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  1. Han WM, Bijker R, Chandrasekaran E, Pujari S, Ng OT, Ly PS, et al.
    PMID: 32740369 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002464
    BACKGROUND: We validated the Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) full- and short-risk score models for CKD in the Asian HIV cohorts.

    SETTINGS: A validation study among people living with HIV(PLHIV) aged ≥18 years among the cohorts in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: PLHIV with baseline eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73m were included for validation of the D:A:D CKD full version and the short version without cardiovascular risk factors. Those with <3 eGFR measurements from baseline or previous exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals were excluded. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the probability of CKD development. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (AUROC) was also used to validate the risk score.

    RESULTS: We included 5,701 participants in full model(median 8.1 [IQR 4.8-10.9] years follow-up) and 9,791 in short model validation(median 4.9 [IQR 2.5-7.3] years follow-up). The crude incidence rate of CKD was 8.1 (95%CI 7.3-8.9) per 1,000 person-years(PYS) in the full model cohort and 10.5 (95%CI 9.6-11.4) per 1,000 PYS in the short model cohort. The progression rates for CKD at 10 years in the full model cohort were 2.7%, 8.9% and 26.1% for low-, medium- and high-risk groups, and 3.5%, 11.7% and 32.4% in the short model cohort. The AUROC for the full and short risk score was 0.81 (95%CI 0.79-0.83) and 0.83 (95%CI 0.81-0.85), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The D:A:D CKD full- and short-risk score performed well in predicting CKD events among Asian PLHIV. These risk prediction models may be useful to assist clinicians in identifying individuals at high risk of developing CKD.

  2. Ahn MY, Jiamsakul A, Khusuwan S, Khol V, Pham TT, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    PMID: 30803162 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25228
    INTRODUCTION: Multiple comorbidities among HIV-positive individuals may increase the potential for polypharmacy causing drug-to-drug interactions and older individuals with comorbidities, particularly those with cognitive impairment, may have difficulty in adhering to complex medications. However, the effects of age-associated comorbidities on the treatment outcomes of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of age-associated comorbidities on therapeutic outcomes of cART in HIV-positive adults in Asian countries.

    METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and on cART for more than six months were analysed. Comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and impaired renal function. Treatment outcomes of patients ≥50 years of age with comorbidities were compared with those <50 years and those ≥50 years without comorbidities. We analysed 5411 patients with virological failure and 5621 with immunologic failure. Our failure outcomes were defined to be in-line with the World Health Organization 2016 guidelines. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse time to first virological and immunological failure.

    RESULTS: The incidence of virologic failure was 7.72/100 person-years. Virological failure was less likely in patients with better adherence and higher CD4 count at cART initiation. Those acquiring HIV through intravenous drug use were more likely to have virological failure compared to those infected through heterosexual contact. On univariate analysis, patients aged <50 years without comorbidities were more likely to experience virological failure than those aged ≥50 years with comorbidities (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31 to 2.33, p 

  3. Han WM, Jiamsakul A, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Sim BL, Sun LP, et al.
    PMID: 30697944 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25236
    INTRODUCTION: Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are of increasing clinical concerns in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of new-onset DM among PLHIV in Asian settings.

    METHODS: PLHIV from a regional observational cohort without DM prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were included in the analysis. DM was defined as having a fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dL, glycated haemoglobin ≥6.5%, a two-hour plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or a random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL. A Cox regression model, stratified by site, was used to identify risk factors associated with DM.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Of the 1927 participants included, 127 were diagnosed with DM after ART initiation. Median follow-up time from ART initiation to DM diagnosis was 5.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 2.8 to 8.9 years). The crude incidence rate of DM was 1.08 per 100 person-years (100 PYS), 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.9 to 1.3). In the multivariate analysis, later years of follow-up (2011 to 2013: HR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.14 to 4.79, p = 0.02; and 2014 to 2017: HR = 7.20, 95% CI 3.27 to 15.87, p 50 years: HR = 4.19, 95% CI 2.12 to 8.28, p 30 kg/m2 (HR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.53 to 12.09, p = 0.006) compared to BMI <18.5 kg/m2 , and high blood pressure (HR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.63, p = 0.013) compared to those without high blood pressure, were associated with developing DM. The hazard was reduced for females (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.80, p = 0.006).

    CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 DM in HIV-infected Asians was associated with later years of follow-up, high blood pressure, obesity and older age. This highlights the importance of monitoring and routine screening for non-communicable diseases including DM as PLHIV age.

  4. Rupasinghe D, Kiertiburanakul S, Kamarulzaman A, Zhang F, Kumarasamy N, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV medicine, 2020 Jul;21(6):397-402.
    PMID: 31852025 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12836
    OBJECTIVES: Early mortality among those still initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced stages of HIV infection in resource-limited settings remains high despite recommendations for universal HIV treatment. We investigated risk factors associated with early mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting ART at low CD4 levels in the Asia-Pacific.

    METHODS: PLHIV enrolled in the Therapeutics, Research, Education and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) who initiated ART with a CD4 count  1 year were censored at 12 months. Competing risk regression was used to analyse risk factors with loss to follow-up as a competing risk.

    RESULTS: A total of 1813 PLHIV were included in the study, of whom 74% were male. With 73 (4%) deaths, the overall first-year mortality rate was 4.27 per 100 person-years (PY). Thirty-eight deaths (52%) were AIDS-related, 10 (14%) were immune reconstituted inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related, 13 (18%) were non-AIDS-related and 12 (16%) had an unknown cause. Risk factors included having a body mass index (BMI)  100 cells/μL: SHR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05-0.26) was associated with reduced hazard for mortality compared to CD4 count ≤ 25 cells/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-two per cent of early deaths were AIDS-related. Efforts to initiate ART at CD4 counts > 50 cell/μL are associated with improved short-term survival rates, even in those with late stages of HIV disease.

  5. Boettiger DC, Law MG, Ross J, Huy BV, Heng B, Ditangco R, et al.
    Journal of virus eradication, 2020 Feb 20;6(1):11-18.
    PMID: 32175086
    Objectives: Integration of HIV and non-communicable disease services improves the quality and efficiency of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to describe current practices for the screening and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) among adult HIV clinics in Asia.

    Methods: Sixteen LMIC sites included in the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS - Asia-Pacific network were surveyed.

    Results: Sites were mostly (81%) based in urban public referral hospitals. Half had protocols to assess tobacco and alcohol use. Protocols for assessing physical inactivity and obesity were in place at 31% and 38% of sites, respectively. Most sites provided educational material on ASCVD risk factors (between 56% and 75% depending on risk factors). A total of 94% reported performing routine screening for hypertension, 100% for hyperlipidaemia and 88% for diabetes. Routine ASCVD risk assessment was reported by 94% of sites. Protocols for the management of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, high ASCVD risk and chronic ischaemic stroke were in place at 50%, 69%, 56%, 19% and 38% of sites, respectively. Blood pressure monitoring was free for patients at 69% of sites; however, most required patients to pay some or all the costs for other ASCVD-related procedures. Medications available in the clinic or within the same facility included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (81%), statins (94%) and sulphonylureas (94%).

    Conclusion: The consistent availability of clinical screening, diagnostic testing and procedures and the availability of ASCVD medications in the Asian LMIC clinics surveyed are strengths that should be leveraged to improve the implementation of cardiovascular care protocols.

  6. Ku SW, Jiamsakul A, Joshi K, Pasayan MKU, Widhani A, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    PMID: 30924281 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25264
    INTRODUCTION: Cotrimoxazole (CTX) is recommended as prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, malaria and other serious bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients. Despite its in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the effects of CTX preventive therapy on tuberculosis (TB) remain unclear.

    METHODS: Adults living with HIV enrolled in a regional observational cohort in Asia who had initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were included in the analysis. Factors associated with new TB diagnoses after cohort entry and survival after cART initiation were analysed using Cox regression, stratified by site.

    RESULTS: A total of 7355 patients from 12 countries enrolled into the cohort between 2003 and 2016 were included in the study. There were 368 reported cases of TB after cohort entry with an incidence rate of 0.99 per 100 person-years (/100 pys). Multivariate analyses adjusted for viral load (VL), CD4 count, body mass index (BMI) and cART duration showed that CTX reduced the hazard for new TB infection by 28% (HR 0.72, 95% CI l 0.56, 0.93). Mortality after cART initiation was 0.85/100 pys, with a median follow-up time of 4.63 years. Predictors of survival included age, female sex, hepatitis C co-infection, TB diagnosis, HIV VL, CD4 count and BMI.

    CONCLUSIONS: CTX was associated with a reduction in the hazard for new TB infection but did not impact survival in our Asian cohort. The potential preventive effect of CTX against TB during periods of severe immunosuppression should be further explored.

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