METHODS: Five databases were searched for articles referring to the impact on quality of life in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The search was conducted for the period from November 2019 to April 2021. The search was conducted over one month (May 2021).
RESULTS: Four studies that met the objective were included. Altogether, there were 1045 patients. Various questionnaires were used to assess quality of life. Overall, the quality of life deficit affected 67.7 per cent of patients. Quality of life domains investigated include overall quality of life (four studies), food and taste dysfunction (two studies), mental health (two studies), cognitive function (one study), functional outcome (one study) and safety domains (one study).
CONCLUSION: Quality of life deficit was reported to be 67.7 per cent among coronavirus disease 2019 patients with olfactory dysfunction. The high prevalence of persistent olfactory dysfunction prompts more serious research, as the long-standing consequences of olfactory dysfunction are detrimental.
METHODS: This paper outlines novel emerging aetiological factors contributing to vestibular dysfunction amongst adolescents by appraising published articles through a narrative review.
RESULTS: Underlying aetiological factors of vestibular dysfunction can be identified among adolescents with thorough evaluation. Proper diagnostic evaluation of vestibular dysfunction is imperative in providing optimal care and guiding appropriate treatment strategies. The available literature demonstrated multifactorial aetiological factors that contribute to vestibular dysfunction in adolescents.
CONCLUSION: Outlining the underlying aetiological factors of vestibular dysfunction is vital to ensure that patients receive appropriate care and treatment.
Case Report: Herein, we present a case of clicking larynx in a young girl followed by an overview of the latest literature on the aetiology and treatment options. This case aims to reinforce the presence of this entity further and subsequently increase its awareness among clinicians.
Conclusion: Expeditious diagnosis is imperative not just for the eventual treatment but also for timely relief to the anxious patients who would have been perplexed by the strange clicking in the throat.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted for the period from January 2000 to December 2019 by using a number of medical literature data bases including Scopus, PubMed and Embase. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: drug-induced sleep endoscopy, sleep endoscopy directed surgery, paediatrics sleep apnoea. The search was conducted over a month period (December 2019). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed when possible.
RESULTS: Seven clinical research articles were selected based on our objective and selection criteria. Seven studies were of level III evidence: retrospective, case-control and prospective series. Altogether, there were 996 patients with male predominance; 61%. Over 10% of patients (133 patients) were found to have comorbidities or were syndromic. The mean age of patient was 6 years and majority (87.6%) of our patients were found to be surgically naïve, that is, no previous surgical procedures were performed for OSA. Surgical decision was changed in 295 patients (30%) following DISE. Post intervention outcomes were objectively revealed in 4 studies. Most of our patients underwent a multilevel surgery based on DISE (86%). Complications were documented in 3 studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results indicated that DISE directed surgery was an effective, safe therapeutic approach to treating paediatrics obstructive sleep apnoea. DISE directed surgery has shown to have changed surgical management in most studies.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Embase.
REVIEW METHODS: A literature search was conducted over a period from January 1990 to March 2020. The following search words were used either individually or in combination: voice disorders, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and gastroesophageal reflux. The search was conducted over a period of a month: April 2020.
RESULTS: Five clinical research were selected based on our objectives and selection criteria. Four studies were of level III evidence. Altogether, a total of 606 patients were pooled with male predominance of 63%. In all studies, reflux was suggested to have strong relation with dysphonia. Majority of cases used 24-h pH monitoring to confirm reflux which yielded positive results in 69%. The top three most common endoscopic findings include: interarytenoid erythema and edema (32/38), vocal cord erythema and edema (160/231) and postglottic edema (141/337). Vocal cord nodules were found in 28% of our patients. Acoustic analysis and perceptual assessment of voice was performed in only 1 study. No complication from any procedure was mentioned in any of the studies. Outcome of treatment was mentioned in 1 study, whereby after 4.5 months of follow-up, 68% of children showed improvement in symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Current evidence shows that there is strong relation between reflux and dysphonia in children. Most common laryngoscopic findings suggestive of reflux includes interarytenoid erythema and edema, vocal cord erythema and edema and postglottic edema.
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