Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 539 in total

  1. Liew SC, Aung T
    Sleep Med, 2021 01;77:192-204.
    PMID: 32951993 DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.07.048
    Sleep deprivation, a consequence of multiple health problems or a cause of many major health risks, is a significant public health concern in this era. In the recent years, numerous reports have been added to the literature to provide explanation and to answer previously unanswered questions on this important topic but comprehensive updates and reviews in this aspect remain scarce. The present study identified 135 papers that investigated the association between sleep deprivation and health risks, including cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, gastrointestinal, immunology, dermatology, endocrine, and reproductive health. In this review, we aimed to provide insight into the association between sleep deprivation and the development of diseases. We reviewed the latest updates available in the literature and particular attention was paid to reports that detailed all possible causal relationships involving both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that may be relevant to this topic. Various mechanisms by which sleep deprivation may affect health were presented and discussed, and this review hopes to serve as a platform for ideas generation for future research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention*
  2. Zaaba ZF, Lim Xin Yi C, Amran A, Omar MA
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Nov 03;21(21).
    PMID: 34770621 DOI: 10.3390/s21217313
    The security warning is a representation of communication that is used to warn and to inform a person whether security menaces have been discovered in order to prevent any consequences of damage from taking place. The purpose of a security warning is to provide a legitimate alert (to notify and to warn) to the users so that a secure manner of action is safely conducted. It is worth noting that the majority of computer users prefer to dismiss security warnings due to lack of attention, the use of technical words, and the deficiency of information provided. This paper determines to achieve two outcomes: firstly, a thorough review of problems, challenges, and approaches to improving security warnings. Our work complements the previous classifications in the identification of problems and challenges in security warnings by value-adding a new classification, namely immersion in the primary task. Then, we add other related works within the known classifications accordingly. In addition, our work also presents the classifications of approaches to improving security warnings. Secondly, we propose two timelines by addressing the problems, challenges, and approaches to improving security warnings. It is expected that the outcomes of this research will be useful to researchers within the niche area for analysing trends and providing the groundwork in security warning studies, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention*
  3. Lin CY, Chiu YC, Ng HF, Shih TK, Lin KH
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 21;20(10).
    PMID: 32455537 DOI: 10.3390/s20102907
    Semantic segmentation of street view images is an important step in scene understanding for autonomous vehicle systems. Recent works have made significant progress in pixel-level labeling using Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) framework and local multi-scale context information. Rich global context information is also essential in the segmentation process. However, a systematic way to utilize both global and local contextual information in a single network has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose a global-and-local network architecture (GLNet) which incorporates global spatial information and dense local multi-scale context information to model the relationship between objects in a scene, thus reducing segmentation errors. A channel attention module is designed to further refine the segmentation results using low-level features from the feature map. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed GLNet achieves 80.8% test accuracy on the Cityscapes test dataset, comparing favorably with existing state-of-the-art methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  4. Baess P, Ecker UKH, Janssen SMJ, Jin Z, Bermeitinger C
    Mem Cognit, 2023 Apr;51(3):526-542.
    PMID: 36180770 DOI: 10.3758/s13421-022-01360-9
    Previous research has suggested that culture influences perception and attention. These studies have typically involved comparisons of Westerners with East Asians, motivated by assumed differences in the cultures' self-concept or position on the individualism-collectivism spectrum. However, other potentially important sources of cultural variance have been neglected, such as differences in traffic directionality shaped by the urban spatial environment (i.e., left-hand vs. right-hand traffic). Thus, existing research may potentially place too much emphasis on self-concepts or the individualism-collectivism dimension in explaining observed cultural differences in cognition. The present study investigated spatial cognition using a Simon task and tested participants from four nations (Australia, China, Germany, and Malaysia) that differ in both cultural orientation (collectivistic vs. individualistic) and traffic directionality (left-hand vs. right-hand traffic). The task used two possible reference frames underlying the Simon effect: a body-centered one based on global stimulus position relative to the screen's center versus an object-centered one based on local stimulus position relative to a context object. As expected, all groups showed a reliable Simon effect for both spatial reference frames. However, the global Simon effect was larger in participants from countries with left-hand traffic. In contrast, the local Simon effect was modulated by differences in cultural orientation, with larger effects in participants from collectivistic cultures. This pattern suggests that both sources of cultural variation, viz. cultural orientation and traffic directionality, contribute to differences in spatial cognition in distinct ways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention*
  5. Barrouillet P, Camos V, Minamoto T, Nishiyama S, Chooi WT, Morita A, et al.
    J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn, 2023 Oct;49(10):1539-1556.
    PMID: 37307321 DOI: 10.1037/xlm0001261
    Although working memory (WM) is usually defined as a cognitive system coordinating processing and storage in the short term, in most WM models, memory aspects have been developed more fully than processing systems, and many studies of WM tasks have tended to focus on memory performance. The present study investigated WM functioning without focusing exclusively on short-term memory performance by presenting participants with an n-back task on letters, n varying from 0 to 2, each letter being followed by a tone discrimination task involving from one to three tones. Predictions regarding the reciprocal effects of these tasks on each other were motivated by the time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) theoretical framework for WM that assumes the temporal sharing of attention between processing and memory. Although, as predicted, increasing the n value had a detrimental effect on tone discrimination in terms of accuracy and response times, and increasing the number of tones disrupted speed and accuracy on n-back performance, the overall pattern of results did not perfectly fit the TBRS predictions. Nonetheless, the main alternative models of WM do not seem to offer a complete account. The present findings point toward the need to use a larger range of tasks and situations in designing and testing models of WM. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention/physiology
  6. Lee YY, Abdul Halim Z
    PeerJ Comput Sci, 2020;6:e309.
    PMID: 33816960 DOI: 10.7717/peerj-cs.309
    Stochastic computing (SC) is an alternative computing domain for ubiquitous deterministic computing whereby a single logic gate can perform the arithmetic operation by exploiting the nature of probability math. SC was proposed in the 1960s when binary computing was expensive. However, presently, SC started to regain interest after the widespread of deep learning application, specifically the convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm due to its practicality in hardware implementation. Although not all computing functions can translate to the SC domain, several useful function blocks related to the CNN algorithm had been proposed and tested by researchers. An evolution of CNN, namely, binarised neural network, had also gained attention in the edge computing due to its compactness and computing efficiency. This study reviews various SC CNN hardware implementation methodologies. Firstly, we review the fundamental concepts of SC and the circuit structure and then compare the advantages and disadvantages amongst different SC methods. Finally, we conclude the overview of SC in CNN and make suggestions for widespread implementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  7. Deraman, R.F., Mahayadin, M., Mohd Ruslan, S.Z., Othman, N.I., Nasir, M.A.S.
    Many nonlinear problems that arise in various science and engineering fields can be
    modelled by the Goursat partial differential equations. Modelling these non-linear
    problems using the Goursat partial differential equations has not received much
    attention especially the theoretical aspect . The proposed scheme of solution is
    supported by examining a nonlinear Goursat problem. The verification of the
    theoretical results from several series of numerical experiments are discussed. Results
    obtained from Taylor series expansion show that the proposed new scheme is
    consistent. By using the von Neumann analysis and essence of stability, the proposed
    new scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. In addition, the trend of the
    numerical results shows that the new scheme is also convergent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  8. Farsi E, Ahmad M, Hor SY, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Yam MF, Khoo BY, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 09 27;18(1):262.
    PMID: 30261874 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2333-3
    After the publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that one author, Boon Yin Khoo, was erroneously omitted from the authorship list.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  9. Siner A, Liew ST, Kadir KA, Mohamad DSA, Thomas FK, Zulkarnaen M, et al.
    Malar J, 2017 11 06;16(1):445.
    PMID: 29110664 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-017-2093-4
    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that two of the labels on Figure 4 have transposed. The labels "S-type SSU rRNA" and "A-type SSU rRNA" should be in opposite places.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  10. Zihlif M, Afifi F, Abu-Dahab R, Majid AMSA, Somrain H, Saleh MM, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 02 16;18(1):64.
    PMID: 29452588 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2126-8
    CORRECTION: After the publication [1] it came to the attention of the authors that one of the co-authors was incorrectly included as Hamza Somrain. The correct spelling is as follows: Hamzeh Sumrein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  11. Banadkooki FB, Ehteram M, Ahmed AN, Teo FY, Ebrahimi M, Fai CM, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Oct;27(30):38117-38119.
    PMID: 32705552 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-10139-x
    Following the publication of the article it has come to the authors' attention that the first panel of Fig. 11 has been repeated with the second panel of Fig. 11.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  12. Zulkapli NA, Abdullah JM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):1-5.
    PMID: 30914874 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.1
    This report presents a review of the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences' (MJMS) performance status throughout 2017, which covers the submission pattern of original manuscripts by month, the geographical distribution of submitting authors, the types of manuscripts and overall acceptance/rejection rates. As the years progress, MJMS continues to receive an escalating number of manuscript submissions. This contributes to an ever-increasing workload, which makes administrative tasks continually more challenging. Although the manuscript submission platform seeks to minimise the pre-publication workload of the journal administrator, it is still a time-consuming task, particularly when authors seek exclusive attention for their submitted manuscripts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
  13. Calleja MO, Willoughby AR
    Atten Percept Psychophys, 2023 Feb;85(2):293-300.
    PMID: 36596986 DOI: 10.3758/s13414-022-02634-9
    Previous experiments investigating visual search have shown that distractors that are semantically related to a search target can capture attention and slow the search process. In two experiments, we examine if distractors exactly matching, or semantically related to, search-irrelevant information held in working memory (WM) can also influence visual search while ruling out potential effects of color similarity. Participants first viewed and memorized an image of an everyday object, then they determined if a target item was present or absent in a two-object search array. On exact-match trials, the memorized object appeared as a distractor; on semantic-match trials, an object semantically related to the memorized object appeared as a distractor. Both exact-match and semantic-match distractors slowed search when the target was present in the search array. Our findings extend previous findings by demonstrating WM-driven attentional guidance by complex objects rather than simple features. The results also suggest that visual search can be influenced by distractors sharing only semantic features with a search-irrelevant, but active, WM representation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention*
  14. Masiran R
    BMJ Case Rep, 2018 Sep 27;2018.
    PMID: 30262539 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-226212
    A boy with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presented with a fetish for and the subsequent stealing of female undergarments. He was predominantly inattentive and had been a slow learner. Psychological tests showed that he had significant cognitive and inattention problems without significant hyperactivity, and was at risk of dyslexia as well as conduct disorder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications*; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology
  15. Burns GL, Walsh JA, Gomez R, Hafetz N
    Psychol Assess, 2006 Dec;18(4):452-7.
    PMID: 17154767
    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) across boys and girls. In an American pediatric sample (N = 1,015) and a Malaysian elementary school-age sample (N = 928), there was strong support for configural, metric, scalar, residual, factor variance, and covariance invariance across gender within each sample. Both American and Malaysian boys had significantly higher scores on the ADHD-IN and ADHD-HI factor means than did girls, whereas only in the American sample did boys score significantly higher on the ODD factor than did girls. The implications of the results for the study of gender, ethnic, and cultural differences associated with ADHD and ODD are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology*; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology*; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/epidemiology*; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/psychology*
  16. Buratto LG, Pottage CL, Brown C, Morrison CM, Schaefer A
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e110211.
    PMID: 25330251 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110211
    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention/physiology*
  17. Chhibber A, Watanabe AH, Chaisai C, Veettil SK, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Pharmacoeconomics, 2021 04;39(4):399-420.
    PMID: 33554324 DOI: 10.1007/s40273-020-00998-0
    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders affecting children and adults. Previous systematic reviews have provided estimates of ADHD-associated costs but were limited to the USA and Europe.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically summarise all global evidence on the economic burden of ADHD.

    METHODS: A systematic search for published studies on costs of ADHD was conducted in EconLit, EMBASE, PubMed, ERIC, and PsycINFO. Additional literature was identified by searching the reference lists of eligible studies. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Larg and Moss checklist.

    RESULTS: This review included 44 studies. All studies were conducted in high-income countries and were limited to North America and Europe except for four studies: two in Asia and two in Australia. Most studies were retrospective and undertook a prevalence-based study design. Analysis revealed a substantial economic impact associated with ADHD. Estimates based on total costs ranged from $US831.38 to 20,538 for per person estimates and from $US356 million to 20.27 billion for national estimates. Estimates based on marginal costs ranged from $US244.15 to 18,751.00 for per person estimates and from $US12.18 million to 141.33 billion for national estimates. Studies that calculated economic burden across multiple domains of direct, indirect, and education and justice system costs for both children and adults with ADHD reported higher costs and translated gross domestic product than did studies that captured only a single domain or age group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the wide variation in methodologies in studies reviewed, the literature suggests that ADHD imposes a substantial economic burden on society. There is a dire need for cost-of-illness research in low- and middle-income countries to better inform the treatment and management of ADHD in these countries. In addition, guidelines on the conduct and reporting of economic burden studies are needed as they may improve standardisation of cost-of-illness studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity*
  18. Gomez R, Burns GL, Walsh JA, Hafetz N
    J Abnorm Child Psychol, 2005 Apr;33(2):241-54.
    PMID: 15839501 DOI: 10.1007/s10802-005-1831-1
    Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to model a multitrait by multisource matrix to determine the convergent and discriminant validity of measures of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattention (IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in 917 Malaysian elementary school children. The three trait factors were ADHD-IN, ADHDHI, and ODD. The two source factors were parents and teachers. Similar to earlier studies with Australian and Brazilian children, the parent and teacher measures failed to show convergent and discriminant validity with Malaysian children. The study outlines the implications of such strong source effects in ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD measures for the use of such parent and teacher scales to study the symptom dimensions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/ethnology*; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/ethnology*; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/epidemiology
  19. Kwa EK, Cheong SK, Ong LK, Lee PF
    Biomed Tech (Berl), 2024 Apr 25;69(2):141-150.
    PMID: 37856824 DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2023-0410
    OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies indicate that deep breathing (DB) enhances wellbeing. Multiple deep breathing methods exist, but few employ audio to reach similar results. This study developed audio-guided DB and evaluated its immediate impacts on healthy population via self-created auditory Go/No-Go task, tidal volume changes, and psychological measures.

    METHODS: Audio-guided DB with natural sounds to guide the DB was developed. Meanwhile, audio-based Go/No-Go paradigm with Arduino was built to measure the attention level. Thirty-two healthy young adults (n=32) were recruited. Psychological questionnaires (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), objective measurements with tidal volume and attention level with auditory Go/No-Go task were conducted before and after 5 min of DB.

    RESULTS: Results showed a significant increment in tidal volume and task reaction time from baseline (p=0.003 and p=0.033, respectively). Significant correlations were acquired between (1) task accuracy with commission error (r=-0.905), (2) CAMS-R with task accuracy (r=-0.425), commission error (r=0.53), omission error (r=0.395) and PSS (r=-0.477), and (3) RSES with task reaction time (r=-0.47), task accuracy (r=-0.362), PSS (r=-0.552) and CAMS-R (r=0.591).

    CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests a link between it and young adults' wellbeing and proposes auditory Go/No-Go task for assessing attention across various groups while maintaining physical and mental wellness.

    Matched MeSH terms: Attention*
  20. Leong YK, Lan JC, Loh HS, Ling TC, Ooi CW, Show PL
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Feb;39(4):640-7.
    PMID: 26447739 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201500667
    Having the benefits of being environmentally friendly, providing a mild environment for bioseparation, and scalability, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) have increasingly caught the attention of industry and researchers for their application in the isolation and recovery of bioproducts. The limitations of conventional ATPSs give rise to the development of temperature-induced ATPSs that have distinctive thermoseparating properties and easy recyclability. This review starts with a brief introduction to thermoseparating ATPSs, including its history, unique characteristics and advantages, and lastly, key factors that influence partitioning. The underlying mechanism of temperature-induced ATPSs is covered together with a summary of recent applications. Thermoseparating ATPSs have been proven as a solution to the demand for economically favorable and environmentally friendly industrial-scale bioextraction and purification techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Attention
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