Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 362 in total

  1. Qasim SSB, Nogueira LP, Fawzy AS, Daood U
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2020 Sep 01;21(7):250.
    PMID: 32875436 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-020-01778-x
    The correct spelling of the second author's name is Liebert Parreiras Nogueira.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Mar;14:193-5.
    PMID: 13779217
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  3. Abed SA, Tiun S, Omar N
    PLoS One, 2015;10(9):e0136614.
    PMID: 26422368 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136614
    Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is the task of determining which sense of an ambiguous word (word with multiple meanings) is chosen in a particular use of that word, by considering its context. A sentence is considered ambiguous if it contains ambiguous word(s). Practically, any sentence that has been classified as ambiguous usually has multiple interpretations, but just one of them presents the correct interpretation. We propose an unsupervised method that exploits knowledge based approaches for word sense disambiguation using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) based on a Stanford dependencies generator (HSDG). The role of the dependency generator is to parse sentences to obtain their dependency relations. Whereas, the goal of using the HSA is to maximize the overall semantic similarity of the set of parsed words. HSA invokes a combination of semantic similarity and relatedness measurements, i.e., Jiang and Conrath (jcn) and an adapted Lesk algorithm, to perform the HSA fitness function. Our proposed method was experimented on benchmark datasets, which yielded results comparable to the state-of-the-art WSD methods. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the dependency generator, we perform the same methodology without the parser, but with a window of words. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce effective solutions for most instances of the datasets used.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*; Natural Language Processing*
  4. Wong YL, Fauza AG
    JUMMEC, 1998;3:65-65.
    A review of the questionnaire was carried out basically to assess the relevance of the questions to the objectives of the study, to identify weaknesses of the questions particularly in terms of the wording in order to make them as clear as possible to the respondents and to minimize ambiguity and thus the problems of getting the questions across to the respondents. Based on the review a new set of questionnaire would be proposed. The review thus focuses on two major aspects namely the structure and the content of the questionnaire. From the structural aspects each question was reviewed in terms of the language, wording, sequencing and continuity between one another. Basically, not much problems have been identified except in certain cases of ambiguity largely due to language and words used and some cases lack of continuity due to improper sequencing of the questions In terms of the content, for each questions, the purpose of asking, and what is expected of the questions was thoroughly examined and then the relevance assessed. Based on the analysis, three group of questions were identified i.e., the irrelevant questions, the partially relevant and most inlportant non-existence of many relevant questions. It is recommended that the irrelevant questions be omitted, those partially relevant to be modified and new questions added.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language
  5. Magableh A, Shukur Z, Ali NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:327808.
    PMID: 25136656 DOI: 10.1155/2014/327808
    Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a "good design" criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  6. Albadr MAA, Tiun S, Al-Dhief FT, Sammour MAM
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0194770.
    PMID: 29672546 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194770
    Spoken Language Identification (LID) is the process of determining and classifying natural language from a given content and dataset. Typically, data must be processed to extract useful features to perform LID. The extracting features for LID, based on literature, is a mature process where the standard features for LID have already been developed using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Shifted Delta Cepstral (SDC), the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ending with the i-vector based framework. However, the process of learning based on extract features remains to be improved (i.e. optimised) to capture all embedded knowledge on the extracted features. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is an effective learning model used to perform classification and regression analysis and is extremely useful to train a single hidden layer neural network. Nevertheless, the learning process of this model is not entirely effective (i.e. optimised) due to the random selection of weights within the input hidden layer. In this study, the ELM is selected as a learning model for LID based on standard feature extraction. One of the optimisation approaches of ELM, the Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (SA-ELM) is selected as the benchmark and improved by altering the selection phase of the optimisation process. The selection process is performed incorporating both the Split-Ratio and K-Tournament methods, the improved SA-ELM is named Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine (ESA-ELM). The results are generated based on LID with the datasets created from eight different languages. The results of the study showed excellent superiority relating to the performance of the Enhanced Self-Adjusting Extreme Learning Machine LID (ESA-ELM LID) compared with the SA-ELM LID, with ESA-ELM LID achieving an accuracy of 96.25%, as compared to the accuracy of SA-ELM LID of only 95.00%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  7. Lim HW, Wells B, Howard S
    Clin Linguist Phon, 2015;29(11):793-811.
    PMID: 26237032
    Early child multilingual acquisition is under-explored. Using a cross-sectional study approach, the present research investigates the rate of multilingual phonological acquisition of English-Mandarin-Malay by 64 ethnic Chinese children aged 2;06-4;05 in Malaysia--a multiracial-multilingual country of Asia. The aims of the study are to provide clinical norms for speech development in the multilingual children and to compare multilingual acquisition with monolingual and bilingual acquisition. An innovative multilingual phonological test which adopts well-defined scoring criteria drawing upon local accents of English, Mandarin and Malay is proposed and described in this article. This procedure has been neglected in the few existing Chinese bilingual phonological acquisition studies resulting in peculiar findings. The multilingual children show comparable phonological acquisition milestones to that of monolingual and bilingual peers acquiring the same languages. The implications of the present results are discussed. The present findings contribute to the development of models and theories of child multilingual acquisition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child Language*; Language
  8. Sharma, Shobha, Haryani Harun, Rahayu Mustaffa Kamal, Srinovianti Noerdin
    This study in the management of dysphagia or swallowing disorders involved 72 contactable Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) in Malaysia. A survey was undertaken to identify the patterns of dysphagia management by SLPs in Malaysia by identifying the percentage of SLPs in Malaysia who have managed swallowing disorders, the approximate number of patients, assessment and therapy techniques used, other professional involvement and the factors that influenced the confidence levels of the SLPs in managing swallowing disorders. Fifty percent (50%) of the forty four SLPs (61.6%) who responded to the survey had previously managed swallowing disorders. It was estimated that 5% (430 of 8268) of patients referred to the SLPs in Malaysia presented with dysphagia and were subsequently managed for their swallowing problems. The oromotor examination was carried out most frequently (100%) for evaluation of dysphagia while the compensatory technique proved to be the most frequently used management technique (77.3%). Most referrals to the SLPs were received from the neurosurgeon (59.1%); the otorhinolaryngologist was most referred to by the SLPs (50%). By using the Chi-squared analysis, it was found that clinical training in dysphagia at the undergraduate or post-graduate levels influenced the confidence levels of the SLPs in managing dysphagia cases (χ2 = 10.063 with p value = 0.007).
    Matched MeSH terms: Speech-Language Pathology
  9. Zihlif M, Afifi F, Abu-Dahab R, Majid AMSA, Somrain H, Saleh MM, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 02 16;18(1):64.
    PMID: 29452588 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2126-8
    CORRECTION: After the publication [1] it came to the attention of the authors that one of the co-authors was incorrectly included as Hamza Somrain. The correct spelling is as follows: Hamzeh Sumrein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language
  10. Kamarudin, R., Moon, R.
    The purpose of this study is to investigate how reference materials (i.e. dictionaries) commonly
    prescribed to Malaysian school learners address and describe a very common and important linguistic
    feature - phrasal verbs. Two bilingual learner dictionaries frequently recommended for secondary
    school learners in Malaysia were examined. Analysis of common phrasal verbs like pick up, come out,
    and go out was carried out by examining entries in the dictionaries that discuss this linguistic feature.
    Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine how this particular language form is described by
    looking at the selection of phrasal verbs, as well as information provided with respect to phrasal verbs.
    Results of the analysis have revealed some interesting findings with regard to the selection and
    description of phrasal verbs in these dictionaries, which may have also contributed to learners'
    difficulties in understanding and learning the language form. The paper will be concluded by
    discussing some recommendations with respect to the inclusion and selection of phrasal verbs in
    language reference materials particularly dictionaries in Malaysian schools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language
  11. Buari NH, Chen AH, Musa N
    J Optom, 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):210-6.
    PMID: 25323642 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2013.12.009
    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  12. Al-Saiagh W, Tiun S, Al-Saffar A, Awang S, Al-Khaleefa AS
    PLoS One, 2018;13(12):e0208695.
    PMID: 30571777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208695
    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the process of identifying an appropriate sense for an ambiguous word. With the complexity of human languages in which a single word could yield different meanings, WSD has been utilized by several domains of interests such as search engines and machine translations. The literature shows a vast number of techniques used for the process of WSD. Recently, researchers have focused on the use of meta-heuristic approaches to identify the best solutions that reflect the best sense. However, the application of meta-heuristic approaches remains limited and thus requires the efficient exploration and exploitation of the problem space. Hence, the current study aims to propose a hybrid meta-heuristic method that consists of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and simulated annealing to find the global best meaning of a given text. Different semantic measures have been utilized in this model as objective functions for the proposed hybrid PSO. These measures consist of JCN and extended Lesk methods, which are combined effectively in this work. The proposed method is tested using a three-benchmark dataset (SemCor 3.0, SensEval-2, and SensEval-3). Results show that the proposed method has superior performance in comparison with state-of-the-art approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  13. Xiao H
    Neural Netw, 2020 Nov;131:172-184.
    PMID: 32801109 DOI: 10.1016/j.neunet.2020.07.024
    Paraphrase identification serves as an important topic in natural language processing while sequence alignment and matching underlie the principle of this task. Traditional alignment methods take advantage of attention mechanism. Attention mechanism, i.e. weighting technique, could pick out the most similar/dissimilar parts, but is weak in modeling the aligned unmatched parts, which are the crucial evidence to identify paraphrases. In this paper, we empower neural architecture with Hungarian algorithm to extract the aligned unmatched parts. Specifically, first, our model applies BiLSTM/BERT to encode the input sentences into hidden representations. Then, Hungarian layer leverages the hidden representations to extract the aligned unmatched parts. Last, we apply cosine similarity to metric the aligned unmatched parts for a final discrimination. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms other baselines, substantially and significantly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language; Natural Language Processing
  14. Ooi CC, Wong AM
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2012 Dec;14(6):499-508.
    PMID: 23039126 DOI: 10.3109/17549507.2012.712159
    One reason why specific language impairment (SLI) is grossly under-identified in Malaysia is the absence of locally- developed norm-referenced language assessment tools for its multilingual and multicultural population. Spontaneous language samples provide quantitative information for language assessment, and useful descriptive information on child language development in complex language and cultural environments. This research consisted of two studies and investigated the use of measures obtained from English conversational samples among bilingual Chinese-English Malaysian preschoolers. The research found that the language sample measures were sensitive to developmental changes in this population and could identify SLI. The first study examined the relationship between age and mean length of utterance (MLU(w)), lexical diversity (D), and the index of productive syntax (IPSyn) among 52 typically-developing (TD) children aged between 3;4-6;9. Analyses showed a significant linear relationship between age and D (r = .450), the IPsyn (r = .441), and MLU(w) (r = .318). The second study compared the same measures obtained from 10 children with SLI, aged between 3;8-5;11, and their age-matched controls. The children with SLI had significantly shorter MLU(w) and lower IPSyn scores than the TD children. These findings suggest that utterance length and syntax production can be potential clinical markers of SLI in Chinese-English Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child Language*; Language Disorders/diagnosis*; Language Disorders/physiopathology; Language Disorders/psychology; Language Tests*; Speech-Language Pathology/methods*
  15. Phoon HS, Abdullah AC, Lee LW, Murugaiah P
    Clin Linguist Phon, 2014 May;28(5):329-45.
    PMID: 24446796 DOI: 10.3109/02699206.2013.868517
    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child Language*; Language; Language Development*
  16. Joginder Singh S, Chan MY, Ahmad Rusli Y
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2016 12;18(6):560-570.
    PMID: 27063683
    PURPOSE: Children with speech and language delay/disorder (SLD) in the developing language stage (DLS) are one of the largest populations served by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in paediatric settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the practise patterns adopted by Malaysian SLPs when managing these children.

    METHOD: A web-based questionnaire was developed to obtain information about SLPs' practises during assessment, planning and treatment.

    RESULT: A total of 53 SLPs completed the questionnaire. When assessing the children, participants either always or usually involved parents, suggesting that they understood the importance of family involvement in services provided. When planning goals, the SLPs relied mostly on their clinical experience and less on research evidence. Participants reported that, most often, they employed a one-to-one approach when providing treatment. There was, however, great variation in the frequency of treatment provided, reflecting the different workplaces of participants.

    CONCLUSION: Generally, findings from this study indicated that some practises employed by Malaysian SLPs when managing children with SLD in the DLS are on par with the best practise guidelines, but there is still room for improvement in certain areas such as team collaboration and evidence-based practise. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Language Development Disorders/therapy*; Speech-Language Pathology/methods; Speech-Language Pathology/standards*
  17. Marks I, Stokes SF
    Int J Lang Commun Disord, 2010 Sep-Oct;45(5):586-99.
    PMID: 19857187 DOI: 10.3109/13682820903277951
    Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language Development Disorders/rehabilitation*; Language Tests
  18. Serva M, Petroni F, Volchenkov D, Wichmann S
    J R Soc Interface, 2012 Jan 7;9(66):54-67.
    PMID: 21632612 DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2011.0228
    The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island.
    Matched MeSH terms: Language*
  19. Hariharan M, Chee LS, Ai OC, Yaacob S
    J Med Syst, 2012 Jun;36(3):1821-30.
    PMID: 21249515 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-010-9641-6
    The goal of this paper is to discuss and compare three feature extraction methods: Linear Predictive Coefficients (LPC), Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC) and Weighted Linear Prediction Cepstral Coefficients (WLPCC) for recognizing the stuttered events. Speech samples from the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) were used for our analysis. The stuttered events were identified through manual segmentation and were used for feature extraction. Two simple classifiers namely, k-nearest neighbour (kNN) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were employed for speech dysfluencies classification. Conventional validation method was used for testing the reliability of the classifier results. The study on the effect of different frame length, percentage of overlapping, value of ã in a first order pre-emphasizer and different order p were discussed. The speech dysfluencies classification accuracy was found to be improved by applying statistical normalization before feature extraction. The experimental investigation elucidated LPC, LPCC and WLPCC features can be used for identifying the stuttered events and WLPCC features slightly outperforms LPCC features and LPC features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Speech-Language Pathology/classification*
  20. Ahmad K
    Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2010 Aug;12(4):317-9; discussion 329-32.
    PMID: 20590514 DOI: 10.3109/17549507.2010.483017
    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) practising in Malaysia face similar dilemmas as their counterparts in more developed countries when it comes to deciding on discharge/termination of services for their patients. Furthermore, discharge dilemmas appear to be a frequent and inevitable part of their everyday practice. In an interview conducted for the purpose of this paper, it was clear that many SLPs found it difficult to articulate or justify the process they took to reach a decision on whether or not to terminate their services or discharge their patients. Much of the difficulty is anchored on the need to be realistic and function within the confines of limited resources. Malaysian SLPs were aware of the ideals that had to be abandoned along the way but had not allowed guilt to dissuade or discourage them from providing what they perceived as the next best available service. The not-so ideal decisions made by these SLPs may be frowned upon by international standards but must be examined within the local historical perspective of the development of the SLP profession in Malaysia. The dilemma will continue until the country produces SLPs in sufficient numbers but the profession is reminded that less-than-ideal practices may perpetuate over time into unhealthy traditions that will require major efforts to be undone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Speech-Language Pathology*
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