METHODS: A 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to analyze the pinnatane A selectivity in inducing cell death in cancer and normal cells. Various biological assays were carried out to analyze the anti-cancer properties of pinnatane A, such as a live/dead assay for cell death microscopic visualization, cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) to identify the cell cycle arrest phase, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (annexin V-FITC)/PI flow cytometry assay to measure percentage of cell populations at different stages of apoptosis and necrosis, and DNA fragmentation assay to verify the late stage of apoptosis.
RESULTS: The MTT assay identified pinnatane A prominent dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity effects in Hep3B and HepG2 cells, with minimal effect on normal cells. The live/dead assay showed significant cell death, while cell cycle analysis showed arrest at the G₀/G₁ phase in both cell lines. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays identified apoptotic cell death in Hep3B and necrotic cell death in HepG2 cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Pinnatane A has the potential for further development as a chemotherapeutic agent prominently against human liver cells.
METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.
RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.