorithm called sleep/wake on redundant data (SWORD). SWORD can minimize the power consumption and data communication of the sensor node. A 12 V/5 W solar cell is embedded into the WAS to sustain its operation. Results show that the power consumption of the sensor and router nodes is minimized and power savings are improved by the sleep/wake scheme. The power consumption of the sensor and router nodes is improved by 99.48% relative to that in traditional operation when the SWORD algorithm is applied. In addition, data communication in the SWORD algorithm is minimized by 86.45% relative to that in the sleep/wake scheme. The comparison results indicate that the proposed algorithms outperform power reduction techniques proposed in other studies. The average current consumptions of the sensor nodes in the sleep/wake scheme and the SWORD algorithm are 0.731 mA and 0.1 mA, respectively.
The presence of extra zeros is commonly observed in traffic accident count data. Past research opt to the zero altered models and explain that the zeros are sourced from under reporting situation. However, there is also an argument against this statement since the zeros could be sourced from Poisson trial process. Motivated by the argument, we explore the possibility of mixing several discrete distributions that can contribute to the presence of extra zeros. Four simulation studies were conducted based on two accident scenarios and two discrete distributions: Poisson and negative binomial; by considering six combinations of proportion values correspond to low, moderate and high mean values in the distribution. The results of the simulation studies concur with the claim as the presence of extra zeros is detected in most cases of mixed Poisson and mixed negative binomial data. Data sets that are dominated by Poisson (or negative binomial) with low mean show an apparent existence of extra zeros although the sample size is only 30. An illustration using a real data set concur the same findings. Hence, it is essential to consider the mixed discrete distributions as potential distributions when dealing with count data with extra zeros. This study contributes on creating awareness of the possible alternative distributions for count data with extra zeros especially in traffic accident applications.
Employees support during the implementation of organizational changes is important to ensure
successful change. Thus, identifying factors that motivate individuals to support organizational change
is of vital interest for the successful management of changes. Previous studies have confirmed a
number of factors that can affect individual behavior to support the change. However, there are only
few studies that have identified the potential factors to form a framework that is based on theory, in
particular using the theory of planned behavior. Therefore, this study explores how perceived benefits
of change, supervisor support and change self-efficacy affects behavioural support for change.
Furthermore, this review offers propositions based on current literature for further in-depth empirical
investigations to find out the effects of these factors towards behavioural support for change that can be
used as a guide in the academic field as well as practical.